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研究生(外文):Ming-Chih Chiu
論文名稱(外文):Relationships of stream insects with flooding and dippers in Wuling area
外文關鍵詞:aquatic insectsdippersfloodingstreamWuling area
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未來氣候變遷因全球暖化,預測將帶來頻繁的極端氣候,此類極端事件包括了異常暴雨造成河川系統的非常態洪流;預估生態系反應對此未來衝擊將是生態學者所面臨的挑戰,因為其知識的貧乏將會導致日後保育及經營管理對策之困境,有鑑於此,本研究急欲了解溪流到濱岸之跨生態系衝擊的可能性。兩相鄰生態系(如溪流及濱岸生態系統)結構及功能於時空的動態,為最佳適存度之調節,此乃跨生態系食物網成員長期演化適應之結果,然而超出適應彈性的非常態干擾將會造成跨生態系之衝擊,此假說信心是建立在溪流昆蟲群聚及河烏類群(濱岸捕食者)的緊密食性連結,本研究進而依據最佳覓食理論(optimal foraging theory)去預測亞洲河烏物種(Cinclus pallasii)於育幼期間的食餌選擇,研究結果與其他河烏種類明顯相似。以現今氣候變化而形成的環璄梯度,與生態反應間的相關性,為推估未來氣候變遷的類推方法之一,但未來極端氣侯可能超出現今環璄梯度,因外推法而有過度延伸評估之疑慮;然而最近十年來,相對40年的流量歷史,數個史無前例的洪流將可用來驗證此跨生態系衝擊之假說。首先,本研究以r/K選汰理論(r/K selection theory)為基礎之豐度/生物量比較法(abundance/biomass comparison, ABC),去證實溪流昆蟲反應和洪流極端程度之關係,研究結果暗示著生態系功能於未來氣候變遷時,極端洪流的衝擊將造成 r/K 選汰物種之變換。再者,此研究驗證了洪流造成溪流昆蟲群聚結構,以及其功能上的遷變,進而影響濱岸鳥類捕食者的族群動態,雖然並不清楚此上行效應 (bottom-up effect)對河烏移動、繁殖表現及死亡量之相對貢獻度,但這些數據仍可顯示河烏是如何運用策略去適應此流量變異之溪流系統。最後希冀此研究成果對於溪流及濱岸生態系之交互作用,提供一個聚焦的研究觀點(氣候變遷下的跨生態系衝擊),進而引發更多對於生物多樣性保育及經營管理對策之迴響。
Climate scenarios forecast the intensification of extreme weather with ongoing global warming, e.g., abnormal heavy rainfalls resulting in severe flooding in running-water ecosystems, which may in turn pose considerable threats to global ecosystems. Predicting ecosystem responses to future climate changes would be challenging tasks to the ecologists, and the limited knowledge of ecological responses to extreme weather events would constrain the development of strategies in conservation and management. Herein, a study of the potential impacts of abnormal flooding on riparian and stream ecosystems, built on the close trophic linkages between the brown dipper (Cinclus pallasii) and its prey invertebrates, has been carried out. The stream insects, which are major prey of the avian predators, are used to predict the influences on the dippers from the hetero-ecosystem events in climate change scenarios. In the Wuling stream system, several unprecedented floods in 40 years provided an excellent opportunity to setup the framework of the impacts under future climate changes. First, the impacts of these flooding on macroinvertebrates have been demonstrated using the abundance/biomass comparison method based on r/K selection theory. Second, the hypothesis that low abundance of brown dipper results from bottom-up effects of flooding has been proved. While the relative contributions from bird movement, breeding performance and mortality were not clearly understood, the above data suggest that dippers have had their instinctive strategies to accommodate varying discharges in running-water ecosystems. Insights gained in such studies, i.e., the trans-ecosystem impacts of irregular climate changes, are expected to facilitate future policy-making for biodiversity conservations and management of ecosystems.
誌謝 i
中文摘要 iii
Abstract iv
Table of contents v
Index of tables vii
Index of figures viii
Index of appendix tables xi
Chapter 1: General introduction 1
1.1 Impacts of flooding on running-water ecosystems 7
1.2 Interactions between riparian and running-water ecosystems 10
1.3 Study objects: Trans-ecosystem impacts of flooding 12
Chapter 2: Prey selection by breeding brown dippers, Cinclus pallasii, in a Taiwan mountain stream 16
2.1 Abstract 17
2.2 Introduction 18
2.3 Methods 20
2.2.1 Study area and brown dipper observation 20
2.2.2 Sampling protocol for macroinvertebrates and fish 22
2.2.3 Data analyses 23
2.4 Results 24
2.5 Discussion 27
Chapter 3: Impact of extreme flooding on stream macroinvertebrates: potential application of r/K selection 32
3.1 Abstract 33
3.2 Introduction 34
3.3 Methods 36
3.3.1 Study site 36
3.3.2 Sampling protocol 37
3.3.3 Flooding extremeness and the ABC method 38
3.4 Results 41
3.5 Discussion 45
Chapter 4: Effects of flooding on avian top-predators and their invertebrate prey in a monsoonal Taiwan stream 50
4.1 Abstract 51
4.2 Introduction 52
4.3 Methods 54
4.3.1 Study area and brown dipper monitoring 54
4.3.2 Sampling protocol for macroinvertebrates 56
4.3.3 Data analyses 57
4.4 Results 59
4.5 Discussion 62
Chapter 5: Conclusions 68
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