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研究生:恩和
研究生(外文):Enkhjargal Ulziijargal
論文名稱:巴西蘑菇菌絲體土司與猴頭菇菌絲體土司之品質評估
論文名稱(外文):Quality Evaluation of Agaricus mycelium bread and Hericium mycelium bread
指導教授:毛正倫毛正倫引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jeng-Leun Mau
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:食品暨應用生物科技學系所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:營養學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:99
中文關鍵詞:巴西蘑菇猴頭菇菌絲體土司管能品評
外文關鍵詞:Agaricus blazeiHericium erinaceusmyceliumbreadquality evaluation
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巴西蘑菇 (Agaricus blazei Murill) 是一種食藥兼用的菌菇,其子實體與菌絲發酵物之多醣成分已被證實具有免疫調節和抗腫瘤的生理活性。猴頭菇 (Hericium erinaceus) 是一種傳統中藥黴菌,其子實體與菌絲體經證實含有生物活性多醣,具有多種藥理活性,包括:增強免疫系統、抗腫瘤、降血糖與抗老化等性質。有關添加至土司以提升烘焙食品保健功效方面之研究,目前尚未有完整文獻報告。因此,本研究以巴西蘑菇菌絲體或猴頭菇菌絲體為原料,取5 %的原料比例添加於麵糰,製成巴西蘑菇菌絲體土司及猴頭菇菌絲體土司,並以白土司當作對照組,進行其一般成分、物理性質、呈味品質、儲藏性質及官能品評之分析。
在一般成分方面,猴頭菇菌絲體土司之粗蛋白含量(14.30%)明顯高於巴西蘑菇菌絲體土司(12.52%)及白土司所含者(12.41%)。在物理性質方面,三種土司的白度依序為白土司(70.68)>巴西蘑菇菌絲體土司(54.82)>猴頭菇菌絲體土司(47.47)。X-射線繞射分析發現三種土司之繞射峰強度會隨著儲藏時間增加而逐漸增強,且繞射圖譜會由V型光譜轉變成B型光譜。白土司、巴西蘑菇菌絲體土司與猴頭菇菌絲體土司於4ºC儲藏後,質地剖析之結果顯示,隨著儲藏時間的增加,硬度有增加的趨勢;彈性度、附著度、膠性度、咀嚼度及恢復力則隨著時間的增加而降低。
在呈味品質上,三種土司的核苷酸含量以巴西蘑菇菌絲體土司最高(8.46 μg/g),猴頭菇菌絲體土司次之(7.95 μg/g),而以白土司最低(5.62 μg/g)。在游離胺基酸含量方面,猴頭菇菌絲體土司(26.74 mg/g)比巴西蘑菇菌絲體土司(21.02 mg/g)與白土司(14.71 mg/g)高。因此,巴西蘑菇菌絲體及猴頭菇菌絲體可提高土司中的鮮味,進而增加土司的風味與營養價值。
在總生菌數方面,當儲藏至第八天時,猴頭菇菌絲體土司(1.72 log CFU/ml)及巴西蘑菇菌絲體土司(1.77 log CFU/ml)的總生菌數明顯比白土司(2.20 log CFU/ml)低。在消費者喜好性分析口感比較上,巴西蘑菇菌絲體土司、猴頭菇菌絲體土司與白土司三者之間在統計上並無顯著差異。
綜此,土司中添加巴西蘑菇菌絲體及猴頭菇菌絲體,除了提高營養價值外,還可以提供消費者對保健型烘焙產品的新選擇。

關鍵字:巴西蘑菇、猴頭菇、菌絲體、土司、官能品評
Agaricus blazei Murill is an edible and medicinal mushroom. It has been reported that polysaccharides isolated from A. blazei to possess immuno- modulating and antitumor activities. Hericium erinaceus is a traditional Chinese medicinal fungus. Both the fruiting bodies and the fungal mycelia have been reported to contain bioactive polysaccharides that are reputed to exhibit various pharmacological activities including enhancement of the immune system, and antitumor, hypoglycemic and anti-aging properties.
The study on the addition of Agaricus mycelium and Hericium mycelium into dough to make bread to improve the healthy efficacy of baked foods has not been reported. Accordingly, this research used Agaricus mycelium or Hericium mycelium as an ingredient added in an amount of 5% to the bread, and the Agaricus mycelium bread and Hericium mycelium bread thus obtained were analyzed for its proximate composition, physicochemical properties, taste quality, storage properties and sensory quality as compared to the white bread control.
Crude protein content of Hericium mycelium bread (14.30%) in proximate composition is significantly higher than those of Agaricus mycelium bread (12.52%) and white bread (12.41%). With regard to physicochemical properties, the lightness of the three breads were in the descending order of white bread (70.68) > Agaricus mycelium bread (54.82) > Hericium mycelium bread (47.47). The X-ray diffraction patterns show that the intensities of their peaks increased with storage time and the diffraction patterns were changed from V-type to B-type. White bread, Agaricus mycelium bread and Hericium mycelium bread were stored at 4ºC for 8 days and texture profile analysis show that along with the storage time, the hardness increased for three breads whereas springiness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness and resilience decreased.
With regard to the taste quality, the contents of 5′-nucleotides of three bread were in descending order of Agaricus mycelium (8.46 μg/g) > Hericium mycelium bread (7.95 μg/g) > white bread (5.62 μg/g). Hericium mycelium bread contained more free amino acids (26.74 mg/g) than Agaricus mycelium bread (21.02 mg/g) and white bread (14.71 mg/g). Therefore, the addition of Agaricus mycelium and Hericium mycelium could enhance palatable taste of the bread and further improve its flavor and nutritional values.
On day 8, the total plate counts of Hericium mycelium bread (1.72 log CFU/ml) and Agaricus mycelium bread (1.77 log CFU/ml) were significantly lower than that of white bread (2.20 log CFU/ml). With regard to the hedonic scores in sensory evaluation, Agaricus mycelium bread and Hericium mycelium bread were not significantly different in mouthfeel from white bread.
In conclusion, addition of Agaricus mycelium or Hericium mycelium to dough to make bread increased nutrition values and provide a new alternative of functional baked products to consumers.


Keywords: Agaricus blazei , Hericium erinaceus , mycelium, bread , quality evaluation
表次 vii
圖次 ix
前言 1
文獻整理 2
一、食藥菇類介紹 2
(一)巴西蘑菇 3
(二)猴頭菇 6
二、麵包 7
(一)主要材料 7
(二)麵包製作時的物化性質 8
(三)機能性添加物於烘焙食品上之應用 9
三、呈味分析 11
(一)可溶性糖類 11
(二)游離胺基酸 12
(三)核苷酸 12
四、麵包的物理性質測定 13
(一)物性測定 13
(二)比體質分析 14
(三)掃描式電子顯微鏡觀察 14
(四)X射線繞射分析 18
(五)示差掃描熱分析 18
材料與方法 23
一、實驗材料 23
(一)巴西蘑菇菌絲體與猴頭菇菌絲體 23
(二)試藥 23
二、實驗方法 26
(一)巴西蘑菇菌絲體、猴頭菇菌絲體及土司樣品之製備 26
(二)麵粉、巴西蘑菇菌絲體、猴頭菇菌絲體及土司樣品之
一般成分分析 26
1. 水分 26
2. 灰分 26
3. 粗脂質 26
4. 粗蛋白質 27
5. 粗纖維 27
6. 還原糖 28
(三)呈味成分分析 28
1. 可溶性糖類之測 28
2. 胺基酸組成之測定 29
3. 核苷酸之測定 30
(四)物理性質分析 31
1. 溶解度與膨潤力分析 31
2. 水結合力分析 31
3. 掃描式電子顯微鏡分析 31
4. X射線繞射分析 32
5. 示差掃描熱分析 32
6. 食品質地剖析 32
7. 色差分析 33
8. 比體積分析 33
(五)總生菌數測定 33
(六)消費者感官品評 33
(七)統計分析 34
結果與討論 35
一、一般成分分析與物理性質分析 36
(一)麵粉、巴西蘑菇菌絲體與猴頭菇菌絲體之一般成分分析 36
(二)麵粉、巴西蘑菇菌絲體與猴頭菇菌絲體之溶解度、
膨潤力及水結合力 38
(三)麵粉、巴西蘑菇菌絲體與猴頭菇菌絲體之色澤分析 39
(四)白土司、巴西蘑菇菌絲體土司與猴頭菇菌絲體土司之
一般成分分析 44
(五)白土司、巴西蘑菇菌絲體土司與猴頭菇菌絲體土司之
色澤分析 44
(六)白土司、巴西蘑菇菌絲體土司與猴頭菇菌絲體土司之
比體積分析 48
二、白土司、巴西蘑菇菌絲體土司與猴頭菇菌絲體土司於儲藏
期間之水分含量、總生菌數和物理性質分析………………….. 48
(一)白土司、巴西蘑菇菌絲體土司與猴頭菇菌絲體土司儲藏
期間之水分含量 48
(二)白土司、巴西蘑菇菌絲體土司與猴頭菇菌絲體土司儲藏
期間之總生菌數 52
(三)白土司、巴西蘑菇菌絲體土司與猴頭菇菌絲體土司儲藏
期間之質地剖析 52
(四)示差掃描熱分析 61
(五)X射線繞射分析 63
(六)掃描式電子顯微鏡分析 63
三、呈味分析 72
(一)可溶性糖類 72
(二)游離胺基酸 73
(三)核苷酸. 77
四、消費者喜好性感官品評 87
結論 90
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