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研究生:釋法光
研究生(外文):Fa-Kuang Shih
論文名稱:香椿醬製作及其產品品質穩定性之研究
論文名稱(外文):The manufacture and stability of Chinese Toon sauce
指導教授:胡淼琳胡淼琳引用關係
指導教授(外文):Miao-Lin Hu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:食品暨應用生物科技學系所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:營養學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:128
中文關鍵詞:香椿醬品質穩定性
外文關鍵詞:Chinese toon saucesqualitystability
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中文摘要

香椿(Chinese toon)是素食爆香調味之最佳佐料。市面上有許多品牌的香椿醬,但其香味、品質、色澤皆不一,有鑑於此因此本研究以香椿為原料,首先將原料進行一般成分分析及抗氧化之測試,再依不同製程以大豆油及麻油兩種油,未殺菁及殺菁、殺青加小蘇打方式來製作六種香椿醬,製好的香椿醬放在25℃下貯藏六個月,並進行化學性質之分析、香氣分析、抗氧化性質分析及感官品評,以探討六組儲藏性試驗,包含總生菌數之差異性及游離脂肪酸之變化。 實驗結果顯示:香椿葉水分含量為65%、乾重為35%、灰分為2%、粗蛋白為9%、粗脂肪為2%及粗纖維為3%。新鮮的香椿葉以乙醇和水萃取溶劑萃取之抗氧化試驗比較顯示以乙醇的效果較佳。 在香椿醬方面,清除DPPH自由基能力、總抗氧化能力以及螯合亞鐵以大豆油以及麻油未殺菁的產品效果較佳,殺菁過的兩種產品次之,殺菁過再加小蘇打的兩種油處理為最低;還原能力方面則沒有較明顯差異。
香椿醬的儲藏穩定性分析結果顯示:POV在四個月後數值快速上升,而後數值下降。TBA在第三個月數值上升,第四個月下降,接著數值則趨於平衡。游離脂肪酸方面:在第五個月時數據明顯下降。以上油脂的測試表示:香椿葉製成醬後仍有抗氧化能力,使產品品質穩定。香氣成分分析結果:不同製法、月份香椿醬中共可分析出107種揮發性成分。主要以Sequiterpene 化合物含量最高,其次為Aldehydes;另外也含有少量的硫化物及氮化合物。儲存到六個月後,生菌數測試仍沒有檢測出菌數。感官品評方面:風味、顏色及總接受度,以麻油殺菁添加小蘇打方式製成的香椿醬較受大家喜愛,其餘產品其喜好度差異不大。在色澤上(L、a、b)測試上:以大豆油、麻油經殺菁加小蘇打的兩種產品整體呈現翠綠色,有殺菁的產品次之,而以大豆油、麻油直接炒製的產品則色澤暗沉灰綠色。
綜合以上結果,本研究以殺菁之香椿葉再以大豆油或麻油炒爆香椿醬具有較高品質穩定性,且其產品之色、香、味皆較佳。
Abstract

The Chinese toon is a popular sautéed spice for vegetarians. There are many brands of Chinese toon sauce on the market, but the aroma, color and quality are very different. As a result, the Chinese toon was investigated in this thesis work. We first conducted the component analysis and the antioxidant test, and then made six kinds of Chinese toon sauces including soybean oil (SB), soybean oil blanching (SBB), soybean oil blanching sodium hydrogen carbonate (SBBSC), sesame oil (SS), sesame oil blanching (SSB) and sesame oil blanching sodium hydrogen carbonate (SSBSC). At the end of 6-month storage, these Chinese toon sauces were analyzed for aroma, antioxidants and sense of taste as well as total bacterial count and Free fatty acids.
The experimental results for moisture content of Chinese toon, dry weight, ash, crude protein, crude fat and crude fiber were 65%, 35%, 2%, 9%, 2% and 3%, respectively. Comparison of ethanol and water extraction revealed that the antioxidant capacity of the ethanol extract was better than that of the water extract. In the effect of six kinds of Chinese toon sauce for cleaning free radicals, antioxidant, and ion chelating ability, SB and SS are better than SBB and SSB, and SBBSC and SSBSC are worse. The reductase for all sauces was similar.
The stability analysis of storage of the Chinese toon sauces showed that POV increased rapidly in the fourth month but it decreased thereafter. TBA increased in the third month and decreased in the fourth month and eventually reached the control level. The free fatty acids were and decreased in the fifth month. These results suggest that the Chinese toon sauces still maintain the antioxidant capacity after storage for six months. The aroma analysis showed that there were one hundred and seven volatile components in these products, with sequiterpenes and aldehydes being the major components. The bacterial count test showed no increase in bacteria colony after six months of storage. The analysis of sense of taste indicated that color and favor of SSBSC is more popular for most people than the others products. The color test showed that SBBSC and SSBSC were emerald green and SBB and SSB were normal green, while SB and SS were dark green. Overall, this thesis work on Chinese toon sauces indicate that SBB and SSB are superior in the stability, taste and color.
目 錄

目錄iv
圖表目錄viii
附表xv
中文摘要xiii
英文摘要xv
第ㄧ章前言1
第二章文獻整理3
一、香椿之介紹3
二、大豆油與麻油簡介10
三、殺菁(blanching)11
四、脂質氧化與疾病12
第三章材料與方法17
ㄧ、實驗材料17
二、實驗架構18
三、實驗方法19
(一)香椿醬製程19
(二)新鮮香椿葉萃取法21
(三)香椿醬萃取法21
(四)香椿之一般成份分析21
(五) 香椿總酚含量之分析23
(六)儲藏之試驗23
1.過氧化價(Peroxide value,POV)之測定23
2.硫代巴比妥酸 (Thiobarbituric acid,TBA) 之測定24
3. 游離脂肪酸之測定24
(七)香氣成分分析25
(八)色差(亮度、色澤)分析27
(九)抗氧化性質分析27
1.總抗氧化能力TEAC測試 27
2.還原力FRAP測試 28
3.清除DPPH 能力測定29
4. 螯合亞鐵離子測定29
(十) 總生菌數測定30
(十一) 消費者感官品評31
(十二)統計分析31
第四章結果與討論32
第ㄧ單元:香椿葉一般成份與化學性質分析32
一、香椿葉一般成分分析32
二、香椿葉之總酚含量32
三、香椿萃取物之抗氧化測試35
第二單元:香椿醬一般成份及化學性質之分析39
一、香椿醬一般成份分析39
二、六種不同處理香椿醬於25℃下儲藏六個月總酚含量之變化41
三、香椿醬之儲藏試驗43
四、香椿醬萃取物之抗氧化測試79
五、香椿醬於儲藏六個月總生菌數變化情形90
六、六種不同香椿醬於25℃儲藏六個月品評分析變化91
第五章結論94
第六章參考文獻96
第七章附表105
口試問與答127
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