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研究生:張時儀
研究生(外文):Shih-I Chang
論文名稱:添加不同顏色花生膜之乙醇萃取物對生鮮豬肉香腸於2±1°C儲存期間其品質之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effect of ethanolic extracts from different colors of peanut skin on the quality of fresh pork sausage during storage at 2°C
指導教授:劉登城
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:動物科學系所
學門:獸醫學門
學類:獸醫學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:87
中文關鍵詞:花生膜生鮮香腸
外文關鍵詞:peanut skinfresh sausage
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本研究目的為探討以50%乙醇進行紅色(R組)、粉紅色(P組)及黑色(B組)花生膜抗氧化物質之萃取,並以DPPH(2, 2-Diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl)自由基清除能力及亞鐵離子螯合能力試驗進行其抗氧化能力之分析,之後分別添加300 ppm總酚量之花生膜萃取物於生鮮豬肉香腸中,並與200 ppm BHA/BHT作一比較,進而探討不同顏色之各花生膜其乙醇萃取物之添加對於生鮮豬肉香腸於2°C儲存期間其產品品質的影響。
結果顯示:粉紅色花生膜(P)乙醇萃取液之總酚含量顯著較紅色花生膜(R)及黑色花生膜(B)乙醇萃取液之總酚含量為高(p<0.05);另外,紅色花生膜(R)及黑色花生膜(B)乙醇萃取液間之總酚含量無顯著差異(P>0.05)。紅膜、粉紅膜及黑膜之乙醇萃取物於濃度5~10 μg/ml時,清除效率即可達90%以上;BHA/BHT 則是於200 μg/ml時清除率可達90%。各處理組之DPPH自由基清除能力隨著總酚濃度之增加而增加,BHA/BHT與紅膜、粉紅膜及黑膜之乙醇萃取物萃取物於最高濃度(500 μg/ml)時之DPPH自由基清除能力可達95.4~100%。BHA/BHT不具備亞鐵離子之螯合能力;紅膜、粉紅膜及黑膜之乙醇萃取物則具有亞鐵離子螯合能力,且隨著總酚濃度增加,其亞鐵離子螯合能力也隨而增加,紅膜、粉紅膜及黑膜之乙醇萃取物於最高濃度(500 μg/ml)時之亞鐵離子螯合能力可達18.79~ 31.48%。花生膜萃取液之添加並不對其一般成分組成造成顯著之影響。在pH值方面,各處理組隨著儲存天數的增加pH值皆有下降的趨勢,但各處理組間並無顯著差異,於儲存第14天時,所有處理組之pH值皆顯著下降(p<0.05)。隨著儲存天數的增加,總生菌數及VBN值方面皆有上升的趨勢,且各處理組間無顯著差異。在2-硫巴比妥酸(TBA)值方面,儲存至第3天,各組皆有上升之趨勢,且以對照組之值較其他處理組為高,但儲存第3天至第14天時,各組TBA值皆有下降之現象。色澤方面,B組之L值顯著較其他處理組為低(p<0.05),且隨儲存天數之增加而顯著上升(p<0.05); 在a值方面,隨儲存天數之增加B組有上升之趨勢,對照組、BHA/BHT組、R組及P組之a值則隨著儲存期間之增加有顯著下降(p<0.05)之情形;在b值方面,儲存期間除B組顯著較低(p<0.05)外,其餘各處理組呈現起伏不定的趨勢。於儲存期間添加花生膜乙醇萃取液之各組產品其酚類殘留量皆較無添加之對照組及BHA/BHT組為高。於官能品評方面,於第0、7及14天時,皆以B組有最低之色澤得分及總接受度,且隨著儲存期間之增加其總接受度評分有些微下降。
綜觀以上結果顯示,三種花生膜乙醇萃取液於生鮮豬肉香腸中皆具良好之抑制脂肪氧化能力,但若綜合每單位花生膜之總酚含量及添加於產品中之官能品評為考量,以粉紅色花生膜之乙醇萃取物具有可做為未來肉品加工上天然抗氧化劑之應用潛力。
The purpose of this study was to understand the amount of total phenolic compounds, scavenging capacity of DPPH radical and chelating Fe2+ ability of antioxidant components from different colors of peanut skins (red, pink and black) and to evaluate the effect of 300 ppm total phenolics of ethanolic extracts derived from different colors of peanut skins (red, pink and black) or 200 ppm BHA/BHT on the quality of fresh pork sausages during storage at 2±1°C.
The results showed that the amount of total phenolic compounds of ethanolic extracts derived from red and black peanut skins was not significantly different. Whereas ethanolic extracts derived from pink peanut skin had a significant higher amount in all peanut skins. BHA/BHT and ethanolic extracts derived from red, pink and black peanut skins showed 90% scavenging capacity of DPPH radical at 200 and 5-10 μg/ml, respectively. With the concentration of BHA/BHT and ethanolic extracts derived from red, pink and black peanut skin increased, scavenging capacity of DPPH radical in all treatments increased and reached a maximum level of 95.4-100% at 500 μg/ml. No chelating Fe2+ ability was found in BHA/BHT, but the maximum chelating Fe2+ ability of ethanolic extracts derived from red, pink and black peanut skin was 18.79-31.48% at 500 μg/ml. Addition of ethanolic extracts derived from different colors of peanut skin did not affect the chemical contents of fresh pork sausages. With the storage time increase, pH value in all treatments decreased and they were significantly decreased at the 14th day. But no difference in the pH value among all treatments was found. Total plate counts and VBN values in all treatments increased with storage time. The total plate count and VBN value were not affected by BHA/BHT and ethanolic extracts from peanut skins in fresh pork sausage during storage. The hightest values of TBA of the products were obtained at the 3rd day during storage, and then gradually decreased from the 3rd day to the 14th day. The hightest values of TBA were found in the control treatment. Adding ethanolic extracts from black peanut skin resulted in significantly lower L value and b value in fresh pork sausage during storage. With the storage time, the residual amount of total phenolics of the treatments with ethanolic extracts from peanut skins was higher than the treatment of control and BHA/BHT. The overall acceptance of fresh pork sausage with ethanolic extracts from black peanut skin was lower than those of the other treatments.
In conclusion, peanut skin was very rich in total phenolics content and exhibited antioxidant activity in scavenging capacity of DPPH radical and chelating Fe2+ ability. Comparison of the the amounts of total phenolic compounds of different color of peanut skins and the sensory score of fresh pork sausage, ethanolic extracts derived from pink peanut skin had higher total phenolic compounds and overall acceptance. Therefore, pink peanut skin could be developed as an additive in food products and act as a natural antioxidant to extend the shelf-life in the future.
中文摘要 I
ABSTRACT III
目錄 V
圖次 VIII
表次 X
壹、 前言 1
貳、 文獻探討 2
一、 落花生及副產物之利用 2
(一) 落花生之簡介 2
(二) 落花生之品種 5
(三) 落花生副產物之利用 6
二、 油脂氧化的機制 10
(一) 自氧化作用 10
(二) 熱裂解氧化作用 13
(三) 油脂光感應氧化作用 13
(四) 酵素催化氧化作用 14
三、 抗氧化劑之作用機制 15
(一) 自由基抑制劑 15
(二) 單重態氧的清除劑與還原劑 15
(三) 金屬螯合劑 16
四、 抗氧化劑的種類 17
(一) 人工合成之抗氧化劑 17
(二) 天然之抗氧化劑 20
五、 酚類化合物與其抗氧化性活性 26
(一) 酚酸化合物 26
(二) 類黃酮 28
(三) 花青素 31
參、 材料與方法 32
一、 花生膜來源 32
二、 花生膜萃取液之製備及其抗氧化性測定 32
(一) 花生膜萃取液之製備 32
(二) 總酚含量測定 32
(三) DPPH自由基清除能力測定 34
(四) 亞鐵離子螯合能力測定 34
三、 生鮮豬肉香腸之製備 36
(一) 原料肉 36
(二) 配方 36
(三) 製作流程 36
四、 試驗設計 38
五、 分析項目 39
(一) 一般化學組成 39
(二) pH值 40
(三) 總生菌數 41
(四) 揮發性鹽基態氮 41
(五) 2-硫巴比妥酸 42
(六) 色澤測定 42
(七) 產品中總酚量的測定 43
(八) 感官品評 44
(九) 統計分析 44
肆、 結果與討論 45
一、 花生膜萃取液之抗氧化性 45
(一) 總酚含量 45
(二) DPPH自由基清除能力 45
(三) 亞鐵離子螯合能力 46
二、 花生膜乙醇萃取液之添加對生鮮豬肉香腸品質之影響 56
(一) 產品外觀 56
(二) 一般化學組成 56
(三) pH值 56
(四) 總生菌數 61
(五) 揮發性鹽基態氮 61
(六) 2-硫巴比妥酸 65
(七) 色澤測定 68
(八) 產品中總酚量的測定 68
(九) 感官品評 73
伍、 結論 77
一、 花生膜萃取液之抗氧化性 77
二、 花生膜乙醇萃取液之添加對生鮮豬肉香腸品質之影響 77
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