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研究生:劉芳芸
研究生(外文):Fang-Yun Liu
論文名稱:番木瓜果皮汚斑微細構造及酒精對種子萌芽與幼苗耐淹水之研究
論文名稱(外文):Studies of the Ultrastructure of Fruit Skin Freckling; Effects of Ethanol on Seed Germination and on Flooding Tolerance of Papaya (Carica papaya L.) Seedlings
指導教授:林慧玲林慧玲引用關係
指導教授(外文):Huey-Ling Lin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:園藝學系所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:園藝學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:165
中文關鍵詞:番木瓜酒精種子淹水發芽
外文關鍵詞:Carica papaya L.skin freckleethanolseedfloodinggermination
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番木瓜果實於低溫之春、冬兩季果皮會出現大量生理性汚斑(skin freckle),嚴重影響果實外觀及商品價值。本試驗於汚斑指數最高的季節,採收不同生長階段之果實,分別觀察內外側果皮之表皮結構及分析其礦物營養成分、相關酵素之變化。隨著果實逐漸成熟,果皮上汚斑面積會大量增加,表皮顯微結構則從平坦完整轉變為凹凸不平之裂縫,有汚斑之果皮只觀察到少數氣孔,可能多被蠟質所覆蓋,且蠟質呈現不規則塊狀。在果皮礦物元素方面,從幼果到成熟果,果皮磷、鈣、鎂濃度逐漸增加,鐵、錳濃度則遞減,但於不同成熟階段,內外側果皮礦物元素無顯著差異,僅鈣元素有明顯不同,在汚斑出現較多之果皮外側鈣濃度高於內側,推測可能是較多鈣離子造成果皮細胞壁較為堅硬,外在環境逆境或果實發育後期階段,果實膨壓增加,引起表皮細胞崩裂而產生汚斑。過氧化酵素、多酚氧化酵素活性及總酚類化合物含量隨果實成熟而增加,且外側果皮活性也明顯高於內側果皮,顯示汚斑發生於外側較為明顯之原因,與逆境環境下所引起之果實褐化反應有關。
植物於淹水逆境下,會進行無氧醱酵產生酒精,番木瓜為極不耐淹水之果樹,本試驗利用酒精處理番木瓜種子,使其適應無氧逆境,以增加後續生長之植株耐淹水能力。結果顯示,酒精處理除可促進番木瓜種子之萌芽率外,還能減少番木瓜植株於淹水逆境所造成之傷害。酒精處理之番木瓜種子其發育之植株在淹水處理下,葉片葉綠素及葉綠素螢光Fv/Fm值變化較小,呼吸率仍維持較高,且乙烯產生降低,顯示植株耐淹水能力較佳。淹水下根部酒精脫氫酶活性提高,使植株能持續進行糖解作用以獲得能量,而缺氧逆境之抗氧化機制,過氧化酶活性、總酚類化合物含量增加;礦物營養元素變化部份,氮、磷、鉀、鈣、鎂有增加趨勢,或變化不顯著,微量元素鐵、錳、鋅、銅則有降低情形。另外,淹水會改變葉片與根部碳水化合物分配情形,全可溶性糖、澱粉含量增加,可能為番木瓜植株渡過逆境之重要適應方式。
番木瓜種子具有發芽率不穩定的問題,溫度為影響種子發芽之關鍵因子之一,本試驗以探討恆溫25℃、30℃、35℃、40℃與日夜變溫30/25℃、35/25℃、35/30℃、40/25℃、40/30℃、40/35℃處理對‘台農二號’、‘日陞’及‘Exotica’品種番木瓜種子發芽率之影響。變溫處理比恆溫處理有較高發芽率及較短之發芽天數,‘台農二號’番木瓜種子於30/25℃、40/30℃及40/35℃處理種子萌芽率最高,而以平均發芽天數來看,35/30℃、40/30℃及恆溫30℃處理種子較快發芽;‘日陞’番木瓜種子以40/30℃為最佳發芽溫度,‘Exotica’則以30/25℃最適,結果顯示不同品種番木瓜種子其發芽溫度會有所差異。
Skin freckles on papaya fruit is a physiological disorder which predominantly occurs on fruit developing through the cold months of winter and early spring. It seriously affects the skin appearance thus reduces the visual quality and the market value of the papaya fruits. The objective of this study was to harvest fruits of different developmental stages at the period of the highest incidence of freckles, in order to observe the ultrastructure, to analyze content of mineral elements, and to measure the activity of related enzymes of the abaxial and the adaxial peel. As fruit went through developmental stages, the area of freckle incidence greatly increased, and the structure of the epidermis altered from smooth and intact to rough and uneven fractures. Additionally, on the epidermal cells with skin freckles, stomata were hardly visible, possibly covered by the irregular outer wax layer. Mineral analysis showed that concentrations of phosphorus, calcium, and magnesium in the peel increased gradually with maturity, but microelements, such as iron and manganese decreased. Furthermore, except for calcium, there was no significant different in mineral contents on both abaxial and adaxial sides. The level of calcium was higher in the abaxial peel than the adaxial peel of the fruit. It was assumed that the higher calcium resulted in harder cell walls; external environmental stress or late growth stage increased turgor; the structure of epidermal cells cracked; and hence freckles occurred. The enzymatic activities of peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase and the content of total phenolic compounds of the abaxial and the adaxial peel increased progressively during the period of fruit maturation, and the activities of the abaxial peel were significantly higher compared to the adaxial peel. Finally, the obvious freckles that appeared on the abaxial portion of the fruit may have been associated with the browning of fruit under environmental stress.
Plants which suffer waterlogging usually undergo anaerobic fermentation and produce ethanol. Since papaya (Carica papaya L.) is severely flood-intolerant, it was selected for this experiment. In this study, papaya seeds pretreated with ethanol were adapted to hypoxic stress. It greatly increased the tolerance of papaya seedlings to subsequent anoxia under flooding conditions. Final results showed that ethanol treatment not only had stimulatory effects on the germination of papaya seeds but also reduced flooding impacts on papaya seedlings. In the flooding experiments, very little change was shown in leaf chlorophyll and Fv/Fm value of chlorophyll fluorescence. Moreover, respiration rate remained high while ethylene production was decreased. The level of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity increased in the root allowing glycolysis to continue and fulfill cellular demand for energy. Despite oxygen deprivation, peroxidase activity and total phenolic compound content related to antioxidation increased. Mineral elements in papaya plants such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, and magnesium were increased or no significant change. However, microelements such as iron, manganese, zinc, and copper concentration were decreased. Flooding also changed the distribution of carbohydrates of leaves and roots. The increase of total soluble sugar and starch content may be an important way for papaya plants to adapt to flooding and to survive under anaerobic stress.
The germination rate of papaya seeds can frequently be erratic. Temperature is one of the important factors in predicting seed germination. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a constant temperature at 25℃, 30℃, 35℃ and 40℃ and the effect of alternating temperatures of 30/25℃, 35/25℃, 35/30℃, 40/25℃, 40/30℃ and 40/35℃(8 hours/16 hours) upon the germination of Carica papaya, ‘Tainung No.2’, ‘Sunrise Solo’, and ‘Exotica’ seeds. It was found that alternating temperature regimes resulted in higher germinating rate and shorter germinating period than constant temperature regimes. For ‘Tainung No.2’ papaya, the percentage of germination appeared the most successful at 30/25℃, 40/30℃ and 40/35℃, and the speed of germination was significantly faster at 35/30℃, 40/30℃, and constant 30℃. The temperature of 40/30℃ was the optimal condition for ‘Sunrise Solo’ papaya, however, 30/25℃ was the most suitable for ‘Exotica’ papaya. The results indicated that germination of these three papaya cultivars were varied by their responding to different temperature environments they were exposed to.
第一章 番木瓜果皮構造及組成分與生理性汚斑發生之關係................. 1
中文摘要 1
Summary 2
壹、前言 3
貳、前人研究 4
參、材料與方法 14
肆、結果 18
伍、討論 31
第二章 酒精處理番木瓜種子與其植株耐淹水之相關性………………………… 37
中文摘要 37
Summary 38
壹、前言 39
貳、前人研究 40
參、材料與方法 50
肆、結果 55
伍、討論 109
第三章 不同溫度處理對番木瓜種子發芽率之影響…………………………… 122
中文摘要 122
Summary 123
壹、前言 124
貳、前人研究 125
參、材料與方法 132
肆、結果 133
伍、討論 137
結論…………………………………………………………………………………139
參考文獻 140
附錄 1. 採樣果園施肥記錄……………………………………………………….165
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