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研究生:程盈慈
研究生(外文):Ying-Tzu Cheng
論文名稱:植基於像素差異之可適應性灰階與高動態範圍影像藏密學演算法
論文名稱(外文):Adaptive Steganographic Algorithms for Grayscale and High Dynamic Range Images Based on Pixel-Value Differencing
指導教授:王宗銘王宗銘引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:資訊科學與工程學系所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:91
中文關鍵詞:低動態高動態範圍影像可適應性藏密學最小失真性區塊差異
外文關鍵詞:low dynamic rangehigh dynamic range imagesadaptivesteganographyminimal distortionblock difference
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本篇論文針對低動態範圍影像與高動態範圍影像,各別提出可適應性藏密學演算法。在低動態範圍影像上,先前學者利用像素差值和雙基底模數方式嵌入訊息之方法有2項缺失。其一,偽裝像素的調整並非具有最小的失真性;其二,層級一致性的檢查與校正無法在訊息嵌入時同時完成。我們提出一個具有最小失真性之高品質像素差值藏密學演算法。我們的方法在偽裝像素做調整時,提供9種或25種像素組合,從這些組合中,我們能無須經過校正,即可在訊息嵌入時,篩選出具有最小失真性且符合層級一致性的偽裝像素。實驗結果顯示,我們方法所產生的偽裝影像,其品質比先前學者高出0.05~0.34 dB;我們的方法也無層級溢位的問題。實驗結果證實:我們提出的演算法可產生具有最小失真性的偽裝影像。最後,我們也將該演算法應用在彩色掩護影像上,同樣得到相類似灰階影像之效果。

我們接續提出一個植基於區塊差異、具備高容量、可適應性的高動態範圍影像藏密學演算法。我們以常見的RGBE高動態範圍影像為掩護影像。首先,我們以2×2像素區塊為單位,根據此區塊內E頻道數值之異同,將區塊分為平滑區域、擬邊緣區域與邊緣區域。接著,我們對此三種區域作可適應性的訊息嵌入,以符合人眼之視覺敏感度。在作訊息嵌入時,我們更提出一種雙基底模數的方法。此法考量到人眼對色彩靈敏度的不同,針對紅色、綠色、藍色(R-G-B)頻道,各別制定動態的訊息嵌入量,故能有效地減低像素的變動量,達到高隱藏量且具低失真性的目的。實驗結果顯示:我們的演算法可達成高容量之訊息嵌入,但也同時具備良好的影像品質。

總結本文,我們所提的兩個可適應性藏密學演算法,分別具有高品質與高藏量之特性,我們認為此兩個演算法對影像藏密學有具體之貢獻。
In this study, we focus our investigation on image steganographic algorithms. In particular, we present a steganographic algorithm based on pixel-value differencing for grayscale images. Our algorithm is capable of producing a stego image with very high visual quality. We employ a five-category table and adaptively embed various amounts of the secret message based on the pixel difference in a pixel pair. In contrast to previous approaches, however, our algorithm considers 9 or 25 candidates at the same time when the secret message is embedded into a pixel pair. This consideration allows us to minimize the pixel distortion and avoid category adjustment which must be operated in order to guarantee that a pixel pair remains at the same category consistency after the message embedding. Consequently, our scheme ensures producing a stego pixel pair that has the smallest pixel variation and conforms to the degree consistency. Experimental results show that our method generates a high visual quality of the stego-image, the PSNR value being in the range of 0.05 to 0.34 dB higher than our counterpart. When extending our steganographic algorithm to color images, we produce experimental results similar to those using the grayscale images. Experimental results verify the feasibility of our algorithm for color and grayscale images.

We introduce a block-based high capacity steganographic algorithm for high dynamic range (HDR) images. Given an HDR cover image with the RGBE encoding, our method subdivides the cover image into a number of 2×2 pixel blocks. We classify each block into one of smooth-area blocks, semi-edge blocks, or edge blocks, based on a block’s E channel value. Then, we employ an adaptive technique to embed different amounts of secret messages into different types of blocks. In addition, we employ a dual-basis modulus operation for message embedding taking into account the human vision sensitivity in the red, green, or blue channels. Experimental results show that our algorithm offers high embedding capacity but low distortion for HDR images.

In conclusion, we present two adaptive image steganographic methods. Experimental results verify the contribution of our schemes for providing high capacity and high image quality steganographic applications.
致 謝 ……………………………………………………… i
摘 要 ……………………………………………………… ii
Abstract ………………………………………………… iii
目 次 ……………………………………………………… v
圖 目 次 ………………………………………………… viii
表 目 次 …………………………………………………… x

第一章 緒論 ………………………………………………… 01
1.1 研究動機 ………………………………………………… 01
1.2 研究目的 ………………………………………………… 04
1.3 論文架構 ………………………………………………… 06

第二章 相關文獻探討 ……………………………………… 07
2.1 低動態範圍影像PVD藏密學技術之探討 ………………… 07
2.1.1 Wu與Tsai 所提方法 …………………………………… 09
2.1.2 Wang與Wu所提方法 …………………………………… 11
2.1.3 Wu與Wang所提方法 …………………………………… 12
2.2 高動態範圍影像Radiance RGBE格式 …………………… 16
2.3 Radiance RGBE格式上的藏密學技術 …………………… 17
2.3.1 Cheng與Wang所提的方法 ……………………………… 17
2.3.2 Ge與Wang所提的方法 ………………………………… 19
2.3.3 Li與Wang所提的方法 ………………………………… 20
2.4心得與分析 ……………………………………………… 21

第三章 具有最小失真性之高品質像素差值藏密學演算法 … 23
3.1像素調整過程與分析 …………………………………… 24
3.1.1像素調整 ……………………………………………… 24
3.1.2最小失真性分析 ……………………………………… 31
3.2預估像素變動量分析 …………………………………… 34
3.3延伸應用至彩色LDR影像上 …………………………… 37
3.4實驗結果與分析 ………………………………………… 39
3.5小結 ……………………………………………………… 49

第四章 植基於區塊差異之高容量可適應性高動態範圍影像藏密學技術 …………………………………………………………………… 51
4.1 演算法流程 ……………………………………………… 51
4.2 嵌入流程 ………………………………………………… 53
4.2.1影像分割 ………………………………………………… 53
4.2.2像素分類 ………………………………………………… 54
4.2.3平滑區域嵌入技術介紹 ………………………………… 55
4.2.4邊緣區域嵌入技術介紹 ………………………………… 62
4.3擷取流程 …………………………………………………… 63
4.3.1平滑區域訊息擷取 ……………………………………… 63
4.3.2邊緣區域訊息擷取 ……………………………………… 65
4.4 平滑區域偽裝像素調整的改進 ………………………… 65
4.5 實驗結果與分析 ………………………………………… 67
4.6 針對平滑區域偽裝像素做調整之實驗結果 …………… 73
4.7 小結 ……………………………………………………… 75

第五章 總結與未來工作 …………………………………… 77
5.1總結 ………………………………………………………… 77
5.2未來工作 …………………………………………………… 79

參考文獻 ……………………………………………………… 80
中英對照表 …………………………………………………… 87
英中對照表 …………………………………………………… 89
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