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研究生:楊佳容
研究生(外文):Jia-Rong Yang
論文名稱:惡質顧客不當行為之分類與企業之補救回應對消費者滿意度之影響
論文名稱(外文):The effect of the classification ofjaycustomer’s misbehavior, and organizational recovery response on customer satisfaction
指導教授:黃文仙黃文仙引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:行銷學系所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:行銷與流通學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:86
中文關鍵詞:顧客間負面互動惡質顧客之不當行為口語非口語蓄意無心企業之補救回應滿意度再購意願
外文關鍵詞:misbehaviorjaycustomerverbalnonverbaldeliberateunintentionalsatisfactionrepurchase intention
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顧客在接受服務的過程中,往往必須與其他顧客分享同一服務環境,然而,多數的研究集中在企業與顧客以及服務人員與顧客之間的互動 (Martin and Pranter, 1989) ,對於顧客間負面互動狀況的相關文獻相當有限。但仔細觀察許多服務接觸,當顧客們共享服務環境時,其他顧客的不當行為會間接或直接影響到服務經驗的滿意與不滿意 (Martin, 1996) ,也可能影響顧客的再購意願 (Harris et al, 1997) 。
此外,分類架構對任何研究領域而言都是一個重要的基礎,過去有許多學者便試圖利用關鍵事件技術 (Critical Incident Technique;CIT) 法將惡質顧客之不當行為加以分類 (e.g. Bitner et al., 1994;Martin, 1996;Grove and Fisk, 1997),儘管有如此多的分類方法,卻沒有一個一致性的分類架構,其實,分類架構對任何研究領域而言都是一個重要的基礎,其從一個總體的層面找出共通性與普遍性,這些廣泛的分類提供了理論發展的第一步,並提供一概念性的架構讓後續的研究者以及企業對其有更深入的了解 (Ng, 2007) ,因此,本研究進一步將惡質顧客之不當行為歸類,希望此一分類能涵蓋大部份的惡質顧客行為,並藉由此分類了解消費者滿意度及再購意願的改變。
另外,過去有許多學者探討補救回應的議題,但其大多是探討服務提供者對顧客所造成的服務失誤,並無研究探討如何針對惡質顧客所引起的疏失來給予補救回應,因此本研究希望將惡質顧客之不當行為歸類後,能進一步針對不同類別的惡質顧客行為來探討究竟何種補救回應策略,才能有效提升顧客對企業的服務評價。
本研究透過實驗設計法:2 (惡質顧客之不當行為:口語、非口語) × 2 (惡質顧客之不當行為:蓄意、無心) × 3 (企業之補救回應:不補償、道歉、道歉 + 實質補償) 受測者間因子設計,並以一般大眾較熟悉且有相關消費經驗的餐廳做為實驗情境。有效樣本342 份,經由多變量共變異數分析 (MANCOVA) 發現:(1) 當惡質顧客之不當行為屬於無心時,消費者對口語與非口語的不當行為在滿意度及再購意願上皆無差異,但是當惡質顧客之不當行為屬於蓄意時,消費者對口語的不當行為會比非口語的不當行為有較低的滿意度及再購意願; (2) 當惡質顧客之不當行為屬於蓄意且口語 (辱罵) 時,企業給予道歉加上實質補償比企業只給予道歉有較高的顧客滿意度,但在再購意願上沒有差異,亦即當惡質顧客之不當行為屬於蓄意且口語時,企業給予道歉加上實質補償會有較高的滿意度,但企業只要向消費者道歉,就可以有效提升再購意願; (3) 當惡質顧客之不當行為
屬於蓄意且非口語 (插隊) 時,企業給予道歉加上實質補償會有較高的滿意度,但企業只需要向遭遇惡質顧客不當行為的消費者道歉,即可有效提升顧客的再購意願。此一研究結果對企業管理者提供莫大的幫助。
第一章 緒論................................................1
第一節 研究背景與動機......................................1
第二節 研究目的............................................3
第三節 研究流程............................................4

第二章 文獻回顧............................................5
第一節 服務接觸............................................5
第二節 顧客負面互動.......................................11
第三節 惡質顧客行為.......................................14
第四節 企業之補救回應.....................................19
第五節 滿意度與再購意願...................................23

第三章 研究方法...........................................25
第一節 研究架構...........................................25
第二節 研究假設...........................................26
第三節 研究變數定義與衡量.................................28
第四節 研究設計...........................................31
第五節 實驗進行方式及分析方法.............................35

第四章 研究結果...........................................36
第一節 樣本描述...........................................36
第二節 信度與效度分析.....................................37
第三節 自變數之操弄檢定...................................39
第四節 假設檢驗...........................................40
第五節 小結...............................................46

第五章 結論與建議.........................................47
第一節 研究結論...........................................47
第二節 學術貢獻...........................................49
第三節 管理意涵...........................................50
第四節 研究限制...........................................51
第五節 未來研究方向.......................................52

參考文獻..................................................53
附錄一 前測問卷...........................................62
附錄二 正式問卷...........................................63

表目錄
表2-1 服務接觸之定義.......................................5
表2-2 服務行銷系統中之有形元素及溝通成分...................9
表2-3 顧客對顧客互動研究之相關文獻........................12
表2-4 其他顧客在公共場合所表現的行為......................16
表2-5 排隊等候之不滿意關鍵事件整理表......................17
表2-6 零售業的服務補救措施................................20
表2-7 餐飲業的補救回應措施................................21
表2-8 顧客滿意度之定義....................................23
表2-9 再購意願之定義......................................24
表3-1 研究變數的衡量題項與參考文獻之整理表................30
表3-2 實驗設計分組表......................................31
表3-3 惡質顧客不當行為之分類..............................32
表3-4 前測檢定表..........................................33
表4-1 敘述性統計表........................................36
表4-2 信度統計表..........................................37
表4-3 操弄檢定表..........................................39
表4-4 描述性統計量........................................40
表4-5 MANCOVA與ANCOVA之統計表.............................41
表4-6 本研究假設檢定結果..................................46

圖目錄
圖1-1 研究流程.............................................4
圖2-1 服務經營系統觀.......................................6
圖2-2 服務接觸評量模式.....................................7
圖2-3 劇場理論組成要素.....................................8
圖2-4 關係行銷之間的鏈結文獻整理..........................10
圖3-1 研究架構............................................25
圖4-1 惡質顧客之不當行為對滿意度的交互作用圖..............42
圖4-2 惡質顧客之不當行為對再購意願的交互作用圖............43
圖4-3 三因子交互作用圖—滿意度............................44
圖4-4 三因子交互作用圖—再購意願..........................45
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