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研究生:施炫全
研究生(外文):Hsuan-Chuan Shih
論文名稱:電動獨輪車之系統設計與速度控制
論文名稱(外文):System Design and Velocity Control of an Electric Unicycle
指導教授:蔡清池
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:電機工程學系所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:97
語文別:英文
論文頁數:70
中文關鍵詞:獨輪車
外文關鍵詞:Electric Unicycle
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本論文主旨在於提出電動獨輪車之系統設計,推導數學模型及速度控制之技術與方法。系統設計,硬體各主要元件以及控制架構均被詳細地描述。在數學模型方面,不同於倒單擺模型,本論文以馬達轉矩為輸入,重新建立一新型電動獨輪車之動態方程式。在控制器設計方面,兩種分別基於線性和非線性模型之控制器被設計,用以於達到平衡控制與速度控制。線性控制器為一雙迴路控制器,其由內迴路的比利積分(PI)控制與外迴路的線性二次式調整器(LQR)控制組成。為克服系統的非線性效應,本論文提出適應階層式滑動平面控制以控制傾角與速度兩個變數。模擬與實驗數據被用來驗證所提出的控制器之有效性與性能。
This thesis presents techniques and methodologies for system design, modeling and speed control of an electric unicycle. System design, key components and control architecture of the unicycle are described in detail. Unlike the typical model inverted pendulum, a novel mathematic model of the vehicle is re-established by considering the motor torque as an input. As for the controller design, two controllers based on linearized and nonlinear models are designed to achieve self-balancing and speed control, respectively. The two-loop linearized controller is proposed which includes a proportional-integral (PI) controller for inner loop and a linear quadratic regulator (LQR) for outer loop. To overcome the nonlinear effects of the vehicle, an adaptive hierarchy sliding mode controller is proposed to regulate two different control variables, pitch angle and speed. Simulations and experimental results are conducted to study the effectiveness and performance of the proposed control methods.
Chinese Abstract i
English Abstract ii
Contents iii
List of Figures vi
List of Tables ix
Nomenclature x
List of Acronyms xi

Chapter1 Introduction
1.1 Introduction....................... 1
1.2 Literature Review..................................................................... 5
1.2.1 Related work for Mathematical Modeling of Unicycles 5
1.2.2 Related work for Multi-Loop Control 5
1.2.3 Related work for Hierarchical Decoupling Sliding model Control 5
1.3 Motivation and Objectives...................................................... 6
1.4 Main Contributions............................................................. 7
1.5 Thesis Organization...................................... 7

Chapter 2 System Design, Modeling and Control Architecture
2.1 Introduction................................................................ 9
2.2 Description of System Structure and Components.................... 10
2.2.1 Unicycle................................................................................ 12
2.2.2 Motor Module : TWM3M Gearbox With Magmotor S28-150.....12
2.2.3 Motor Drive Circuit 13
2.2.4 Encoder: HTR-M2-1000-2-C 15
2.2.5.Sensor 16
2.2.5.1.Tilt Sensor....................................................................... 17
2.2.5.2 Rate Gyro: MEV-50A-R.................................... 18
2.2.6 Battery.................................................................... 20
2.2.7 Hall Sensor: LTS 25-NP 21
2.2.8 Controller: Ezdsp f2812..................................................... 23
2.3 Control System and Architecture ...................... 27
2.4 Concluding Remarks...................... 27

Chapter 3 Mathematical Modeling and Validation
3.1 Introduction...................................................... 28
3.2 Nonlinear Mathematic Modeling........ 28
3.3 Model Validation 32
3.4 Concluding Remarks............................. 33

Chapter 4 Adaptive Hierarchical Decoupling Sliding-Mode Control
4.1 Introduction................................. 34
4.2 Controller Synthesis....... 35
4.2.1 PI controller design 36
4.2.2 LQR controller design 37
4.3 Simulation and Discussion …… 40
4.4 Experimental Results and Discussion.. 45
4.5 Concluding Remarks......... 49

Chapter 5 Adaptive Hierarchical Decoupling Sliding-Mode Control
5.1 Introduction.......................................... 50
5.2 Adaptive Hierarchical Decoupling Sliding-Mode.... 50
5.2.1 Hierarchical Decoupling Sliding-Mode Control 51
5.2.2 Adaptive Hierarchical Decoupling Sliding-Mode Control 53
5.3 Simulation and Discussion 55
5.4 Experimental Results and Discussion. 60
5.5 Concluding Remarks..... 64

Chapter 6 Conclusions and Future Work
5.1 Conclusions............... 66
5.2 Future Work .......... 67

References 69
[1] S. C. Lin, System Design, Modeling and Control of Self-Balancing Human Transportation Vehicles, Ph. D dissertation, Department of Electrical Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC, July 2008.
[2] H.-W. You, Modeling and Control of a Self-Balancing Two Wheeled Scooter, MS Thesis, Department of Electrical Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC, July 2007.
[3] Z. Sheng, and K. Yamafuji, “Postural stability of a human riding a unicycle and its emulation by a Robot,” IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, vol.13 no.5, pp.709-720, Oct. 1997.
[4] K. Hofer, “Observer-based drive-control for self-balanced vehicles” the 32nd IEEE Annual Conference on Industrial Electronics, IECON 2006, pp. 3951 – 3956, 6-10 Nov. 2006.
[5] R. Nakajima, T. Tsubouchi, S.Yuta, E. Koyanagi, “A development of a new mechanism of an autonomous unicycle,” Proceedings of the 1997 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems ( IROS ''97), vol. 2, pp. 906 – 912, 7-11 Sept. 1997 .
[6] Y. Ou and Y. Xu, “Balance control of a single wheel robot,” in Proc. IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and System, vol.2, pp.2043-2048, 30 Sept.-5 Oct. 2002.
[7] J. C. Lo and Y. H. Kuo, “Decoupled Fuzzy Sliding-Mode Control,” IEEE Transactions on fuzzy systems, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 426-435, August 1998.
[8] C. M. Lin and Y. J. Mon, “Decoupling Control by Hierarchical Fuzzy Sliding-Mode Controller,” IEEE Transactions on control systems technology, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 593-598 , July 2005.
[9] T. B. Lauwers, G. A. Kantor, and R. L. Hollis, “A dynamically stable single-wheeled mobile robot with inverse mouse-ball drive,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Orlando, USA, pp. 2884-2889, 2006.
[10]”http://www.robotmarketplace.com”
[11]”http://www.tlb.org/eunicycle.html”
[12]” http://www.robotpower.com/osmc_info/”
[13]” http://search.murata.co.jp”
[14]” http://www.xbow.com”
[15]” http://www.encoder.com.tw”
[16]” http://www.ti.com”
[17]”http://www.cpu.com.tw”
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