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研究生:楊甯雅
研究生(外文):Ning-YA Yang
論文名稱:評估Tiletamine-zolazepam、Medetomidine-tiletamine-zolazepam和Xylazine-tiletamine-zolazepam於綠鬣蜥的麻醉效果及Atipamezole和Yohimbine的翻轉作用
論文名稱(外文):Evaluation of Tiletamine-zolazepam, Medetomidine-tiletamine-zolazepam and Xylazine-tiletamine-zolazepam Anesthesia and the Reverse Effects of Atipamezole and Yohimbine in Green Iguanas (Iguana iguana)
指導教授:董光中董光中引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:獸醫學系暨研究所
學門:獸醫學門
學類:獸醫學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:64
中文關鍵詞:綠鬣蜥麻醉爬蟲類麻醉
外文關鍵詞:green iguanareptile anesthesiatiletamine-zolazepammedetomidinexylazineatipamezoleyohimbinezoletilinjectable anesthesia
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綠鬣蜥(Iguana iguana)為目前世界上最熱門的爬蟲類寵物,而綠鬣蜥的麻醉仍有許多尚待研究的部分。本研究目的為評估tiletamine-zolazepam(ZOL)單獨使用與合併medetomidine(MED)和xylazine(XYL)於綠鬣蜥的麻醉效果,和atipamezole(APM)、yohimbine(YOH)對tiletamine-zolazepam-medetomidine、tiletamine-zolazepam-xylazine麻醉之翻轉作用。實驗劑量選用ZOL(5、10、20 mg/kg),ZOL-MED(5-0.05、5-0.1、10-0.025、10-0.05 mg/kg)和ZOL-XYL(5-2、10-1、10-1.5、15-1、20-1 mg/kg)等組別。麻醉藥物統一注射在蜥蜴前肢之三頭肌中。所有蜥蜴在失去翻正反射後皆給予循環式保溫水墊體外保溫將其泄殖腔溫度維持在25-30°C之間。結果顯示綠鬣蜥單獨使用ZOL 5 mg/kg以下的劑量無法達到止痛效果,而併用ZOL-MED 5-0.1 mg/kg和ZOL-MED 5-0.05 mg/kg可使所有蜥蜴失去捏指反射。單獨使用ZOL10 mg/kg或20 mg/kg可使綠鬣蜥達1和1.5小時的麻醉期。增加ZOL劑量(5-20 mg/kg)可以有效延長麻醉期和外科麻醉期,但同時也會延長恢復期。ZOL-MED(10-0.025、10-0.05 mg/kg)和ZOL-XYL(10-1、10-1.5 mg/kg)之麻醉期與外科麻醉期皆較單獨使用ZOL 10 mg/kg長,且不會延長恢復期。在綠鬣蜥ZOL併用MED與XYL確實能夠有效的加強ZOL的止痛效果並減少使用麻醉藥物的個體差異,增加麻醉穩定度。ZOL-MED各組皆會使蜥蜴之心搏速率的顯著較注射藥物前低。而ZOL併用MED或XYL後,綠鬣蜥麻醉中會有間斷式不呼吸的情形發生,不呼吸之時間可長達10分鐘。APM(0.125 mg/kg)肌肉注射於綠鬣蜥可有效翻轉ZOL-MED(10-0.05 mg/kg)之麻醉效果;YOH(0.125 mg/kg)肌肉注射也可有效的翻轉ZOL-XYL(20-1 mg/kg)之麻醉作用。但無論使用APM或YOH皆無法縮短ZOL-MED或ZOL-XYL麻醉之恢復期。由本研究結果可知ZOL-MED(5-0.05 mg/kg)和ZOL-XYL(5-2 mg/kg)可使蜥蜴失去顎張力,且劑量較低,故建議做為導入麻醉之劑量。而ZOL-MED (10-0.05 mg/kg)則提供良好的止痛效果和160.3 ± 9.0分鐘之外科麻醉期,可做為長時間外科手術之劑量。APM和YOH能有效的翻轉ZOL-MED和ZOL-XYL之麻醉效果,使綠鬣蜥的麻醉更為安全。
Since green iguana (Iguana iguana) is one of the most popular reptile pets in the world, more information on anesthetizing these patients is needed. The aim of this study was to assess the anesthetic effects of tiletamine-zolazepam (ZOL) alone and in combination with medetomidine (MED) or xylazine (XYL), and the reverse effects of atipamezole (APM) and yohimbine (YOH) on ZOL-MED and ZOL-XYL in green iguanas. In this study, ZOL (5, 10, 20 mg/kg, respectively), ZOL-MED (5-0.05, 5-0.1, 10-0.025, 10-0.5 mg/kg, respectively) and ZOL-XYL (5-2, 10-1, 10-1.5, 15-1, 20-1, respectively) were administrated in the biceps muscle of the iguanas. Cloaca temperature of the iguanas was kept between 25-30 °C using water-cycled hot pads after the animals lost righting reflex. The results indicated that ZOL less than 5 mg/kg cannot provide good analgesia effects. All of the iguanas lost toe-pinch reflex with ZOL-MED (5-0.05, 5-0.1 mg/kg) anesthesia. The duration of anesthesia with ZOL 10 and 20 mg/kg was 1 and 1.5 hours, respectively. Increasing dosage of ZOL (5-20 mg/kg) can prolong the duration of anesthesia for surgical procedures, but also prolong the recovery time of anesthesia. ZOL-MED (10-0.025, 10-0.05 mg/kg) and ZOL-XYL (10-1, 10-1.5 mg/kg) can prolong the duration of anesthesia compared with ZOL 10 mg/kg alone, but do not prolong the recovery time of anesthesia. The combination of ZOL-MED and ZOL-XYL can provide better analgesia than ZOL alone in green iguanas, and also decrease the individual differences of anesthetic effects. The combination of ZOL-MED significantly decreased the heart rates after drug administration. Apnea had been observed more than 10 minutes intermittently during ZOL-MED or ZOL-XYL anesthesia. APM and YOH (0.125 mg/kg) administered intramuscularly can reverse the anesthetic effect of ZOL-MED (10-0.05 mg/kg) and ZOL-XYL (20-1 mg/kg), but cannot decrease the recovery time of anesthesia. As a result, administration of either ZOL-MED (5-0.05 mg/kg) or ZOL-XYL (5-2 mg/kg) for induction of anesthesia was advised, because all of the iguanas had lost jaw muscle tone during anesthesia. ZOL-MED at 10-0.05 mg/kg provides good analgesia and surgical anesthesia time (160.3 ± 9.0 minutes), which can be used for surgery procedures. Additionally, APM and YOH effectively reverse the anesthetic effect of ZOL-MED and ZOL-XYL make it safer anesthesia in green iguanas.
中文摘要........................................................................................................................ i
英文摘要........................................................................................................................ii
目次...............................................................................................................................iii
表次...............................................................................................................................vi
圖次.............................................................................................................................viii
第一章  緒言............................................................................................................1
第二章  文獻探討....................................................................................................3
第一節  綠鬣蜥的解剖生理............................................................................3
一、 綠鬣蜥介紹....................................................................................3
二、 綠鬣蜥之解剖生理........................................................................3
(一)心血管系統............................................................................3
(二)呼吸系統................................................................................5
     (三)泌尿系統................................................................................6
第二節 爬蟲類的麻醉評估、監控與照顧......................................................6
一、 麻醉前評估....................................................................................7
(一)病史........................................................................................7
(二)臨床檢查................................................................................7
     (三)麻醉前處置............................................................................8
二、 麻醉中監控與麻醉深度判定......................................................11
(一)生理反射測量.......................................................................11
(二)心肺系統監控.......................................................................12
(三)麻醉深度判定.......................................................................13
三、 恢復期照顧..................................................................................13
第三節 Tiletamine-zolazepam.......................................................................14
一、 歷史與簡介..................................................................................14
二、 作用機制與心肺功能之影響......................................................15
三、 獸醫臨床之應用..........................................................................16

第四節 α2腎上腺素受體致效劑...................................................................18
一、 簡介.............................................................................................18
二、 作用機制.....................................................................................18
三、 Xylazine.......................................................................................19
四、 Medetomidine..............................................................................20
五、 α2腎上腺素受體拮抗劑............................................................21
六、 獸醫臨床之應用..........................................................................21
第五節 Tiletamine-zolazepam併用α2腎上腺素受體致效劑之麻醉作用..22
一、 簡介..............................................................................................22
二、 獸醫臨床之應用..........................................................................23
第三章 材料方法....................................................................................................24
一、 實驗動物......................................................................................24
二、 飼養管理......................................................................................24
三、 使用之藥物..................................................................................24
四、 藥物注射方式..............................................................................24
五、 麻醉監控及麻醉分期的定義......................................................25
(一)麻醉監控..............................................................................25
     (二)麻醉分期定義......................................................................26
六、 實驗一..........................................................................................26
(一) 預備實驗............................................................................26
(二) 正式實驗............................................................................26
七、 實驗二..........................................................................................27
(一)預備實驗..............................................................................27
(二)正試實驗..............................................................................27
八、 統計分析方法..............................................................................27
第四章 結果............................................................................................................29
第一節 實驗一................................................................................................29
一、 預備實驗......................................................................................29
二、 正式實驗......................................................................................30

第二節 實驗二................................................................................................43
一、 預備實驗......................................................................................43
二、 正式實驗......................................................................................44
第五章 討論..............................................................................................................52
參考文獻......................................................................................................................57
附錄..............................................................................................................................64
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