(3.238.96.184) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/05/12 15:10
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:楊川儀
研究生(外文):Chuan-Yi Yang
論文名稱:犬生殖道及精液之菌相調查
論文名稱(外文):Characterization of the bacterial isolates of the genital tract and semen in the dog
指導教授:鄭豐邦
指導教授(外文):Feng-Pang Cheng
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:獸醫學系暨研究所
學門:獸醫學門
學類:獸醫學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:120
中文關鍵詞:細菌生殖道精液
外文關鍵詞:BacteriaGenital tractSemen
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:139
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
微生物中,特別是細菌經常被發現於犬生殖道中。公母犬於交配過程、罹患生殖道疾病及犬本身之生殖週期狀態,皆可能造成細菌的生長與侵犯。前人指出於犬包皮、精液及陰道好氧細菌相之調查中,常可能分離出伺機性之細菌。因此本研究針對臨床健康犬之包皮、精液及陰道之好氧菌相進行調查、以了解潛在之生殖道細菌性感染源。於2007年10月至2009年5月國立中興大學獸醫教學醫院犬生殖專科特別門診中,選取健康之繁殖犬及結紮犬,經主人同意後進行調查。繁殖犬共有50隻公犬,其中有46個包皮採樣及34個精液採樣和29隻母犬之陰道採樣。結紮犬共有13隻公犬包皮及7隻母犬陰道採樣。所有採樣樣本經培養後,皆利用型態學及傳統生化方式先分離出革蘭氏陰性與陽性菌,接著分別利用GFB-14E與Biolog鑑定系統,鑑定細菌;如兩者皆未能鑑定出,則利用16S rRNA基因序列分析方法鑑定。結果:繁殖犬包皮、精液及陰道中,分別分離出108 株菌 (含24屬54種)、50株菌 (含9屬21種 )及71株菌 (含27屬44種)。結紮犬包皮及陰道中,分別分離出30株菌 (含13屬23種)及17株菌 (含9屬14種)。另外,從單一犬隻於包皮中,最常分離到2菌株及1菌株;而精液,多數沒有培養出細菌;而陰道,則平均有2菌株及3菌株。在群體飼養的犬隻中分離出的細菌數目高於單獨飼養的犬隻 (p<0.05)。另一方面,犬隻飼養環境、生殖週期及結紮狀態皆可能影響細菌分布。所有培養出的細菌裡,大多數都為生殖道中的常在菌相,但仍有培養出少數屬於伺機性的細菌,包括: Corynebacterium urealyticum、Enterococcus faecalis、 Enterococcus faecium、 Escherichia coli、 Micrococcus diversus、 Proteus mirabilis、 Staphylococcus aureus ss aureus、 Staphylococcus intermedius、 Staphylococcus saprophyticus、 Streptococcus agalactiae 和Streptococcus canis。於所有的採樣中,革蘭氏陽性菌以Staphylococcus spp.為最多,又以Staphylococcus xylosus、 Staphylococcus intermedius和Staphylococcus cohnii出現頻率最高;革蘭氏陰性中則以 Escherichia spp.和 Pasteurella spp.較多見。總結:在生殖道及精液所有樣品中培養及分離出的總株菌數有276株 (103種),其中伺機性細菌共分離出53株 (11種)。這些伺機性細菌皆潛在性會造成生殖道之感染,故生殖器官之清潔及衛生應屬重要議題。另外,伺機性細菌的存在,也可能被視為導致犬隻不孕的原因之一。
Microorganism isolates, particularly the bacteria are commonly detected in genital tracts of the dogs. Mating process, genital disease and reproductive status would cause the inoculation and growth of bacteria at many occasions in the external and internal genital tracts. In studies of the aerobic bacterial flora of the prepuce, semen and vagina in dogs, the most commonly isolated bacteria in these regions were opportunistic pathogens. The purpose of this study was to investigate the diversity of bacterial distribution in the prepuce, semen and vagina in clinical healthy dogs. Patients of the Fertility Clinic, Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, National Chung Hsing University were recruited in this study from Oct 2007 to May 2009. Swabs of 50 intact dogs (46 prepuce and 34 semen samples), 29 intact bitches (29 vagina samples), 13 neutralized dogs (13 prepuce samples), and 7 neutralized bitches (7 vagina samples) were processed and cultured. The cultivable bacteria were identified by morphology, traditional biochemistry methods, Biolog MicroStation system and GFB-14E. Otherwise, unidentified bacteria were tested by 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. In total, 108 (including 24 genera and 54 species), 50 (9 genera and 21 species), and 71 (27 genera and 44 species) bacterial strains were identified from normal prepuce, semen and vagina in intact dogs, respectively. From neutralized dogs, 30 (13 genera and 23 species), and 17 (9 genera and 14 species) bacterial strains were identified from normal prepuce and vagina, respectively. Respective number of bacterial isolated from prepuce, semen and vagina was 2 to 1, no growth and 2 to 3 strains. Bacterial number in the kennel dogs was higher than solely living ones (p<0.05). Current data also infer that housing conditions, estrous cycle and netrutrlization affect bacterial distribution in the canine genital tract and semen. Opportunistic pathogens such as Corynebacterium urealyticum, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus diversus, Proteus mirabilis, Staphylococcus aureus ss aureus, Staphylococcus intermedius, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus canis were constanly identified in the gential tract and semen. Conclusively, Staphylococcus spp. is the superior genus in all samples of gram-positive bacteria, and its most cultivable species are Staphylococcus xylosus, Staphylococcus intermedius and Staphylococcus cohnii. Otherwise, Escherichia spp. and Pasteurella spp. is the superior gram-negative genus in the intact and neutralize samples, respectively. Opportunistic bacteria (n=11) are constantly detected (53/276 isolates) in the canine genital tracts and semen, suggesting proper hygiene is required for all forms of breeding process. Presence of pathogenic bacteria may explain at least in part the cause of canine infertility.
中文摘要…………………………………………………………i
英文摘要…………………………………………………………iii
目錄………………………………………………………………v
表次………………………………………………………………vii
圖次………………………………………………………………ix
第一章 前言………………………………………………………1
第二章 文獻探討…………………………………………………2
第一節 犬生殖系統之解剖構造…………………………………2
第二節 健康犬及其他動物生殖道之常在菌叢相………………7
第三節 健康犬之包皮、精液、陰道中分離出細菌菌株數……13
第四節 犬年齡、品種與細菌相之關係…………………………14
第五節 犬精子活力與細菌相之關係……………………………16
第六節 母犬生殖週期與細菌相之關……………………………22
第七節 犬常見的生殖道疾病與細菌相之關係…………………25
第八節 犬精液中潛在具致病力的微生物………………………29
第九節 生殖道對微生物之防禦機制……………………………31
第十節 細菌分類方法……………………………………………36
第十一節 細菌鑑定方法…………………………………………39
第三章 材料與方法………………………………………………43
第一節 採樣動物…………………………………………………43
第二節 採樣方法…………………………………………………44
第三節 菌種分離…………………………………………………46
第四節 菌種鑑定…………………………………………………46
第五節 菌種保存…………………………………………………52
第六節 統計分析…………………………………………………52
第四章 結果………………………………………………………53
第一節 細菌鑑定…………………………………………………53
第二節 細菌調查…………………………………………………55
第五章 討論………………………………………………………79
第一節 細菌鑑定…………………………………………………79
第二節 菌相調查…………………………………………………80
參考文獻…………………………………………………………84
附錄………………………………………………………………93
附錄一、犬基本資料總表………………………………………93
附錄二、中華民國獸醫學會暨台灣省畜牧獸醫學會
98年度春季學術研討會壁報論文………………………………108
附錄三、Manuscript for submission to Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association ……………………………………………109
參考文獻
一、中文部分
圖書
1.林哲祺。染色法。引自:獸醫臨床細菌鑑定圖譜,國立中興大學附設家畜醫院編著。藝軒,台北,1-24,1984a。
2.林哲祺。生化試驗。引自:獸醫臨床細菌鑑定圖譜,國立中興大學附設家畜動物醫院編著。藝軒,台北,25-63,1984b。
3.蔡文城,何梅純。GFB-14E 電腦密碼細菌鑑定系統之使用方法。引自:GFB-14E 電腦密碼細菌鑑定系統-輔助腸桿菌科、弧菌科及其他不常見革蘭氏陰性桿菌菌種之鑑定。九州,台北,39,1996 a。
4.蔡文城。診斷為生物學的最新發展。引自:臨床微生物診斷學,第八版。九州,台北,10-11,1996b。
5.蔡文城。臨床檢體培養後的一天之診斷步驟和評註。引自:臨床微生物診斷學,第八版。九州,台北,109-136,1996c。
6.蔡文城。細菌的命名與分類。引自:微生物學,第四版。藝軒,台北,37,2007。
7.劉振軒、邱慧英、張文發、林滄龍。布氏桿菌病。引自:乙類動物傳染疾病之簡介。台灣養豬科學研究所。79-81,1999。

期刊論文
1.王昭閔。討論。引自:好氣式堆肥處理之菌相調查及嗜高溫菌之分類。碩士論文。國立中興大學獸醫微生物研究所。台中,37,2001。
2.梁書蓉。討論。引自:母馬生殖道之菌相調查。碩士論文。國立中興大學獸醫學研究所。台中,46,2003。
3.張樂心。生殖道防禦機制之探討。通識研究集刊。11:39-52,2007。

二、西文部分
Books
1.Adams DR. Female reproductive system. In: Canine anatomy : a systemic study. 4th ed. Wiley-Blackwell, Iowa 235-248, 2004a.
2.Adams DR. Male reproductive system. In: Canine anatomy : a systemic study. 4th ed. Wiley-Blackwell, Iowa 249-261, 2004b.
3.Allen WE. Vaginal changes of clinical significance. In: Fertility and obstetrics in the dog. Blackwell Scientific Publications, London 18-28, 1992.
4.Bearden HJ. Fuquay JW. Willard ST. The female reproductive system. In: Applied animal reproduction. 6th ed. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 7-20. 2004a.
5.Bearden HJ. Fuquay JW. Willard ST. The male reproductive system. In: Applied animal reproduction. 6th ed. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 21-34. 2004b.
6.Dyce KM, Sack WO, Wensing CJG. The urogenital apparatus. In: Textbook of veterinary anatomy. 3rd ed. Saunders 163, 2002.
7.Goodfellow M, O’Donnell AG. Roots of bacterial systematics. In: Handbook of new bacterial systematic. 2th ed. Academic Press, London 3-56, 1994.
8.Gyles CL, Prescott JF , Songer JG, Thoen CO. Pathogenesis of bacterial infections in animals. 3rd ed. Wiley-Blackwell, Iowa 124-185, 2004.
9.Feldman EC, Nelson RW. Ovarian cycle and vaginal cytology. In: Canine and feline endocrinology and reproduction. 2nd ed. Saunders, Philadelphia 545,1996.
10.Johnston SD, Kustritz MVR, Olson PNS. Canine and feline theriogenology. 1st ed. Elsevier Health Sciences, Philadelphia 129-362, 2001.
11.Keenan LRJ. The infertile male. In: Simpson GM, ed, Manual of small animal reproduction and neonatology. British Small Animal Veterinary Association, U.K. 84-86, 1998.
12.Lane, D. J. 16S/23S rRNA sequencing, In: Stackebrandt E. and M. Goodfellow. Nucleic acid techniques in bacterial systematics. John Wiley & Sons Ltd., Chichester, United Kingdom 115-175, 1991.
13.Lu DY. Medical microbiology. Beijing: People’s Medical Publishing House. 4th ed. 81-84,1996.
14.Murray PR, Rosenthal K, Pfaller MA. Classification. In: Medical microbiology. 5th ed. Elsevier Press, New York 7-8, 2005.
15.Quinn PJ, Carter ME, Markey B, Carter GR. Clinical veterinary microbiology. Wolfe , London 571-573, 1994.
16.Suzuki K, Goodfellow M, O’Donnell AG. Cell envelopes and classification. In: Goodfellow M, O’Donnell AG. Handbook of new bacterial systematics, 2th ed. Academic Press, London 195-250, 1994.
17.Vauterin L, Swing J, Kersters K. Protein electrophoresis and classification. In: Goodfellow M, O’Donnell AG. Handbook of new bacterial systematics. 2th ed. Academic Press, London 251-281, 1994.
18.Verstegen JP. Conditions of the male. In: Simpson GM, ed, Manual of small animal reproduction and neonatology. British Small Animal Veterinary Association, U.K.75-78, 1998.

Journal Articles
1.Agartan CA, Kaya DA, Ozturk CE, Gulcan A. Is aerobic preputial flora age dependent? Jpn J Infect Dis 58:276-278, 2005.
2.Allen WE, Dagnall GJR. Some observations on the aerobic bacterial flora of the genital tract of the dog and bitch. J Small Anim Pract 23:325-335, 1982.
3.Althouse GC, Lu KG. Bacteriospermia in extended porcine semen. Theriogenology 63:573-84. 2005.
4.Alves A, De Miranda Cabral Gontijo AM, Salvadori DM, Rocha NS. Acute bacterial cystitis does not cause deoxyribonucleic acid damage detectable by the alkaline comet assay in urothelial cells of dogs. Vet Pathol 41:299-301, 2004.
5.Baba E, Hata H, Fukata T, Arakawa A. Vaginal and uterine microflora of adult dogs. Am J Vet Res 44:606-609, 1983.
6.Balat A, Karakök M, Güler E, Uçaner N, Kibar Y. Local defense systems in the prepuce. Scand J Urol Nephrol 42:63-65, 2008.
7.Bauer MS. Prostatic abscess rupture in three dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 188:735–737, 1986.
8.Baumueller A, Hoyme U, Madsen PO. Rosamicin--a new drug for the treatment of bacterial prostatitis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 12:240-242, 1977.
9.Berktas M, Aydin S, Yilmaz Y, Cecen K, Bozkurt H. Sperm motility changes after coincubation with various uropathogenic microorganisms: an in vitro experimental study. Int Urol Nephrol 40:383-389, 2008.
10.Bjurström L, Linde-Forsberg C. Long-term study of aerobic bacteria of the genital tract in breeding bitches. Am J Vet Res 53:665-669, 1992a.
11.Bjurström L, Linde-Forsberg C. Long-term study of aerobic bacteria of the genital tract in stud dogs. Am J Vet Res 53:670-673, 1992b.
12.Boeri E, Escobar GI, Ayala SM, Sosa-Estani S, Lucero NE. Canine brucellosis in dogs in the city of Buenos Aires. Medicina (B Aires) 68:291-297, 2008.
13.Bowdish DM, Davidson DJ, Hancock RE. Immunomodulatory properties of defensins and cathelicidins. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 306: 27-66, 2006.
14.Boyton RJ, Openshaw PJ. Pulmonary defences to acute respiratory infection. Br Med Bull 61:1-12, 2002.
15.Bulet P, Stocklin R, Menin L. Anti-microbial peptides: from invertebrates to vertebrates. Immunol Rev 198:169-184, 2004.
16.Cole JR Jr, Sangster LT, Sulzer CR, Pursell AR, Ellinghausen HC. Infections with Encephalitozoon cuniculi and Leptospira interrogans, serovars grippotyphosa and ballum, in a kennel of foxhounds. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 180:435-437, 1982.
17.Comhaire F, Verachraegen G, Vermeulen L. Diagnosis of accessory gland infection and its possible role in male infertility. Int J Androl 3:32-45, 1980.
18.Cowan ST. Principles and practice of bacterial taxonomy--a forward look. J Gen Microbiol 39:143-153, 1965.
19.Dahlbom M, Johnsson M, Myllys V, Taponen J, Andersson M. Seroprevalence of canine herpesvirus-1 and Brucella canis in Finnish breeding kennels with and without reproductive problems. Reprod Domest Anim 44:128-31, 2009.
20.Delucchi L, Fraga M, Perelmuter K, Cidade E, Zunino P. Vaginal lactic acid bacteria in healthy and ill bitches and evaluation of in vitro probiotic activity of selected isolates. Can Vet J 49:991-994, 2008.
21.Devriese LA, Cruz Colque JI, De Herdt P, Haesebrouck F. Identification and composition of the tonsillar and anal enterococcal and streptococcal flora of dogs and cats. J ApplBacteriol 73:421-425, 1992.
22.Dhaliwal GK, Wray C, Noakes DE. Uterine bacterial flora and uterine lesions in bitches with cystic endometrial hyperplasia (pyometra). Vet Rec 143:659-661, 1998.
23.Diemer T, Huwe P, Ludwig M, Schroeder-Printzen I, Michelmann HW, Schiefer HG, Weidner W. Diemer T, Huwe P, Ludwig M, Schroeder-Printzen I, Michelmann HW, Schiefer HG, Weidner W. Influence of Escherichia coli on motility parameters of human spermatozoa in vitro. Int J Androl 19:271-277, 1996.
24.Emmens CW. The motility and viability of rabbit spermatozoa at different hydrogen-ion concentrations. J Physiol 106:471-481, 1947.
25.Fox GE, Wisotzkey JD, Jurtshuk P Jr. How close is close: 16S rRNA sequence identity may not be sufficient to guarantee species identity. Int J Syst Bacteriol 42:166-70, 1992.
26.Freshman JL. Semen collection and evaluation. Clin Tech Small Anim Pract 17:104-107, 2002.
27.Genovez ME, Del Fava C, Castro V, Gotti TB, Dib CC, Pozzi CR, Arcaro JRP, Miyashiro S, Nassar AFC, Cirillo SL. Leptospirosis outbreak in dairy cattle due to Leptospira spp. serovar Canicola: reproductive rates and serological profile after treatment with streptomycin sulfate. Arq Inst Biol 73:389-393, 2006.
28.Gdoura R, Kchaou W, Chaari C, Znazen A, Keskes L, Rebai T, Hammami A. Ureaplasma urealyticum, Ureaplasma parvum, Mycoplasma hominis and Mycoplasma genitalium infections and semen quality of infertile men. BMC Infect Dis 7:129, 2007.
29.Gorbach SL. Lactic acid bacteria and human health. Ann Med 22:37-41, 1990.
30.Harkin KR, Gartrell CL. Canine leptospirosis in New Jersey and Michigan: 17 cases (1990-1995). J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 32:495-501, 1996.
31.He YW, Li H, Zhang J, Hsu CL, Lin E, Zhang N, Guo J, Forbush KA, Bevan MJ. The extracellular matrix protein mindin is a pattern-recognition molecule for microbial pathogens. Nat Immunol 5:88-97, 2004.
32.Hinrichs K, Cummings MR, Sertich PL, Kenney RM. Clinical significance of aerobic bacterial flora of the uterus, vagina, vestibule, and clitoral fossa of clinically normal mares. J Am Vet Med Assoc 193:72-5, 1988.
33.Hirsh DC, Wiger N. The bacterial flora of the normal canine vagina compared with that of vaginal exudates. J Small Anim Pract 18:25-30, 1977.
34.Janeway CA Jr. Approaching the asymptote? Evolution and revolution in immunology. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol 1:1-13, 1989.
35.Janza F, Szemeredi G, Szenci O. Aetiological studies and therapy of genital infections in male dogs. Magy Allatorv Lapja 43:733-737, 1988.
36.Johnson CA, Walker RD. Clinical signs and diagnosis of Brucella canis infection. Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet 14:763-772, 1992.
37.Johnson CA. Diagnosis and treatment of chronic vaginitis in the bitch. Vet Clin North Am 21:523-531, 1991.
38.Johnston SD. Performing a complete canine semen evaluation in a small animal hospital. Vet Clin North Am 21:545-551, 1991.
39.Johnston SD, Root MV, Olson PNS. Ovarian and testicular function in the domestic cat: Clinical management of spontaneous reproductive disease. Anim Reprod Sci 42:261-274, 1996.
40.Johnston SD. Examination of the genital system. Vet Clin North Am 11:543-559, 1981.
41.Keid LB, Soares RM, Vasconcellos SA, Chiebao DP, Megid J, Salgado VR, Richtzenhain LJ. A polymerase chain reaction for the detection of Brucella canis in semen of naturally infected dogs. Theriogenology 67:1203-1210, 2007.
42.Klein NJ. Mannose-binding lectin: do we need it? Mol Immunol 42:919-924, 2005.
43.Kim S, Lee DS, Suzuki H, Watarai M. Detection of Brucella canis and Leptospira in canine semen by multiplex nested PCR. J Vet Med Sci 68:615-618, 2006.
44.Krawiec DR, Heflin D. Study of prostatic disease in dogs: 177 cases (1981–1986). J Am Vet Med Assoc 200:1119–1122, 1992.
45.Kustritz MV, Johnston SD, Olson PN, Lindeman CJ. Relationship between inflammatory cytology of canine seminal fluid and significant aerobic bacterial, anaerobic bacterial or mycoplasma cultures of canine seminal fluid: 95 cases (1987-2000). Theriogenology 64:1333-1339, 2005.
46.Lee JY, Plakidas A, Lee WH, Heikkinen A, Chanmugam P, Bray G, Hwang DH. Differential modulation of Toll-like receptors by fatty acids: preferential inhibition by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. J Lipid Res 44:479-486, 2003.
47.Li P, Chan HC, He B, So SC, Chung YW, Shang Q, Zhang YD, Zhang YL. An antimicrobial peptide gene found in the male reproductive system of rats. Science 291:1783-1785, 2001.
48.Ling GV, Branam JE, Ruby AL, Johnson DL. Canine prostatic fluid: techniques of collection, quantitative bacterial culture, and interpretation of results. J Am Vet Med Assoc 183:201-206, 1983.
49.Ling GV, Ruby AL. Aerobic bacterial flora of the prepuce, urethra, and vagina of normal adult dogs. Am J Vet Res 39:695-698, 1978.
50.Memon MA. Common causes of male dog infertility. Theriogenology 68:322–328. 2007.
51.Memon MA, Mickelsen WD. Diagnosis and treatment of closed-cervix pyometra in a bitch. J Am Vet Med Assoc 203:509-512, 1993.
52.Mshella GD, Amin JD, Chaudhary SUR. Vaginal bacterial flora of nigeria local bitches during different stages of reproductive cycle. Int J Agri Biol 2:183-184, 2001.
53.Nielsen AT, Liu WT, Filipe C, Grady L Jr, Molin S, Stahl DA. Identification of a novel group of bacteria in sludge from deteriorated biological phosphorus removal reactor. Appl Environ Microbiol 65:1251-1258, 1999.
54.Nelson RW, Feldman EC. Pyometra. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Prac 16:561-571, 1986.
55.O’Connell RM, Saha SK, Cheng G. Combating bacterial pathogens through host defense gene programs. Current Immnological Rev 1:43-54, 2005.
56.Odumeru JA, Steele M, Fruhner L, Larkin C, Jiang J, Mann E, McNab WB. Evaluation of accuracy and repeatability of identification of food-borne pathogens by automated bacterial identification systems. J Clin Microbiol 37:944-949, 1999.
57.Olson PNS, Mather EC. Canine vaginal and uterine bacterial flora. J Am Vet Med Assoc 172:708-711, 1978.
58.Osbaldiston GW, Nuru S, Mosier JE. Vaginal cytology and microflora of infertile bitches. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 8:93-101, 1972.
59.Osegbe DN. Testicular function after unilateral bacterial epididymo-orchitis. Eur Urol 19:204-208, 1991.
60.Ota Y, Shimoya K, Zhang Q, Moriyama A, Chin R, Tenma K, Kimura T, Koyama M, Azuma C, Murata Y.The expression of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) in the fallopian tube: SLPI protects the acrosome reaction of sperm from inhibitory effects of elastase. Hum Reprod 17 :2517-2522, 2002.
61.Palys T, Nakamura LK, Cohan FM. Discovery and classification of ecological diversity in the bacterial word: the role of DNA sequence data. Int J Syst Bacteriol 47:1145-1156, 1997.
62.Paulson JD, Polakoski KL. Isolation of a spermatozoal immobilization factor from Escherichia coli filtrates. Fertil Steril 28:182-185, 1977.
63.Patel G. 16S rDNA gene sequencing for bacterial pathogen identification in the clinical labortatory. Mol Diagn 6:313-321, 1999.
64.Pillay K, Coutsoudis A, Agadzi-Naqvi AK, Knhn L, Coovadia HM, Janoff EN. Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor in vaginal fluids and perinatal human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmission. J Infect Dis 183:653-656, 2001.
65.Priestlley CFJ, Jones BM, Dhar J, Goodwin L. What is normal vaginal flora? Genitourin Med 73:23-28, 1997.
66.Rana M, Chatterjee S, Kochhar S, Pereira BMJ. Antimicrobial peptides: a new dawn for regulating fertility and reproductive tract infections. J Endocrinol Reprod 2: 88-95, 2006.
67.Rijsselaere T, Van Soom A, Tanghe S, Coryn M, Maes D, de Kruif A. New techniques for the assessment of canine semen quality: a review. Theriogenology 64:706-719, 2005.
68.Root Kustritz MV. Collection of tissue and culture samples from the canine reproductive tract. Theriogenology 66:567-574, 2006.
69.Sandholm M, Vasenius H, Kivisto AK. Pathogenesis of canine pyometra. J Am Vet Med Assoc 167:1006-1010, 1975.
70.Schwebke JR, Richey CM, Weiss HL. Correlation of behaviors with microbiologic changes in vaginal flora. J Infect Dis 180:1632-1636, 1999.
71.Shimizu M, Tsutsui T, Kawakami E, Hori T, Fujita M, Orima H, Ogasa A. Effect of chlormadinone acetate pellet implantation on the volume of prostate, peripheral blood levels of sex hormones and semen quality in the dog. J Vet Med Sci 57:395-399, 1995.
72.Sohail M. A simple and rapid method for preparing genomic DNA from Gram-Positive bacteria. Mol Biotechnol 10:191-193, 1998.
73.Stackbrandt E, Goebel BM. A place for DNA-DNA reassociation and 16S rRNA sequence analysis in the present species definition in bacteriology. Int J Syst Bacteriol 44:846-849, 1994.
74.Stager CE, Davis JR. Automated systems for identification of microorganisms. Clin Microbiol Rev 5:302-327, 1992.
75.Steel KJ. Microbial identification. J Gen Microbiol 40:143-148, 1965.
76.Stellrecht KA, Woron AM, Mishrik NG, Venezia RA. Comparison of multiplex PCR assay with culture for detection of genital mycoplasmas. J Clin Microbiol 42:1528-1533, 2004.
77.Ström Holst B, Bergström A, Lagerstedt AS, Karlstam E, Englund L, Båverud V. Characterization of the bacterial population of the genital tract of adult cats. Am J Vet Res 64:963-968, 2003.
78.Tang YW, Ellis NM, Hopkins MK, Smith DH, Dodge DE, Persing DH. Comparison of phenotypic and genotypic techniques for identification of unusual aerobic pathogenic Gram-Negative bacilli. J Clin Microbiol 36:3674-3679, 1998.
79.Teankum K, Pospischil A, Janett F, Brugnera E, Hoelzle LE, Hoelzle K, Weilenmann R, Zimmermann DR, Gerber A, Polkinghorne A, Borel N. Prevalence of chlamydiae in semen and genital tracts of bulls, rams and bucks. Theriogenology 67:303-310, 2007.
80.Teankum K, Pospischil A, Janett F, Bürgi E, Brugnera E, Hoelzle K, Polkinghorne A, Weilenmann R, Zimmermann DR, Borel N.Detection of chlamydiae in boar semen and genital tracts. Vet Microbiol 116:149-157, 2006.
81.Toke O. Antimicrobial peptides: new candidates in the fight against bacterial infections. Biopolymers 80: 717-735, 2005.
82.Tossi A. Host defense peptides: roles and applications. Curr Protein Pept Sci 6:1-3, 2005.
83.Valore EV, Park CH, Quayle AJ, Wiles KR, McCray PB Jr. Ganz T. Human β-defensin 1, an antimicrobial peptide of urogenital tissues. J Clin Invest 101:1633-42, 1998.
84.van de Maele I, Claus A, Haesebrouck F, Daminet S. Leptospirosis in dogs: a review with emphasis on clinical aspects. Vet Rec 163:409-413, 2008.
85.Van Duijkeren E. Significance of the vaginal bacterial flora in the bitch: A review. Vet Res 131:367-369, 1992.
86.Verstegen J, Dhaliwal G, Verstegen-Onclin K. Mucometra, cystic endometrial hyperplasia, and pyometra in the bitch: advances in treatment and assessment of future reproductive success. Theriogenology 70:364-374, 2008.
87.Wanke MM. Canine brucellosis. Anim Reprod Sci 82–83:195–207, 2004.
88.Watts JR, Wright PJ, Whithear KC. Uterine, cervical and vaginal microflora of the normal bitch throughout the reproductive cycle. J Small Anim Pract 37:54-60, 1996.
89.Weiss GN, Sanders M, Westbrook KC. The distribution and density of Langerhans cells in the human prepuce: site of a diminished immune response? Isr J Med Sci 29:42-43, 1993.
90.Wheaton LG, Johnson AL, Parker AJ, Kneller SK. Results and complications of surgical treatment of pyometra: a review of 80 cases. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 25:563-568, 1989.
91.Wheeler DL, Barrett T, Benson DA, Bryant SH, Canese K, Chetvernin V, Church DM, DiCuccio M, Edgar R, Federhen S, Geer LY, Helmberg W, Kapustin Y, Kenton DL, Khovayko O, Lipman DJ, Madden TL, Maglott DR, Ostell J, Pruitt KD, Schuler GD, Schriml LM, Sequeira E, Sherry ST, Sirotkin K, Souvorov A, Starchenko G, Suzek TO, Tatusov R, Tatusova TA, Wagner L, Yaschenko E. Database resources of the national center for biotechnology information. Nucleic Acids Res 34:173-180, 2006.
92.Woese CR. Bacterial evolution. Microbiol Rev 51:221-271, 1987.
93.Wright Joyce. Nature''s assurance that the uncircumcised glans penis will function smoothly is provided by smegma. Sexology 37:50-53, 1970.
94.Yang D, Chertov O, Bykovskaia SN. Chen Q. β-defenses: linking innate and adaptive immunity through dendritic and T cell CCR6. Science 286:525-528, 1999.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔