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研究生:黃筱萱
研究生(外文):Huang Hsiao-Husan
論文名稱:盧武鉉與李明博政府北韓政策之比較研究—以領導人認知途徑分析
論文名稱(外文):The Comparison of North Korea Policy between Administrations of Roh Moo-hyun and Lee Myung-bak –from Leadership Cognitive Approach Perspective
指導教授:蔡明彥蔡明彥引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ming-Yen Tsai
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:國際政治研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:政治學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:220
中文關鍵詞:盧武鉉李明博認知途徑北韓政策
外文關鍵詞:Roh Moo-hyunLee Myung-bakCognitive approachNorth Korea Policy
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:6
  • 點閱點閱:329
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  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
摘要
朝鮮半島在東北亞、甚至於亞太地區都具有極重要的戰略地位,截至目前為止,尤其是近半年以來,朝鮮半島仍因北韓擁有核子武器、且積極對外展現武力,而使得這個地區充滿緊張氣氛。而周邊國家也都感受到沉重的安全壓力。
由於南韓前任與現任政府在北韓政策有極大的差異,政策也出現不同的取向。本文假定兩任政府北韓政策的差異,可能跟領導人個人風格的不同相關,所以並試圖從這個方向進行分析。首先,筆者以赫曼(Margaret G. Hermann)所提出的領導人認知途徑所提出的三項變數:「對政治限制的反應為何」、「對資訊的接收程度高低」與「決策時的行為動機為何」,將盧武鉉與李明博的領導風格進行分析歸納。其次,著重分析兩位領導人的領導風格如何左右其北韓政策的制訂,並對其北韓政策產生何種影響,並比較政策內容的差異之處為何。最後,筆者認為兩位領導人的北韓政策內容與執行程度將會影響到南韓與北韓、美國、日本、中國與俄羅斯之間的關係,並對區域安全造成的影響。
本文發現,利用此途徑進行研究時,可知領導人的認知對於決策產出具有相當的影響力,故以盧武鉉與李明博的個人認知對該政府的北韓政策進行分析時,可獲得相當高的解釋力。
Abstract
In Northeast Asia and Asian Pacific region, the Korean Peninsula possesses the crucial strategic position. Especially during recent six months, the tension, igitated by Pyongyang’s possession of nuclear weapon and the aggressive demonstration of force, has pervaded the Peninsula, and imposed the security pressure on the neighboring nations as well.
According to the vast differences in North Korea policy between South Korea’s previous and current administrations, the orientation of the policy varies. This thesis, therefore, assumes the differences in policy made by two administrations would be related to the style of the leadership. First, the three variables, which are the Reaction to Political constraints, the Openness to Information, and the Motivation for Action, would be taken from leadership cognitive approach perspective provided by Margaret G. Hermann to analyze and generalize the leadership style of Roh Moo-hyun and Lee Myung-bak. Second, the analysis would be focused on the influences of the leadership style of two leaders on the formulation and the implementation of the North Korea policy, and compare the content of the policy. Finally, the thesis concludes with the finding that the North Korea policy and the degree of the implementation of two leaders would affect the relation between South Korea and Pyongyang, the U.S.A., Japan, China, and Russia as well as the impact on the security of the region.
The decisively influence on the formulation of the policy by the cognition of the leadership is found by fllowing the approach; therefore, the analysis acquires the highly explanation on the research of the North Korea policy affected by the individual cognition of Roh Moo-hyun and Lee Myung-bak.
目錄
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究動機與目的 1
壹、研究動機 1
貳、研究目的 3
第二節 理論途徑、研究架構與方法 5
壹、理論途徑 5
貳、研究架構 12
參、研究方法 13
第三節 文獻探討 16
壹、文獻回顧 16
貳、觀察角度不足之處 22
第四節 研究範圍與限制 23
壹、研究範圍 23
貳、研究限制 24
第五節 章節安排 26
第二章 盧武鉉領導風格之分析 29
第一節 盧武鉉的個人背景 29
第二節 對政治限制的回應方式 33
案例一:盧武鉉遭受國會兩大黨要求彈劾 33
案例二:韓日獨(竹)島領土爭議 37
案例三:南韓國內反美情緒的高漲 41
第三節 對資訊的接收程度 45
案例一:盧武鉉堅持出兵參加伊拉克戰爭(Iraq War) 45
案例二:韓美戰時作戰指揮權問題 49
第四節 領導人形成決策的行為動機 55
案例一:追查光州事件成立真相調查委員會 56
案例二:追求國防自主 60
第五節 盧武鉉所屬的領導類型 64
壹、盧武鉉的領導人特質 64
貳、盧武鉉的領導人類型 67
第三章 李明博領導風格之分析 69
第一節 李明博的個人背景 69
第二節 對政治限制的回應方式 73
案例一:致力促成跨國北韓難民收容所 73
案例三:南韓加入反擴散安全倡議 82
第三節 對資訊的接收程度 88
案例一:興建國內大運河(Grand Canal)遭致強烈反彈 88
案例二:韓美牛肉進口風波 92
第四節 領導人形成決策的行為動機 98
案例一:清溪川整治與復元工程 98
案例二:李明博的「747」經濟政策 101
第五節 李明博所屬的領導類型 106
壹、李明博的領導人特質 106
貳、李明博的領導人類型 109
第四章 以領導風格分析盧武鉉與李明博之北韓政策 111
第一節 盧武鉉與李明博風格類型的差異 111
壹、對政治限制的回應方式 111
貳、對資訊的接收程度 112
参、領導人形成決策的行為動機 113
肆、領導人的類型 113
第二節 盧武鉉的北韓政策 115
壹、和平與繁榮政策(Peace and Prosperity Policy) 116
貳、和平與繁榮政策的三階段戰略步驟 118
参、和平與繁榮政策的實際運作情形 120
肆、均衡性外交 130
第三節 李明博的北韓政策 131
壹、共存與共榮政策(The Policy of Mutual Benefits and Common Prosperity) 132
貳、共存與共榮政策的主要觀點 136
参、共存與共榮政策的實際運作情形 139
肆、大國外交(穿梭外交) 147
第四節 盧武鉉與李明博北韓政策之比較 148
壹、盧武鉉與李明博之政策目標相近 148
貳、盧武鉉與李明博政策主張之異同 149
参、盧武鉉與李明博政策執行之異同 154
第五節 小結 160
第五章 盧武鉉與李明博北韓政策對區域安全之影響 161
第一節 盧武鉉北韓政策造成之影響 161
壹、南北韓關係 161
貳、韓美關係 163
参、韓日關係 165
肆、韓中關係 167
伍、韓俄關係 168
第二節 李明博北韓政策造成之影響 169
壹、南北韓關係 170
貳、韓美關係 172
参、韓日關係 173
肆、韓中關係 175
伍、韓俄關係 177
第三節 小結 178
第六章 結論 179
第一節 研究發現 179
壹、單一個案研究提供不同的解釋面向 179
貳、領導人心理認知對於決策產生的重要性 181
参、領導人認知適合用以解釋總統制國家領導人 182
肆、領導人認知途徑在理論運用上遭遇的侷限性 183
伍、被研究者的個人信念可能對領導人風格造成影響 185
第二節 未來發展 186
壹、北韓近期內的挑釁行為 186
貳、北韓內部的權力接班 188
參考書目 191
壹、中文部份 191
貳、西文部份 195
附錄 217
1993-2009年6月北韓核武發展大事紀 217

表目次
表1-1 赫曼領導人認知途徑中風格分類表 11
表2-1 2002年南韓第16屆總統候選人選舉結果 32
表2-2 獨(竹)島主權爭議歷史 37
表2-3 南韓爭取民主化歷程 57
表3-1 南韓選民期待南韓新總統可創造的未來 72
表3-2 2007年南韓第17屆總統候選人選舉結果 73
表3-3 南韓歷年進口美國牛肉數量與與花費金額 93
表3-4 南韓2003年與2008年美國牛肉進口比例 94
表3-5 李明博「747方案」執行經濟政策的實際作法 104
表4-1 盧武鉉與李明博的領導風格變數比較表 114
表4-2 京義線復原歷程 121
表4-3 開城工業區的建設歷程 123
表4-4 歷年前往金剛山旅遊區的遊客人數 126
表4-5 南韓2003年與2007年提供北韓的援助數量 128
表4-6 李明博政府提出要求北韓放棄核武的三階段構想 139
表4-7 盧武鉉與李明博北韓政策主張之比較 154
表4-8 盧武鉉與李明博北韓政策執行之比較 159

圖目次
圖1-1 研究架構圖 13
圖2-1 獨(竹)島相對位置圖 38
圖2-2 大浦洞飛彈2號試射地點 50
圖2-3 南韓歷年國防預算 53
圖2-4 南韓歷年國防預算佔GDP比例 54
圖2-5 南韓歷年直接負擔駐韓美軍費用比例 62
圖3-1 歷年逃北者的人數統計 75
圖3-2 光明星2 號發射的行徑示意圖 85
圖3-3 京釜運河路線規劃圖 89
圖3-4 外商直接投資比例 102
圖3-5 南韓歷年經濟成長率 103
圖4-1 開城工業區位置圖 122
圖4-2 開城工業區的人員交流數 125
圖4-3 北韓自1998-2007年的糧食生產與需求 127
圖4-4 李明博所提出的北韓政策展望 135
圖4-5 北韓境內糧食不安全情形分佈 143
圖4-6 盧武鉉與李明博的北韓政策目標 149
參考書目
壹、中文部份
一、書籍
W. Lawrence Neuman著,王佳煌、潘中道等譯。2002年。《當代社會研究法》。台北:學富文化事業有限公司。
王傳劍。2003年。《雙重規制—冷戰後美國的朝鮮半島政策》。北京:世界知識出版社。
朴成祚著、朱立熙譯。2004年。《南北韓,統一必亡》。台北:允晨文化事業股份有限公司。
朱立熙。2007年。《國家暴力與過去清算—從韓國518看台灣228》。台北:允晨文化出版社。
朱松柏著、林秋山主編。2004年。《南北韓的關係與統一》。台北:台灣商務印書館。
李明。1998年。《南北韓政經發展與東北亞安全》。台中:五南圖書出版有限公司。
李明博著、彭玲林譯。2007年。《總經理治國》。台北:商周出版城邦文化事業股份有限公司。
─────著、薛舟、徐麗紅譯。2006年。《1%的可能:韓國首爾—李明博的
夢想奇蹟》。台北:達觀出版事業股份有限公司。
汪傳民。2007年。《聯盟理論與美國的聯盟戰略—以美日、美韓聯盟研究為
例》。北京:世界知識出版社。
林秋山。1998年。《韓國綜論—南北韓關係篇》。台北:水牛圖書出版事業
有限公司。
范永紅。2007年。《平民總統盧武鉉》。台北:東方出版社。
胡春惠、宋成有主編。2003年。《東北亞發展的回顧與展望—國際學術討論
會論文集》。台北:正中書局股份有限公司。
俞寬賜。2005年。《國際法新論》。台北:啓英文化事業有限公司。
倪炎元。1995年。《東亞威權政體之轉型-比較台灣與南韓的民主化程。台北:月旦出版社股份有限公司。
高連福。2002年。《東北亞國家對外戰略》。北京:社會科學文獻出版社。
陳福成。2007年。《國家生存論壇》。台北:時英出版社。
陳峰君、王傳劍。2002年。《亞太大國與朝鮮半島》。北京:北京大學出版社。
森山茂德著、吳明上譯。2005年。《韓國現代政治》。台北:五南圖書出版股份有限公司。
葉至誠、葉立誠。2000年。《研究方法與論文寫作》。台北:商鼎文化出版社。
張少文。2009年。《韓國外交與對外關係》。台灣:商務印書館。
詹姆斯.多爾蒂、小羅伯特(James E. Dougnerty).普法爾滋格拉夫(Robert L.
Pfaltzgraff)著,閻學通、陳寒溪著。2002年。《爭辯中的國際關係理論》。北京:世界知識出版社。
盧武鉉。2003年。《CEO總統》。台北:匡邦文化事業有限公司。
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蔣云根。2002年。《政治人的心理世界》。上海:學林出版社。
閻學通、金德湘編。2005年。《東亞和平與安全》。北京:時事出版社。

二、論文
朱松柏。2000年。〈北韓的飛彈外交與亞太安全〉。《問題與研究》,第39卷第2期,頁1-12。
─────。2001年。〈兩岸交流與兩韓關係之比較〉。《問題與研究》,第40卷第6期,頁1-12。
─────。2000年。〈兩韓和解與東北亞新秩序〉。《問題與研究》,第39卷第10期,頁45-57。
─────。2001年。〈南北韓高峰會的意義與前景〉。《問題與研究》,第40卷第1期,頁1-13。
─────。2002年。〈現階段南北韓統一政策之比較〉。《問題與研究》,第41卷第5期,頁1-11。
朱宰佑。2008年。〈對韓國政治與外交的評價與展望〉。《中國國際戰略評論》,第1期,頁1-13。
冷紅、袁青。2007年。〈韓國首爾清溪川復興改造〉,《國際城市規劃》,第22卷第4期,頁43-47。
貝一明著、王平譯。2006年。〈均衡之道—韓國總統盧武鉉對韓國政治和東北亞前景的展望(上)〉。《當代韓國》,春季號,頁9-13。
─────。2006年。〈均衡之道—韓國總統盧武鉉對韓國政治和東北亞前景的展望(下)〉。《當代韓國》,春季號,頁3-8。
李明。2007年。〈近期朝鮮半島情勢觀察〉。《海峽評論》,第202期,頁
16-24。
─────。2007年。〈南北韓高峰會的發展與意義〉。《戰略安全研析》,第30期,頁27-30。
─────。2008年。〈南韓總統大選結果初探〉。《戰略安全研析》,第33期,頁8-14。
李福興、黃延春、滕玉梅。2003年。〈盧武鉉執政後國內外政策發展走向〉。《當代韓國》,春夏合刊,頁7-9。
金啟恩、李在光。2005年。〈戰後韓國人權與政治事件之平反-光州民主化
運動個案分析〉。《國家發展研究》,第5卷第1期,頁67-108。
趙匡權。2005年。〈回顧清溪川復原的過程(上)〉。《當代韓國》,秋季號,頁44-48。
─────。2005年。〈回顧清溪川復原的過程(下)〉。《當代韓國》,冬季號,頁45-50。
鄭東泳。2005年。〈和平繁榮的東北亞時代與韓半島〉。《當代韓國》,春季號,頁11-16。
─────。2004年。〈南韓民主化與國家安全〉。《台灣民主季刊》,第1卷第3期,頁42-45。
魏志江,〈論韓國盧武鉉的「和平繁榮」政策及其對東北亞戰略格局的影響〉,《當代韓國》,秋季號,民國95年,頁22-26。

¬三、網路資料來源
《自由電子報》。http://www.libertytimes.com.tw/index.htm
《東亞日報》。http://china.donga.com/big/
《朝鮮日報》。http://chinese.chosun.com/big5/
《新華社》。http://www.xinhua.org/
《環球時報》。http://www1.peopledaily.com.cn/BIG5/paper68/
《聯合報》。http://udn.com/NEWS/main.html

貳、西文部份
一、書籍
Bedeski, Robert E. The Transformation of South Korea. London& New York:
Routledge, 1994.
Bush, Richard C., Sharon Yanagi, Kevin Scott. Brookings Northeast Asia Survey 2003-2004. Washington: The Brookings Institution, 2004.
Cha, Victor D., David C. Kang. Nuclear North Korea. New York: Columbia University Press, 2003.
Chen, Hongtu, Henry Chung, Teddy Chen, Tom Lansford…etc. Brief Report: The Emotional Distress in a Community After the Terrorist Attack on the World Trade Center. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2004.
Davino Michael F.. Should the U.S Continue to Maintain Force in Korea? U.S. Army War College: Carlise Barracks, Pennsylvania, 2004.
Eberstadt, Nicholas, Richard J. Ellings. Korea’s Future and the Great Powers. London: University of Washington Press, 2003.
Ginsburg, Tom, Legal Reform in Korea. London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2004.
Gordon, Flake L., Park Ro-byug, Understanding New Political Realities in Seoul —The Divided Nation. Washington D.C: The Maureen and Mike Mansfield Foundation, 2008.
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Lee, Man-woo, Mansbach, Richard W. The Changing Order in Northeast Asia and the Korean Peninsula. Seoul: Kyungnam University, 1993.
Lee, Myung-bak. Korea-US Alliance: Time To Take It The Next Level. Washington, DC.: The Brookings Institution, 2006.
Lee Sook-jong, The Rise of Korean Youth as a Political Force: Implication for the U.S-Korea Alliance. Washington, DC.: The Brooking Institution, 2004.
Levin, Norman D., Yong-Sup Han. The South Korean Debate over Policies Toward North Korea. Santa Monica, CA :RAND, 2002.
Hongtu, Chen, Henry Chung, Teddy Chen, Tom Lansford…etc. Brief Report: The Emotional Distress in a Community After the Terrorist Attack on the World Trade Center. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2004.
MacDonald, Donald S. The Koreans:Contemporary Politics and Society. The Unites State: Westview Press, 1990.
Marcus Foth, Handbook of Research on Urban Informatics: The Practice and Promise of the Real-time City. PA: Information Science Reference, IGI Global, 2008.
McCormack, Gavan. Target North Korea—Pushing North Korea to the Brink of Nuclear Catastrophe. New York: Nation Books, 2004.
Mitchell, Derek J. ed. Strategy and Sentiment: South Korean Views of the United States and the U.S.-ROK Alliance. Washington, D.C.: CSIS, 2004.
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O’Hanlon, Michael. E. Crisis On The Korean Peninsula, McGraw-Hill: The Brookings Institution, 2003.
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Pauly, Robert J., Tom Lansford, Strategic Preemption. England: Ashgate, 2004.
Schelling, Thomas C. The Strategic of Conflict. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2005.
Shin, Ki-nam. Opening A New Era In Korea-U.S. Alliance. Washington, D.C: The Center for Strategic and International Studies& The Korea Economic Institute, 2004.
Smith, Hazel, Chris Rhodes, Diana Prichard, Kevin Magill. North Korea—in the New World Order. Great Britain: Macmillan Press, 1996.
Sung Chul-yang. The North and South Korean Political System. Seoul: Seoul Press, 1994.
The Ministry of National Defense, 2003 Participatory Government Defense Policy. Seoul: The Ministry of National Defense Republic of Korea, 2004.
The Ministry of National Defense. Defense White Paper, 2004. Seoul: The Ministry of National Defense, 2004.

二、論文
Aidan Foster-Carter. “North Korea-South Korea Relation: Lee Outflanked.” Comparative Connections 10, no.2 (July 2008): 1-15.
─────. “North Korea-South Korea Relation: No Turning Back.” Comparative Connections 2, no.3 (October 2002): 1-12.
─────. “North Korea-South Korea Relation: Still Stalemated.” Comparative Connections 10, no.3 (October 2008):1-17.
Abramowitz, Morton, Stephen Bosworth. “Adjusting to the New Asia.” Foreign Affairs 82, no.4 (July-August 2003): 119-131.
Ahn Jong-cheol. “The Significance of Setting of the Past of the December 12 Coups and the May 18 Gwangju Uprising.” Korea Journal 42, no.3 (Autumn 2002): 112-138
Auslin, Michael. “A Third Neighbor Strategy for Asia.” American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, no.3 (October 2008): 1-6.
Bechtol, Jr,Bruce E. “Civil-Military Relations in the Republic of Korea:
Background and Implication.” Korea Oberver 36, no.4 (Winter 2005): 603-630.
Bleiker, Roland. “A Rogue Is a Rogue Is a Rogue: US Foreign Policy and the Korean Nuclear Crisis.” International Affairs 79, no.4 (July 2003): 719-737.
Bong, Yongsik. “Yongmi: Pragmatic Anti-Americanism in South Korea.” Brown Journal of World Affairs 5, no.2 (Winter/Spring 2004): 153-165.
Campbell, Kurt M., Mitchell B. Reiss. “Korean Changes Asian Challenges and the U.S Role.” The International Institute for Strategic Studies 43, no.1 (Spring 2001): 53-69.
Carter, Aidan Foster. “North Korea-South Korea Relations: Summit Success?” Comparative Connections 9, no.3 (October 2007): 93-101.
─────.“North Korea-South Korea Relations: A Nuclear Rubicon or No Change?” Comparative Connections 8, no.4 (January 2007): 93-109.
─────.“North Korea-South Korea Relations: Squally but Steady.” Comparative Connections 8, no.1 (April 2006): 95-107.
Cha, Victor D. “America and South Korea: The Ambivalent Alliance?” Current History 102, no.665 (September 2003): 279-285.
─────. “Japan-Korea Relation: ‘Containment’Lite.” Comparative Connections 5, no.2 (July 2003): 1-10.
─────. “Japan-Korea Relation: Contemplating Sanctions.” Comparative Connections 5, no.1 (April 2003): 1-8.
─────. “Japan-Korea Relation: The Sweet, the Sour and the Bittersweet.” Comparative Connections 4, no.4 (January 2003): 1-8.
─────. “Korea’s Place in the Axis.” Foreign Affairs 81, no.3 (May& June 2002): 79-92.
Chae, Hae-sook, Steven Kim. “Conservations and Progressives in South Korea.” The Washington Quarterly 31, no.4 (Autumn 2008): 77-95.
Choi Sung-jae. “The Politics of Dokdo Issue.” Journal of East Asia Studies 5, no.3 (September-October 2005): 465-494.
Chung In-young. “Korea-U.S. Strategic Alliance and Balance of National Interests.” Korea Focus 16, no.2 (Summer 2008): 19-21.
Chung Jin-young. “Future of the Seoul-Beiling ‘Strategic Cooperative Partnership.” Korea Focus 16, no.2 (Summer 2008): 21-23.
Dong Yong-sueng. “The North Korea of the Lee Administration and a prognosis of Likely Development. ” Korea and World Affairs 32, no.2 (Summer 2008): 162-179.
Drennan, William M., James J. Przystup. “South Korea Must Play Bigger Role
In Defense.” Pacific Forum CSIS, no.45 (November 2003): 1-172.
Grzelczyk, Virginie. “Carrots and Stick: The Construction of an American Foreign Policy toard North Korea.” Korea Oberver 39, no.4 (Winter 2008):539-570.
Gross, Donald G., Hannah Oh. “U.S-Korea Relation: North Korea Disables Facilities, But Resists Declaration.” Comparatives Connections 9, no.4 (January 2008):1-10.
Gu Guoliang. “Redefine Cooperative Security, Not Preemption.” The Washington Quarterly 26, no.2 (Spring 2003): 135-145.
Gurtov, Mel. “South Korea''s Foreign Policy and Future Security: Implications of the Nuclear Standoff.” Pacific Affairs 69, no.4 (Spring 1996): 8-31.
Flake, Gordon L. “The Future of Regional Security Cooperation, and Korea’s Role.” East Asia 21, no.2 (Summer 2004): 60-68.
Foley, James A. “‘Sunshine’ or Showers for Korea’s Divided Families,” World Affairs 165, no.4 (Spring 2003): 179-184.
Haggard, Stephan, Marcus Noland, “A Security and Peace Mechanism for Northeast Asia: The Economic Dimension,” Peterson Institute for International Economics, no.PB08-4 (April 2008): 1-10.
Hermann, Margaret G. “Assessing Leadership Style: A Trait Analysis.” Social Science Automation (November 1999): 7-12.
─────. Thomas Preston, Baghat Korany, Timothy M.Shaw. “Who Leads Matters: The Effect of Powerful Individuals.” International Studies Review 3, no.2, (Summer 2001): 89-90.
Hwang, Balbina Y. “Democracy Evolves in South Korea.” Far Eastern
Economic Review 169, no.3 (July/August2006): 33-36.
─────. “The Impeachment of President Roh: What’s Next for South Korea?,” The Heritage Foundation WebMemo, no.446 (March 2004): 1-2
Hughes, Christopher W., Ellis S. Kraussg “Japan’s New Security Agenda.” Survival 49, no.2 (June 2007): 157-176.
Hui, Zhing. “Revisiting North Korea’s Nuclear Test.” China Security 3, no.3 (Summer 2007): 1-12.
Im Hyug-baeg, “Faltering Democratic Consolidation in South Korea: Democracy at the end of the ‘Three Kims’ Era,” Democratization 11, no.5 (December 2004): 179-198.
Joo, Jae-woo. “Korea’s New President Facing New Challenges: ‘korea 747’, ‘Pragmatism’, ‘Reciprocity’, and ‘New Diplomacy’” EAI Background Brief, no.376 (March 2009): 1-3.
Kang, C.S. Eliot. “Restructuring the US-South Korea Alliance to Deal with the Second Korean Nuclear Crisis” Australian Journal of International Affairs 57, no.2 (July 2003): 309-324.
Kang, David, “Japan-Korea Relation: Seirei ketsuzetsu (Cold Politics, Warm Economics).” Comparative Connections 8, no.1 (April 2006): 1-10.
─────. “Japan-Korea Relation: Treading Water, Little progress.” Comparative Connections 9, no.2 (July 2007): 1-10.
─────, Lee Ji-young. “Japan-Korea Relation: Lost in the Six-Party Talks.” Comparative Connections 9, no.4 (January 2008):1-9.
Kang, David, Lee Ji-young. “Japan-Korea Relation: Tentative Improvement through Pragmatism.” Comparative Connections 10, no.2 (July 2008):1-8.
Katzenstein, Peter J., Nobuo Okawara. “Japan, Asian-Pacific Security, and the Case for Analytical Eclecticism” International Security 26, no.3 (Winter 2001-2002):153-185.
Kim, Chae-han. “Who in South Korea Trust North Korea and Who Trust the United State.” The Korean Journal of Defense Analysis 14, no.2 (Fall 2002): 125-140.
Kim Choong-nam, “The Sunshine Policy and Its Impact on South Korea''s Relations with Major Powers.” Korea Oberver 35, no.4 (Winter 2004): 581-617.
Kim, Dae-Jung. “Sunshine Policy Aimed at Realizing Peaceful Coexistence.” Korea Observer 33, no.1 (Spring 2002): 179-181.
Kim, Heung-kyu. “The New Administration’s China Policy: Security and Diplomacy.” Korea Focus 16, no.2 (Summer 2008): 114-122.
Kim Ho-jin. “Unification Leadership of South Korea President.” Korea Focus 16, no.3 (Autumn 2008): 110-120.
Kim Kyoung-soo. “Lee Myung-bak Government Paradigm for foreign and Security Policy.” Korea and World Affairs 32, no.1 (Spring 2008): 5-15.
Kim Kyur-yoon. “Mutual Co-prosperity of the Two Koreas-Plans and Tasks.” Korea and World Affairs 32, no.4 (Winter 2008): 421-431.
Kim Tae-hyun. “South Korea Perspective on the North Korea Nuclear Question.” Mershon International Studies Review Vol.40, No.2 (October 1996): 258.
Kim Woo-sang, Kim Tae-hyo. “A Candle in the Wind: Korean Perception of R.O.K-U.S. Security Relations.” The Korean Journal of Defense Analysis 16, no.1 (Spring 2004): 102-115.
Kim Young-khee, Han Sun. “The Gwangju People’s Uprising and the Construction of Collective Identity: A Study on the Fighter’s Bulltein,” New Political Science 25, no.2 (June 2003): 207-233.
Klingner, Bruce. “New South Korean President Brings Conservative Policy Change.” The Heritage Foundation Bachgrounder, no.2120 (April 2008): 5
─────. “South Korea’s Mercurial Political Landscape.” The Heritage Foundation WebMemo no.2608 (September 2007): 2-3.
─────, Anthony B. Kim. “Economic Lethargy: South Korea Needs a Second Wave of Reforms.” The Heritage Foundation Bachgrounder, no.2097 (December 2007): 1.
Kwak, Tae-hwan. “The Korea Peace Process: Problems and Prospects after the
Summit.” World Affairs 165, no.2 (Fall 2002): 79-90.
Lankov, Andrei. “North Korea Refugees in Northeast China.” Asia Survey 44, no.6 (November-December, 2004): 856-873.
Lee, Chung-min. “A View from Asia: The North Korean Missile Threat and Missile Defense in the Context of South Korea''s Changing National Security Debate.” Comparative Strategy 24, no.3 (July 2005): 253-275.
─────. “North Korea Missiles: Strategic Implication and Policy Response.” The Pacific Review 14, no.1 (March 2001): 85-120.
─────. “Reassessing the ROK-US Alliance: Transformation Challenges and the Consequences of South Korea''s Choices.” Australian Journal of International Affairs 57, no.2 (July 2003): 281-307.
─────. “Rethinking Future Paths on the Korean Peninsula.” The Pacific Review 17, no.2 (June 2004): 249-270.
Lee, Hong-yung. “South Korea in 2003: A Question of Leadership?” Asian Survey 44, no.1 (January- February 2004): 130-138.
Lee, Tai-wei. “Japan-North Korea Relations: Selected Issues” EAI Background Brief , no.408 (October 2008): 1-3.
Lee, Sook-jong. “Generational Change in South Korea: Implication for the U.S-ROK Alliance.” Center for Strategic& International Studies, (June 2004): 43-49.
Manosevitz, Jason U. “Japan and South Korea: Security Relations Reach Adolescence.” Asia Survey 43, no.5 (September-October 2003): 801-825.
Midford, Paul. “Challenging the Democratic Peace? Historical Memory and the Security Relationship between Japan and South Korea.” Pacific Focus 23, no.2 (July 2008): 189-211.
Mitchell, Derek J. “A Blueprint for U.S. Policy toward a Unified Korea.” The Washington Quarterly 26, no.1 (2002-2003): 127-134.
Mo, Jongryn. “What Does South Korea Want.” Policy Review, no.142 (April/May 2007): 43-56.
Moon, Katharine. “South Korea-U.S. Relations.” Asian Perspective 28, no.4 (2004): 39-61.
Na Kahn-chae. “A New Perspective on the Gwangju People’s Resistance
Struggle: 1980-1997.” New Political Science 23, no.4 (Autumn 2002): 477-491.
Natsios, Andrew S., Kelly W. Doley. “The Coming Food Coups.” The Washington Quarterly 32, no.1 (January 2009): 7-25.
Noland, Marcus. “The Future of North Korea is South Korea.” World Economics 8, no.3 (2007): 27-52.
O’Hanlon, Michael, Mike Mochizuki. “Toward a Grand Bargain with North Korea.” The Washington Quarterly 26, no.4 (Autumn 2003): 7-18.
O''Neil, Andrew. “The 2000 Inter-Korean Summit: the Road to Reconciliation?” Australian Journal of International Affairs 55, no.1 (April 2001): 55-63.
Ong, Russell. “China, US and the North Korean issue.” Asia-Pacific Review 13, no.1 (May 2006): 118-135.
Park Cheol-hee. “A Hopeful Overture to Korea-Japan Relations.” Korea Focus 16, no.2 (Summer 2008): 23-25.
─────. “Cooperation Coupled with Conflicit: Korea-Japan Relations in the Post-Cold War Era,” Asia-Pacific 15, no.2 (November 2008): 13-35.
Park Hyeong-jung. “Lee Administration’s North Korea Policy in the Context of Northeast Asian International Relations.” Korea and World Affairs 32, no.1 (Spring 2008): 16-36.
Park Kun-young. “The Evolution of Anti-Americanism in Korea: Policy Implication for the United State.” Korea Journal 47, no.4 (Winter 2007): 177-195.
Reiss, Mitchell B. “Drifting apart? The U.S-ROK Alliance at Risk.” Korean Journal of Defense Analysis 21, no.1 (2009): 11-31.
Scalapino, Robert A. “Asia-Pacific Security Issues and U.S Policy.” America Foreign Policy Interests, no.26 (2004): 297-308.
Schoff James L., Choi Hyun-jun. “Reform Locallym, Act Globally? Crisis Management Trend in Korea ” Academic Paper Series 3, no.3 (April 2008): 1-11.
Scott Snyder. “China-Korea Relation: Lee Myung-bak Era: Mixed Picture for China Relations.” Comparative Connections 10, no.1 (April 2008):1-9.
─────. “China-Korea Relation: Middle Kingdom Diplomacy and the North Korean Nuclear Crisis.”Comparative Connections 5, no.3 (October 2003): 1-7.
─────. “China-Korea Relation: Establishing a‘Stategic Cooperative Partnership’.” Comparative Connections 10, no.2 (July 2008):1-10.
─────. “Responses to North Korea’s Nuclear Test: Capitualation or Collective Action?.” The Washington Quarterly 30, no.4 (Autumn 2007): 33-43.
─────. “South Korea’s Squeeze Play.” The Washington Quarterly 30, no.4 (Autumn 2005): 9-15.
Shin Hang-eui. “Correlates of the 2002 Presidental Election in South Korea: Regional, the Generation Gap, Anti-Americanism, and the North Korea Factor.” East Asia 21, no.2 (Summer 2004): 18-38.
Snitwongse, Kusuma. “A New World Order in East Asia.” Asia-Pacific Review 10, no.2 (November 2003): 36-51.
Steinberg, David. “The Dilemmas of Korea-American Relations.” Korea Oberver 34, no.1 (Spring 2003): 187-197.
Tait, Richard. “Playing by the Rules in Korea: Lessons Learned in the North-South Economic Engagement.” Asian Survey 43, no.2 (March-April 2003): 305-328.
Tim Beal, Yoshiko Nozaki, Jian Yang, “Ghost of the Past: The Japanese History Textbook Controversy.” New Zealand Journal of Asian Studies 3, no.2 (December 2001): 177-188.
Woo Seong-ji, “South Korea Search for a Unification Strategy,” Orbis 47, no.3 (Summer 2003): 511-525.
Xiao, Ren. “Korea’s New Administration and Challenge for China’s Relations with the Korea Peninsula.” Asian Perspective 32, no.2 (2008):173-183.
Yim, Yong S., Jae K. Ryoo. “A Note From the Guest Editors: The New Dimensions Of Korea-U.S. Security Cooperation.” East Asia 101, no.1 (Summer 2003): 3-5.
Yoichi Funabashi, “Keeping up with Asia: American and the New Balance of Power,” Foreign Affairs 87, no.5 (Sep-Oct 2008): 1-6.
Yoo Yul-chan. “Anti-American, Pro-Chinese Sentiment in South Korea.” East Asia 22, no.1 (Spring 2005): 18-32.
─────. “North Korea’s Resurgence and China’s Rise: Implications for the Future of Northeast Asian Security.” East Asia, no.25 (July 2008): 293-316.
Young Whan-kihl. “Advancing Democracy for South Korea: Beyond Electoral Politics and Presidential Impeachment.” International Journal of Korean Studies 9, no.1 (Fall/Winter 2005): 51-70.
Zhing Hui. “Revisiting North Korea’s Nuclear Test.” China Security 3, no.3 (Summer 2007): 1-12.

三、官方文書
Cheong Wa Dae. Address by President Roh Moo-hyun at the 16th Inaugural Ceremony. February 25, 2003.
─────. Address on State Affairs Marking the Second Anniversary of His Inauguration. February 25, 2005.
─────. Address to the Nation by President Lee Myung-bak before Leaving on a Trip to the United States and Japan. April 13, 2008.
─────. Cheong Wa Dae Discusses Dokdo, NK Shooting and State Records. July 13, 2008.
─────. Government Decide to to Fully Join PSI Campaign. May 26, 2009.
─────. Government to Take Flexible Approach toward North Korea Based on Firm Principles . March 28, 2008.
─────. Keynote Speech by President Roh Moo-hyun at the International Conference on A New Vision and Strategy under Changing Leadership in Northeast Asia. February 27, 2004.
─────. Lee Asks for Deeper U.N Attention to N. Korean Defectors. April 17, 2008.
─────. Lee Proposes Permanent Diplomatic Channel with N. Korea. April 18, 2008.
─────. Lee Vows to Boost Regional Peace through Summit Diplomacy. April 13, 2008.
─────. Opening Statement by President Lee Myung-bak at a Special Press Conference. June 19, 2008.
─────. Presidet Lee Claims Success in Restoring Alliance with U.S. April 24, 2008.
─────. President Lee Confident of Enhanced Korea-U.S. Ties. April 11,
2008.
─────. President Lee Urges Closer Cooperation Between Korean and Chinese Firms. March 28, 2008.
─────. President Lee said, "U.S. did not Lower Bar on Nuclear Issue. April 19, 2008.
─────. President Roh Reports on Pyongyang Visit. October 4, 2007.
─────. Special Message by President Roh Moo-hyun on Korea-Japan Relations. April 25, 2006.
Japan Ministry of Defense. Order for Operation for the Self-Defense Force Concerning Measures to Destroy Ballistic Missiles or other Objects. March 27, 2009.
Lee Myung-bak. Let Us Create A New Legacy of Success. March 1, 2008
Parliament of Australia. South Korea and the East Asia Summit: Collective Identity Balance of Power or Domestic Politics. December 4, 2006.
Roh Moo-hyun. Address at the 53rd Commencement and Commissioning Ceremony of the Korea Air Force Academy. March 8, 2005.
─────. Remarks by President Roh Moo-hyun at a Banquet for Korean War Vertern. June 25, 2006
Senate Foreign Relations Committeea. Negotiation with North Korea. March 6, 2003.
The Constitutional Court of Korea. Impeachment of the President(Roh moo-hyun) Case(16-1 KCCR 609 2004 Hun-Na1, May 14, 2004). May 14, 2004
The Ministry of National Defense of Korea. 2003 Participatory Government Defense Policy. 2004.
─────. ROK-US Security Policy Consultation.
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. Japan-Republic of Korea Joint Declaration: A New Japan-Republic of Korea Partnership toward the Twenty-first Century. October 22, 1998.
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade of Korea. The Outcome of Korea-Japan Foreign Minister’s Meeting. February 10, 2009
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade of Korea. Statement by Minister on the Killing of ROK Nationals in Iraq. December 1, 2003
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. Press Conference. April 22, 2008.
The Office of President. President Roh Moo-hyun’s Message to the Nation on March 23. March 25, 2005
U.S. House of Representatives. Statement of General B. B. Bell. May, 2007

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