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研究生:沈周賢
研究生(外文):Jhou-Sian Shen
論文名稱:以高鐵振動特性量測車速之研究
論文名稱(外文):The Study of Speed Measurement by Vibration Characteristics of High Speed Rail
指導教授:倪 勝 火
指導教授(外文):Sheng-huoo Ni
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:土木工程學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:土木工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:89
中文關鍵詞:高速鐵路光閘模態頻率列車車速
外文關鍵詞:optical gratingmodal frequencyhigh-speed railtrain-speed
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量測列車速度通常以雷射測速器對準車輛量測,由於高速鐵路高架化,雷射測速器不易架設,若是以架設光閘來測量速度,其費用較高也不易施行,為了量測高鐵列車之車速,本研究之目的是使用高鐵列車在地表引致之振動特性來量測列車速度。
本研究於南部科學園區內,在分別距離高鐵橋墩12.5公尺與200公尺處,實際量測高鐵列車在行駛時所引致之地表振動值,藉由列車在不同車速下所引致的振動模態頻率來計算列車速度,再以架設於橋墩上光閘所量測之車速來做比對,以驗證此方法的準確性。
研究結果顯示由列車振動模態頻率所計算之車速與光閘實際量測的車速非常接近,但由第一模態頻率計算的車速會較不準確,從第六模態頻率開始所計算的車速會較接近光閘量測之車速,在不同車速下也有相同現象,整體來說誤差並不大,因此本文所建議量測高鐵車速之方法有一定的準確性。
The vehicle speed is usually measured with laser detectors by aiming at the vehicle. It is difficult to set up the laser detectors to measure the train speed for the elevated high-speed rail. Using optical grating to measure the train speed is expensive and difficult to operate. The purpose of this study is to use the vibration characteristics induced by high-speed rail on the surface to measure the train speed.
The study was performed in Southern Taiwan Science Park. The ground vibration induce by the moving trains was measured at the distances of 12.5 m and 200 m from the railway respectively. The train speed is evaluated by the vibration modal frequency caused by different train speed, and then it is compared with the speed measured by optical grating set up on bridge piers to verify the accuracy of this method.
The results show that the modal frequency for the train-speed evaluation is very closed to the train speed measured by the optical grating. The speed calculated by the first modal frequency is less accurate. The train speed calculated from the sixth modal frequency is very closed to the train speed measured by optical grating. The results are similar for the different train speeds.
目錄
中文摘要 ........................................I
Abstract ........................................II
誌謝 ...........................................III
目錄 ...........................................IV
表目錄 .........................................VII
圖目錄 .........................................VIII
符號說明 .......................................XI
第一章 緒論 .....................................1
1.1 前言 .......................................1
1.2 研究目的 ...................................1
1.3 研究方法 ...................................2
1.4 研究內容 ...................................2
第二章 文獻回顧 .................................3
2.1 引言 .......................................3
2.2 列車振動特性相關研究之文獻回顧 .............4
第三章 相關理論 .................................19
3.1 列車荷載特性方程式 .........................19
3.2 基本振動模態 ...............................20
3.4 基本波傳理論 ...............................22
3.4.1 實體波 ...................................23
3.4.2 表面波 ...................................24
3.5 訊號處理與分析 .............................26
3.5.1 訊號解析 .................................26
3.5.2 訊號的觀察角度 ...........................27
3.6 頻率域分析法 ...............................28
3.6.1. 快速傅利葉轉換(fast Fourier transform) ...29
3.6.2 FFT的運算速度 .............................29
3.6.3 FFT的理論基礎 .............................30
3.6.4 FFT的基本假設 .............................31
3.6.5 FFT的限制 .................................32
第四章 列車振動量測試驗 .........................40
4.1 前言 .......................................40
4.2 現況描述 ...................................40
4.3 各測線之位置分佈 ...........................41
4.4 量測試驗列車模型 ...........................41
4.5 量測儀器硬體、軟體規格 .....................41
4.5.1 三向度加速度計 ...........................42
4.5.2 動態數位訊號擷取分析器 ...................42
4.5.3光閘感知器 .................................43
4.5.4電腦 .......................................44
4.6 量測作業 ...................................44
第五章 量測結果分析與討論 .......................57
5.1 前言 .......................................57
5.2 分析方法 ...................................57
5.2.1 光閘車速計算方式 .........................57
5.2.2 基本振動模態計算車速方式 .................58
5.3 資料處理流程 ...............................58
5.4 車速比較結果 ...............................64
5.5 頻率域分析與車速誤差之探討 .................64
5.6 列車振動頻譜分析結果 .......................79
第六章 結論與建議 ...............................82
6.1 結論 .......................................82
6.2 建議 .......................................83
參考文獻 .......................................84
附錄A詳細光閘車速與模態頻譜圖 ...................A-1
附錄B三方向各模態車速驗證平均數據表 .............B-1
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