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研究生:蕭漢琳
研究生(外文):Han-lin Hsiao
論文名稱:產品生命週期開發期系統動態架構以自行車開發為例
論文名稱(外文):Product Development of Product Lifecycle Frame by System Dynamic
指導教授:劉說芳劉說芳引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shuo-fang Liu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:工業設計學系碩博士班
學門:設計學門
學類:產品設計學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:148
中文關鍵詞:產品開發產品生命週期質性研究系統動態
外文關鍵詞:Qualitative Researchprocuct developmentSystem Dynamicsproduct lifecycle
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摘 要
自行車產業為台灣具有代表性之重要產業,而產品開發更為企業存續之命脈,因此了解自行車之產品開發在實際環境中的運作更顯得重要。此研究以參與觀察法進入知名且經營近三十年之自行車廠,並以觀察者一如參與者的身份進行研究,在為期一年之研究過程中,收集相關資訊並加以觀察及記錄,並以系統動態方式說明企業之產品開發流程。研究中也邀集各單位之員工進行訪談,以更加了解自行車產品開發流程之各種觀點。並利用質性研究的方法分析訪談記錄及日誌記錄,分析出四大類,九五個因素。再以系統動態方法,用產品開發流程為骨幹,質性因素為枝葉,建構出A企業產品開發期之系統動態。
在研究的主要結果有:一、設計過程:雖然A企業具有自有品牌、設計代工、專業代工三種業務形態,但並沒有明確的工業設計流程。此一設計流程的缺乏,造成企業內部對於設計的認知不足,設計過程流於形式。二、防衛心態:因為害怕失敗成本對薪資之影響,造成了員工對於責任之重視,乃至於程序上之要求十分繁瑣。雖然責任得以釐清,但卻喪失了企業的彈性。三、企業核心意識:核心意識對於企業存續有很重要的功能,但是即使是以核心意識為基礎,員工是否認同此核心意識是根基在許多間接影響之因素上,企業不可不慎。
目前台灣的產業,需要的是設計,不是高科技。現實與理論上的距離,即使是三十年的企業,也會有書上常說的負面因素。身為一個設計師,在台灣長久以來建立起的代工環境下,絕不能只是設計產品,更要去了解產品開發的整體,成為一個對產品生命周期有廣泛影響力的人。希望藉由此研究,能夠讓更多人了解產品開發的真實相貌,並能讓現況有所改變。
Abstract
Bicycle industry is an industry with symbolic importance in Taiwan. Product development is the life of corporate survival, so understanding the product development cycle within the context of actual operation environment is of great importance. In this study, I have participated as an observer and entered a well-known enterprise that has been in the bicycle industry for nearly three decades. I used "observer as participant" method in this research in a period of 1 year, during which I have gathered relevant information, observations and records and compiled a description of the product development business processes by system dynamic method based on them. In this research, employees from various units are invited to conduct interviews in order to gain a better understanding of product development process cycle from different point of views. I have adopted "qualitative research methods" to analyze interview records and log records, and concluded a total of 95 factors from records, within four major categories. Then I used again the system dynamic approach, with product development processes as backbone and quality factor as branches to build the view of the enterprise product development system dynamic.

The major findings of the study are: First, the design process: Although enterprise A is equiped with its own brand business, design manufacturing business and professional foundry business, but there is no clear process of industrial design.This lack of a proper design process has resulted in an internal lack of recognition of design awareness, and in turns, the design process becomes a mere formality. Second, defensive mentality: In fear of their own salary cut caused by failed project, employees put strong emphasis on the discrimination of responsibilities. Although the responsibilities are able to be clarified this way, but it has resulted in a loss of flexibility inside the enterprise. Third, corporate core awareness: Corpoate core awareness acts as a very important factor in enterprises' continual survival. But whether or not the employees identify with such awareness is based on the impacts of many other indirect factors. Sensible corporates will definitely pay attention to such issue.

At present, what Taiwan's industries really need is design awareness, not just high-tech. Due to the gap between reality and theory, even inside corporate with three decades of experience, one still finds the existence of negative factors that are constantly mentioned in management books. As a designer, it is important when facing the long established manufacturing environment in Taiwan, one must not only design products, but also has the wish to understand the overall product development and become a designer with comprehensive influence in product lifecycle. It is the intention of the author that through this research, more people will understand the true nature of product development so that a good change can come about to the present status-quo.
目 錄
第一章 緒論…………………………………………………1
第一節 研究背景 ……………………………………………………………1
第二節 研究動機 ……………………………………………………………2
第三節 研究目的 ……………………………………………………………3
第四節 預期貢獻 ……………………………………………………………3
第五節 論文架構 ……………………………………………………………5
第二章 相關文獻探討………………………………………5
第一節 新產品開發 …………………………………………………………5
第二節 設計管理 ……………………………………………………………9
第三節 產品生命周期………………………………………………………12
第四節 產品生命週期管理…………………………………………………16
第五節 系統動態學…………………………………………………………21
第六節 質性研究…………………………………………………………26
第三章 研究方法 …………………………………………30
第一節 研究方式……………………………………………………………30
第二節 企業選擇……………………………………………………………31
第三節 研究程序……………………………………………………………32
第四節 分析架構……………………………………………………………33
第五節 質性研究……………………………………………………………33
第六節 研究進程……………………………………………………………35
第四章 研究發現與探討 …………………………………37
第一節 企業組織架構………………………………………………………37
第二節 產品開發流程…………………………………………………………39
第三節 A 企業產品開發期組織系統動態……………………………………51
第四節 員工訪談資料分析……………………………………………………53
第五節 日誌資料分析…………………………………………………………67
第六節 A 企業產品生命週期開發期系統動態………………………………73
第五章 結論及後續研究建議………………………………83
第一節 結論 …………………………………………………………………83
第二節 後續研究與建議 ……………………………………………………85
參考文獻 ………………………………………………………………………86
中文……………………………………………………………………………86
英文……………………………………………………………………………88
網路資料………………………………………………………………………92
附 錄……………………………………………………………93
附件一…………………………………………………………………………93
附件二…………………………………………………………………………101
附件三…………………………………………………………………………106
附件四…………………………………………………………………………110
附件五…………………………………………………………………………115
附件六…………………………………………………………………………119
附件七…………………………………………………………………………147


表目錄
表2.1.1 產品開發程序……………………………………………………………8
表2.2.1 設計管理層級、執行項目表……………………………………………10
表2.2.2 設計管理組織層級、職責表……………………………………………12
表2.3.1 產品生命週期各階段之環境情況、組織特性及行銷重點……………14
表2.3.2 產品生命週期各階段之行銷策略………………………………………15
表4.1.1 A企業組織職掌表…………………………………………………………37
表4.4.1 FD 外藉設計師訪談因素表……………………………………………54
表4.4.2 D2 設計人員訪談因素表………………………………………………57
表4.4.3 P3 美工人員訪談因素表………………………………………………59
表4.4.4 SA 業務人員訪談因素表………………………………………………61
表4.4.5 P5 成車人員訪談因素表………………………………………………63
表4.4.6 訪談因素整合表…………………………………………………………65
表4.4.7 訪談因素分類表…………………………………………………………66
表4.5.1 日誌觀察因素表…………………………………………………………67
表4.5.2 觀察因素整合表…………………………………………………………72
表4.5.3 觀察因素分類表…………………………………………………………72
表4.6.1 系統動態符號表…………………………………………………………73


圖目錄
圖1.2.1 產品生命週期……………………………………………………………3
圖2.1.1 產品類型…………………………………………………………………6
圖2.3.1典型產品生命週期圖……………………………………………………15
圖2.4.1 產品生命週期管理演進圖…………………………………………………17
圖2.4.2 PLM實行關鍵圖…………………………………………………………20
圖2.5.1因果關系示意圖…………………………………………………………23
圖2.5.2 正向因果關聯示意圖……………………………………………………23
圖2.5.3 負向因果關聯示意圖……………………………………………………23
圖2.5.4 正或負向因果關聯示意圖………………………………………………24
圖2.5.5 流量圖……………………………………………………………………24
圖2.5.6 延遲示意圖………………………………………………………………24
圖2.5.7 標準回饋環路……………………………………………………………25
圖2.5.8 雙箭頭符號圖……………………………………………………………25
圖3.3.1 研究程序圖………………………………………………………………32
圖3.6.1 研究進程圖………………………………………………………………36
圖4.1.1 A 企業組織架構圖………………………………………………………38
圖4.2.1開發流程主要階段圖……………………………………………………39
圖4.2.2開發提案流程圖…………………………………………………………40
圖4.2.3設計繪圖流程圖…………………………………………………………41
圖4.2.4樣品驗證流程圖…………………………………………………………42
圖4.2.5試量產驗證流程圖………………………………………………………44
圖4.2.6 結案流程圖………………………………………………………………45
圖4.2.7 A企業產品開發流程系統動態圖………………………………………49
圖4.2.8 A企業產品開發流程系統動態分類圖…………………………………50
圖4.2.9 A企業產品開發流程類別關係圖………………………………………51
圖4.3.1 自有品牌產品開發組織系統動態圖……………………………………53
圖4.3.2 設計代工產品開發組織系統動態圖……………………………………53
圖4.6.1 A企業系統動態流程簡化架構圖………………………………………73
圖4.6.2 管理動態圖………………………………………………………………74
圖4.6.3 設計動態圖………………………………………………………………75
圖4.6.4程序動態圖………………………………………………………………77
圖4.6.5製造動態圖………………………………………………………………79
圖4.6.6 A企業產品生命周期開發期系統動態圖……………………………82
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