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研究生:賴堅戊
研究生(外文):Jian-Wu Lai
論文名稱:波浪於粗粒徑斜坡底床傳遞之試驗與數值研究
論文名稱(外文):Experimental and numerical studies on wave propagation over coarse grained sloping beach
指導教授:許泰文許泰文引用關係
指導教授(外文):Tai-Wen Hsu
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:水利及海洋工程學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:河海工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:161
中文關鍵詞:粗粒徑斜坡底床紊流質點影像測速儀數位影像處理孔隙透水介質波浪變形
外文關鍵詞:wave transformationporous permeable mediumDigital Image Processturbulence characteristicsParticle Image Velocimetrycoarse grained sloping beach
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:17
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  • 下載下載:80
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
本文旨在探討波浪於粗粒徑孔隙斜坡底床傳遞的水動力及紊流特性。本文分別以水工模型試驗及數值模擬進行,並進行波、流場與紊流等物理現象時空分佈之特性分析。在試驗部份,以質點影像測速儀 (Particle Image Velocimetry, PIV) 配合空間幾何崁入,將11 個局部重疊的觀測視窗 (Field of Views, FOVs) 之流速資訊合併,建立斜坡上完整之流速時空變化量測方法。此外波浪傳遞之自由液面之時空變化,經由波動水槽側壁拍攝之連續波浪影像,以數位影像處理 (Digital Image Process, DIP) 技術,透過影像幾何校正、影像合併、影像重建、影像增顯與邊緣偵測等步驟萃取波浪於粗粒徑斜坡底床傳遞時之波浪變形時空資訊。試驗在自由液面與流速皆採用非侵入式量測方法,可獲得完整之波流時空分佈變化特性,並進而求取平均流速、渦度場、紊流動能及紊流動能消散等試驗資料,達到量測波浪通過孔隙斜坡底床全尺度波流場。
在數值模擬方面,以 Navier-Stokes 方程式為架構之 FLOW-3D 計算軟體,分別以孔隙體模式 (Porous Body Model, PBM) 以及三維直接解析兩種方式進行模擬,並且將模擬結果之水位與流速資訊與水工模型試驗所得結果進行比較,藉以了解兩種方法在模擬波浪在粗粒徑孔隙斜坡上傳遞之差異。結果顯示三維直接解析較孔隙體模式能完整描述流速受孔隙體阻擋所產生的蜿蜒特性,且在碎波帶至沖刷帶間亦較孔隙體模式有較合理的振幅及相位解析結果。
本文同時以 FLOW-3D 計算不透水和孔隙底床之波浪變形、流場及紊流特性,並比較兩者之差異性。結果顯示,孔隙底床對波浪發生碎波之型態產生影響,使原本不透水底床所發生之捲波 (plunging) 碎波之舌狀前緣較變得不顯著,而較近似潰波(collaping) 之碎波型態,此孔隙底床造成的碎波型態改變,使得原本因捲波而產生的
迴流減弱消失。此外波浪因孔隙層之摩擦及滲透作用而使波能消,在碎波帶與沖刷帶之間波能消散、流場及紊流特性有很大的差異,於該區間內粗粒徑孔隙斜坡上代表波形振動下限之下包絡線,其振幅相較於不透水底床明顯而快速地減少,相對而言代表上振幅範圍之上包絡線則並未因為底床透水型態不同有顯著差異,而呈現較為緩慢減少。
In this paper, the hydrodynamics and turbulence for wave propagating over coarse grained sloping beach is investigated using both experimental and numerical model.
The coarse grained sloping beach was placed over a 1:5 inclined bottom with two layers of spherical balls. Measurements on temporal and spatial variations of physical quantities such as wave profiles, current fields and turbulence were conducted in the wave flume. The particle image velocimetry (PIV) and digital image process (DIP) techniques are employed to detect the flow field and free surface configuration at both inside and outside regions on the sloping bed. Eleven fields of views (FOVs) were integrated to explore the entire evolutions for waves propagating from the surf zone to the swash zone. In addition, a high resolution Charge Coupled Device (CCD) Camera was used to grasp the images of wave profile. Subsequent digital image processing (DIP) techniques consisting of the image enhancement, coordinate transformation, edge detection and sub-pixel concept for higher resolution were developed to resolve the image and achieve a complete water surface evolutions. In the experimental study, the PIV and DIP techniques provide a possibility for measuring a full scale temporal and spatial variation of the wave profiles and velocity field. Furthermore, the FLOW-3D modeling based on the Navier-Stokes equations was adopted for the simulation of waves traveling over the sloping bed. The porous body model and direct three-dimensional simulations were employed for the calculation of wave profile and velocity field. Numerical results were favorably compared with experiments.
The compare results show that the direct three-dimensional simulations method provides accurate predictions in the all wave propagation regions. The wave and velocity profile are resolved more completed as well as in the not only from outer to the inner porous layer, but also in the surf zone and swash zone. Experimental results show that the process of the turbulence characteristics of the maximum turbulent kinetic energy, turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate and turbulence intensity take place in the region between the toe of breaker and surface of porous layer.
Flow 3D modeling is implemented to compute wave transformation, flow velocity and turbulent. Their differences were compared for the cases of waves propagating over porous and impermeable bed. The results show that the breaker type is significantly influenced by the porous coarse grained bottom. A plunging breaker becomes a collapsing breaker due to the additional resistance and friction of discrete grains within the porous medium. The front of water bore is stopped at the breaking point and ceases to move forward. Therefore, no significant retuned flow occurs in the surf zone.
摘要 I
ABSTRACT III
目錄 V
圖目錄 VII
表目錄 XII
第一章 緒論 1
1-1 前言 1
1-2 前人研究 4
1-3 研究目的 18
1-4 本文組織 19
第二章 數值模式 21
2-1 FLOW-3D簡介 21
2-2 基本控制方程式 23
2-3 數值方法與邊界條件 35
2-4 格網獨立測試與模擬合理性 45
第三章 試驗設計與方法 53
3-1 試驗水槽與模型佈置 53
3-2 質點影像流速(PIV)量測系統 60
3-3 影像波浪量測系統 70
3-4 試驗系統驗證 77
第四章 模式驗證 83
4-1 粗粒徑斜坡底床之試驗結果 83
4-2 粗粒徑斜坡底床之孔隙介質模式(PBM)模擬驗證 101
4-3 三維粗粒徑斜坡底床之直接解析模擬驗證 106
4-4 小結 111
第五章 三維數值模擬結果與討論 113
5-1 波浪傳遞變形之比較與討論 113
5-2 流場特性之比較與討論 123
5-3 紊流特性討論 130
第六章 結論與建議 145
6-1 結論 145
6-2 建議 147
參考文獻 149
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