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研究生:陳志輝
研究生(外文):Chih-hui Chen
論文名稱:莠竹屬(禾本科黍黍族)植物分類學訂正
論文名稱(外文):Taxonomic Revision of Microstegium Nees (Andropogoneae, Poaceae)
指導教授:郭長生郭長生引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chang-sheng Kuoh
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:生命科學系碩博士班
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:英文
論文頁數:165
中文關鍵詞:分類學訂正核醣體基因內轉錄區格間蜀黍族莠竹屬
外文關鍵詞:LeptatherumnrITStaxonomic revisionMicrostegiumAndropogoneae
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  根據形態的觀察、數量分類分析及分子的證據,完成了禾本科蜀黍族莠竹屬植物的分類訂正。總共前往下列單位之植物標本館,包括台灣大學(TAI)、林業試驗所(TAIF)、中央研究院生物多樣性中心(HAST)、自然科學博物館(TNM)、特有生物研究保育中心(TAIE)、成功大學(NCKU)、屏東科技大學(PPI)、東京大學(TI)、京都大學(KYO)、邱皇家植物園(K)、愛丁堡皇家植物園(E)、英國自然歷史博物館(BM)、法國國立博物館(P)、荷蘭國家標本館萊登分館(L)檢閱相關標本,包括模式標本。本研究確認了台灣的兩個新紀錄種,日本莠竹M. japonicum(= Leptatherum boreale)及M. tenue。檢閱過各標本館之模式標本後,發現剛莠竹之學名過去皆誤用M. ciliatum,但檢視過M. ciliatum之模式標本Wallich 8815-B後,發現它其實屬於M. fasciculatum,剛莠竹正確學名應該是M. biaristatum。此外,M. brandisii過去皆被處理為M. eucnemis之同物異名,惟M. eucnemis之稈直立而粗壯,花序為3-5指狀總狀花序,M. brandisii之稈呈匍匐狀,花序為單一總狀花序,因此二者應屬不同種,後者宜與M. clavigerum合併較適當。另外根據核醣體基因內轉錄區格間(Nuclear Ribosomal DNA Internal Transcribed Spacers, nrITS)序列的親緣分析,莠竹屬並不是一個單系群,因此這個屬應可分為兩群,所以Leptatherum屬應可確立,歸於本屬的3個種,M. japonicum, M. nudum 以及M. somae需處理為3個新組合名:Leptatherum boreale, L. nudum及L. somae。核醣體基因內轉錄區格間(Nuclear Robosomal DNA Interanl Transcribed Spacers, nrITS)序列的親緣分析顯示出另一個意外的結果,第3個新紀錄種M. glabratum亦存在於台灣,惟過去皆被錯誤鑑定為剛莠竹M. ciliatum(= M. biaristatum)。
 A taxonomic revision of Microstegium Nees (Andropogoneae, Poaceae) was accomplished with the support of morphological, numerical and molecular evidences. The specimens, including types, in the herbaria of National Taiwan University (TAI), Forestry Research Institute (TAIF), Biodiversity Research Center, Academia Sinica (HAST), National Museum of Natural Science (TNM), Endemic Species Research Institute (TAIE), National Cheng-Kung University (NCKU), National Pingtung University of Science and Technology (PPI), University of Tokyo (TI), Kyoto University (KYO), Royal Botanic Garden Kew (K), Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (E), The Natural History Museum (BM), Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle (P), and Nationaal Herbarium Nederland, Leiden University branch (L) were examined. After careful examination of the specimens in the above herbaria, two new record species, M. japonicum ( = Leptatherum boreale) and M. tenue were recognized to occur in Taiwan. The name M. ciliatum has been used for the taxon which has flexuous awn from the apex of upper lemma since its basionym, Pollinia ciliata, was published. However, the type of M. ciliatum (Pollinia ciliata), Wallich 8815-B, is closer to M. fasciculatum actually and the legitimate name for this species should be M. biaristatum. M. brandisii is usually treated as a synonym of M. eucnemis. However, M. eucnemis has erect culms and its inflorescence has 3--5 digitate racemes. M. brandisii has procumbent culms and its inflorescence is a solitary raceme. It seems more appropriate to combine it with M. clavigerum. With the evidence of Nuclear Ribosomal DNA Internal Transcribed Spacers (nrITS) phylogeny, the genus Microstegium is polyphyly and the species of this genus were discriminated into two clades with strong bootstrap support. This result justifies the reinstatement of Leptatherum as a distinct genus, necessitating three new combinations, Leptatherum boreale, L. nudum and L. somae. In addition, the result of nrITS phylogeny helps us to recognize another new record species, M. glabratum, in Taiwan.
Table of Contents

Abstract……………………………………………………………………………………i
中文摘要………………………………………………………………………………iii
Acknowledgements………………………………………………………………………iv
List of Tables………………………………………………………………………………x
List of Figures…………………………………………………………………………xi
Chapter 1. Introduction……………………………………………………………………1
Literature cited……………………………………………………………………2
Chapter 2. Classification of Taiwanese Microstegium with numerical approaches……………………………………………………………………4
2.1 Introduction……………………………………………………………………4
2.2 Materials and methods……………………………………………6
2.2.1 Morphological examination………………………………………………6
2.2.2 Application of DELTA system……………………………………………7
2.3 Results………………………………………………………………………7
2.4 Dicussion………………………………………………………………………8
2.5 Acknowledgements…………………………………………………………9
Literature cited……………………………………………………….……………9
Chapter 3. Segregation of Leptatherum from Microstegium confirmed by the phylogeny of nrITS sequences ………………………………………………………12
3.1 Introduction……………………………………………………………………12
3.2 Materials and methods………………………………………………………13
3.2.1 Plant material for DNA analysis………………………………………13
3.2.2 DNA extraction, PCR amplification and DNA sequencing……………13
3.2.3 Sequence Alignment and Phylogenetic Analysis………………………14
3.3 Results………………………………………………………………………14
3.3.1 The polyphyly of Microstegium................................................................14
3.3.2 An unrecognized taxon exists in Taiwan………………………………15
3.3.3 Confirmed occurrence of M. japonicum (=Leptatherum boreale)……....15
3.3.4 Dubious status of M. fauriei and M. geniculatum………………………16
3.4 Discussion……………………………………………………………………16
3.4.1 Segregation of Leptatherum from Microstegium………………………16
3.4.2 One new record species in Taiwan: M. glabratum, its more northward distribution……………………………………………………………17
3.4.3 Dubious status of M. fauriei and M. geniculatum………………………20
3.5 Acknowledgements…………………………………………………………20
Literature cited……………………………………………………………………20
Chapter 4. Taxonomic revision of Microstegium Nees s. l………………………………23
4.1 Introduction……………………………………………………………………23
4.2 Materials and methods………………………………………………………23
4.2.1 Morphological examination……………………………………………23
4.2.2 Application of DELTA system…………………………………………24
4.3 Results and discussion………………………………………………………24
4.3.1 Morphological examination and detailed taxonomic treatment………24
4.3.2 Segregation of Leptatherum from Microstegium………………………24
4.3.3 Misapplication of M. ciliatum…………………………………………25
4.3.4 M. okamotoi is a synonyms of M. biaristatum…………………………25
4.3.5 M. steenisii is a synonyms of M. dispar…………………………………25
4.3.6 Segregation of M. eucnermis and M. brandisii…………………………26
4.4 Acknowledgements…………………………………………………………26
Literature cited……………………………………………………………………26
Chapter 5. Taxonomic treatment………………………………………………………28
Key of Microstegium s.l………………………………………………………28
Leptatherum Nees…………………………………………………………………28
Key to the species of Leptatherum......................................................................29
Leptatherum boreale (Ohwi) C.-H. Chen, C.-S. Kuoh & Veldk……30
Leptatherum nudum (Trin.) C.-H. Chen, C.-S. Kuoh & Veldk………31
Leptatherum somae (Hayata) C.-H. Chen, C.-S. Kuoh & Veldk……33
Microstegium Nees s.s…………………………………………………36
Key to the species of Microstegium Nees s.s…………………………………38
Microstegium biaristatum (Steud.) Keng.....................................................40
Microstegium brandisii (Hook. f.) Rhind…………………………………43
Microstegium delicatulum (Hook. f.) A. Camus……………………45
Microstegium dispar (Nees) A. Camus........................................................46
Microstegium eucnemis (Nees ex Steud.) A. Camus...................................47
Microstegium falconeri (Hook. f.) Clayton..................................................48
Microstegium fasciculatum (L.) Henrard…………………………49
Microstegium fauriei (Hayata) Honda subsp. fauriei T. Koyama................54
Microstegium fauriei (Hayata) Honda subsp. geniculatum (Hayata) T. Koyama..................................................................................................55
Microstegium glabratum (Brongn.) A. Camus……………………57
Microstegium petiolare (Trin.) Bor..............................................................59
Microstegium rufispicum (Steud.) A. Camus...............................................60
Microstegium spectabile (Trin.) A. Camus..................................................62
Microstegium stapfii (Hook. f.) A. Camus...................................................63
Microstegium tenue (Trin.) Hosok………………………………………64
Microstegium vimineum (Trin.) A. Camus………………………65
Appendix 1. The character list used for the cluster analysis……………………………151
Appendix 2. The detailed content of the four directive files for DELTA application………………………………………………………………164
Chapter 1. Introduction
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Chapter 2. Classification of Taiwanese Microstegium with numerical approaches
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Chapter 3. Segregation of Leptatherum from Microstegium s.l. confirmed by the phylogeny of nrITS sequences
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Chapter 4. Taxonomic revision of Microstegium s. l.
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