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研究生:石子文
研究生(外文):Tzu-Wen Shih
論文名稱:二氧化鈦光電極製備氣氛對染料敏化太陽能電池效率的影響
論文名稱(外文):Effects of TiO2 Photoelectrode Preparation Methods on the Efficiency of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells
指導教授:丁志明丁志明引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jyh-Ming Ting
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:材料科學及工程學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:材料工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:192
中文關鍵詞:電漿表面處理氧空缺染料敏化太陽能電池水熱法
外文關鍵詞:oxygen vacancyplasma surface treatmenthydrothermal methodDye-sensitized solar cell
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本論文主要為研究染料敏化太陽能電池中之二氧化鈦光電極於不同燒結氣氛以及空氣燒結後不同電漿處理之影響,其中探討各種處理對於表面氧缺陷、染料吸附度、表面官能基以及單色光轉換效率(IPCE)的影響,同時也針對組成染料敏化太陽能電池後之光電轉換效率進行討論。本研究分為三階段,第一階段為利用水熱法研究出最佳二氧化鈦顆粒製備條件,並以最佳條件製作二氧化鈦光電極進行第二階段不同燒結氣氛以及第三階段以空氣燒結後不同電漿處理的研究。
第一階段中,主要以水熱法製作TiO2 顆粒,並藉由改變檸檬酸加入的順序、水熱時間以及溶液濃度,以合成不同的二氧化鈦奈米顆粒。研究中發現加入檸檬酸的二氧化鈦顆粒均為銳鈦礦相(anatase)。此階段可得到最佳條件之二氧化鈦粉末之製成條件為:在0℃情況下配製0.9M 四氯化鈦溶液,配製完後再加入檸檬酸,並在200℃下進行水熱法2 小時可得較佳結晶性質以及高的比表面積。
第二階段為使用第一階段得到最佳條件之二氧化鈦顆粒製成光電極後,改變光電極薄膜之燒結氣氛。使用的燒結氣氛包含空氣、氮氣、以及氧氣。第三階段為空氣燒結後使用不同氣體電漿進行表面處理,其中使用之電漿包含氧氣、氫氣、氮氣、甲烷+氮氣。研究發現在不同氣氛中燒結會影響薄膜中Ti 的氧化態,染料吸附度以及電池效率。本實驗顯示在氧氣氛中燒結的薄膜中Ti 的氧化態最高(Ti4+)、有最好的染料吸附度以及電池效率。此外,研究發現光電極薄膜表面之Ti 的氧化態對於不同電漿處理皆會造成影響。其中氧氣電漿會使Ti 的氧化態升高(Ti3+ -> Ti4+),亦即氧空缺減少,而其他三種電漿皆使Ti 的氧化態降低,亦即氧空缺增加。氮氣以及甲烷+氮氣電漿處理的光電極薄膜會有氮摻雜效果而增加單色光轉換效率。研究中發現甲烷+氮氣電漿處理的光電極薄膜除了氮摻雜使單色光轉換效率增加外,也發現表面C-C sp2 鍵結的貢獻增加其電
子傳輸效果,使得所組成的染料敏化太陽能電池有最佳的染料吸附度以及光電轉換效率。
Effects of various sintering environments and the surface plasma treatments on the performance of TiO2 photoelectrodes used in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were studied in this research. The surface oxygen defects, dye adsorption, and surface functional groups were examined in order to explore their effects of the incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) and the cell efficiency. This study was divided into three parts. In the first part, a hydrothermal method was used to synthesize TiO2 nanoparticles. The optimal condition was determined and used to fabricate TiO2 nanoparticles. In the second and the third parts, effects of using various sintering enviroments and plasma surface treatments on the performance of TiO2 photoelectrodes were studied, respectively.
TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized using a hydrothermal method under various solution temperatures, hydrothermal times, and solution concentrations. The use of citric acid and the procedure of adding the citric acid were also examined. As citric acid was added the TiO2 nanoparticles obtained at all the conditions exhibit anatase phase. The optimal hydrothermal condition was determined to be solution temperature = 0℃, hydrothermal time = 2 hr, and TiCl4 precursor solution concentration = 0.9M. The citric acid was added after the addition of TiCl4.
TiO2 photoelectrodes were prepared using obtained TiO2 nanoparticles using the optimal hydrothermal condition. TiO2 photoelectrodes were sintered under different environments of air, O2, and N2. For surface plasma treatments, O2, H2, N2, and CH4 + N2 were used. It was found that the sintering gases affect the oxidation state of Ti, dye adsorption, and the cell efficiency. For different sintering gases, higher cell efficiency was obtained when with O2 was used as the sintering gas. This is ascribed to the increased Ti oxide state and improved dye adsorption. For plasma treatment, O2 plasma treatment was found to have the same effect as oxygen sintering. With the plasma treatments of N2 and CH4 + N2, enhanced efficiencies were obtained due to the doping of N, which enhances IPCE. In this study, the highest cell efficiency was obtained for the photoelectrodes that were subjected to CH4 + N2 plasma treatment. This is due to not only higher dye adsorption and higher IPCE but also the increase in C-C sp2 bonds that enhances the electron transport.
摘要 I
Abstract III
誌謝 V
總目錄 VI
表目錄 X
圖目錄 XIV
第一章 緒論 1
1-1 前言 1
1-2 研究動機 4
第二章 文獻回顧 6
2-1 染料敏化太陽能電池 6
2-1-1工作原理 8
2-1-2逆反應 9
2-1-3電子於半導體中傳遞過程 11
2-1-4效能計算及提升理論及方法 13
2-2 奈米結晶多孔性薄膜電極及二氧化鈦的選用 16
2-3 染料光敏化劑 20
2-4 水熱法製備奈米顆粒 22
2-4-1水熱法成長二氧化鈦原理 23
2-4-2水熱法合成anatase TiO2成長機制 23
2-4-3水熱法合成rutile TiO2成長機制 24
2-4-4溫度對於水熱法合成奈米結晶顆粒之影響 25
2-4-5pH值及濃度對於水熱法合成奈米結晶顆粒之影響 28
2-4-6 添加物 對於水熱法合成之影響 30
第三章 實驗方法與分析儀器原理 32
3-1 實驗藥品 32
3-2 實驗設計與流程 33
3-3 水熱法合成二氧化鈦奈米顆粒 34
3-4 染料敏化太陽能電池組裝 36
3-4-1奈米二氧化鈦顆粒paste配製 37
3-4-2結晶性二氧化鈦薄膜電極製備 37
3-4-3不同氣氛中燒結二氧化鈦薄膜電極 38
3-4-4電漿處理結晶性二氧化鈦薄膜電極 39
3-4-5浸泡吸附染料敏化劑 43
3-4-6電解液配製 43
3-4-7對電極製作 43
3-4-8染料敏化太陽能電池組裝 43
3-5 樣品特性分析 44
3-5-1粉末及薄膜結晶結構分析 44
3-5-2表面型態觀察 45
3-5-3微結構分析 46
3-5-4比表面積分析 46
3-5-5同步輻射分析 46
3-5-6成分與化學鍵結分析 47
3-5-7光學分析 48
3-5-8電池效率分析 48
3-5-9IPCE量測 49
第四章 結果與討論 50
4-1 二氧化鈦奈米顆粒之合成及特性分析 51
4-1-1配製TiCl4溶液溫度及檸檬酸使用之選擇 51
4-1-2水熱時間之影響 60
4-1-3溶液濃度之影響 66
4-1-4結語 70
4-2 二氧化鈦光電極於不同氣氛下燒結之分析 71
4-2-1XRD分析 71
4-2-2XANES分析 73
4-2-3XPS分析 81
4-2-4紫外光-可見光透光度量測 87
4-2-5光電轉換效率量測 89
4-3 電漿處理後之光電極分析 93
4-3-1氧電漿處理之分析 94
4-3-2氫電漿處理之分析 115
4-3-3氮氣電漿處理之分析 132
4-3-4甲烷+氮氣電漿處理之分析 149
4-3-5 不同電漿處理之比較 171
第五章 結論 178
第六章 未來展望 180
第七章 參考文獻 181
附錄 188
自述 192
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