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研究生:林志都
研究生(外文):Chih-Tu Lin
論文名稱:醫學生及非醫學生對高齡者知識與態度調查及比較-以南部一所大學為例
論文名稱(外文):A Study of Medical and Non-Medical College Students’ Knowledge andAttitudes toward Older People in a University in Southern Taiwan
指導教授:劉立凡劉立凡引用關係
指導教授(外文):Li-Fan Liu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:老年學研究所
學門:社會服務學門
學類:社會工作學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:108
中文關鍵詞:高齡者大學生從事與高齡者相關工作之意願知識態度醫學生
外文關鍵詞:College StudentsKnowledgeAttitudeMedical StudentsEldersWillingness to work with Elders
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:26
  • 點閱點閱:653
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:159
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:4
在2009年3月底,台灣的高齡人口比例已超過10.4%。隨著人口老化比率急速增高,因此對於高齡者相關的研究也越形重要。即將踏入社會的大學生們對於高齡者的知識與態度,也將影響他們如何面對一個高齡化的職場。而在醫療專業上,這些知識與態度更形重要,因為其可
能會影響到對高齡患者的治療策略,以及醫療資源的分配。但在台灣卻少有針對大學生對高齡者的知識與態度的研究。本研究之目的即在調查並探討醫學生與非醫學院之大學生對於高齡者的知識與態度之程度、其從事與高齡者之工作的意願,與其影響因子。

本研究針對台灣南部某大學中之醫學系所有學生,以與其數量相當之非醫學院之大學生採方便取樣,以結構性問卷方式調查其對高齡者之知識與態度,其中對高齡者知識以Palmore’s Facts on Ageing Quiz 1 調查、對高齡者之一般態度以Polizzi 版Ageing Semantic Differential 調查、對高齡者之醫療態度以UCLA Geriatrics Attitude Scale 調查,共收得有效問卷540 份(醫學系299 份,非醫學院學生241 份),佔回收問卷之85.2%。以t-test、費雪正確機率考驗、Pearson相關係數、變異量分析、線性回歸及邏輯斯迴歸等統計方法加以分析後,發現大學生對高齡者的知識正確度中等(平均總分53.30),但低於美國近年針對醫學生之研究結果;在一般態度方面,受試大學生之態度傾向輕微正向(平均每題分數為3.33),優於針對美國及西班牙之大學生的相關研究結果所發現之輕微負向態度;在老年醫療態度上,醫學生之態度傾向輕微正向(平均每題分數為3.39),低於英美與新加坡之相關研究結果(3.58~3.9)。同時男女大學生對於高齡者均有負面或錯誤的固有印象,其中男性較強調身心的退化狀態,如「對性缺乏興趣或能力、動作遲緩、散漫糊塗、令人絕望」,而女性則較強調個性上的固有印象,如「易怒、愛抱怨、不公平的、悲觀的」。對於大學生對高齡者的知識與其對高齡者的一般態度及老年醫
療態度間有正向的相關性(Pearson 相關係數分別為0.270 與.269),同時一般態度與老年醫療態度間也有正向相關性(Pearson 相關係數為0.315)。醫學養成教育的有無與大學生對高齡者知識與態度之間並無關係。醫學生與非醫學生之間對高齡者的知識與態度並無統計學上之顯著差異(p 值均大於0.05)。同時醫學生之高年級與中低年級間對高齡者的知識並沒有統計學上的差異(p 值=0.448)。但在一般態度與老年醫療態度上,高年級醫學生的態度則有顯著的負向相關(p 值<0.05),顯示高年級醫學生之一般與老年醫療態度較中低年級來得負向。在大學生考慮選擇與高齡者相關的工作的影響因子中,最有顯著性的是其態度量表分數,以及醫學生的年齡。態度量表分數越高,以及20 到24 歲的醫學生,較有可能選擇與高齡者相關之工作。影響大學生對高齡者知識的因子為「家庭組成」、「與(外)祖父母互動」及「與高齡者接觸的感受」(p<0.05,adjusted R squared=0.050),其中三代同堂者知識量表分數最低,其他家庭組成者之分數則較其為高。與(外)祖父母「蠻常聯絡」或「天天見面或通電話」者,以及與高齡者接觸感覺「沒特別感覺」、「不錯」及「很好」者,其知識量表分數較高。影響大學生對高齡者的一般態度的因子為:「性別」、「家庭組成」、「與(外)祖父母互動」及「與高齡者接觸感受」(p<0.05,adjusted R squared=0.166)。女性的一般態度分數也呈負相關,較男性為低(p=0.008);三代同堂者態度量表分數最低,其他家庭組成者之分數則較其為高。與(外)祖父母互動較頻繁者,其一般態度也顯著較高 (p=0.033~0.010);而與高齡者接觸感受正面或中性
者,其態度均比感受「不舒服」者為正向,且有統計上之顯著性(p<0.05)。影響醫學生對高齡者之老年醫療態度的因子則為:「組別」、「年齡群」、「性別」、「與(外)祖父母互動」、「有無
照顧高齡者經驗」及「與高齡者接觸感受」(p<0.05,adjusted R squared=0.152)。其中醫學系高年級、祖父母已逝世、無照顧高齡者經驗者之態度呈負相關(p 值分別為0.026、0.047 與0.024),20 至24 歲(p=0.028)、女性(p=0.007)、常常與(外)祖父母聯絡(p=0.045)、及與高齡者接觸感受為「不錯」(p=0.041)及「很好」(p=0.027)者,對高齡者之老年醫療態度有正向相關。

本研究顯示大學生間的知識與態度分數,不論其社會人口學上的差異,並無統計上之顯著差異,顯示其身為社會中之同一年齡相近之世代,對高齡者有著相近的認知與想法。相關文獻顯示經由持續的資訊強化,可提升對高齡者的知識正確度與態度正向性。因此在大學教育與醫學養成教育中加入更多與高齡者相關的課程,應該能有效地增進大學生們對高齡者的知識正確性,及對高齡者的正向態度,以培養大學生們面對一個日漸高齡化社會所需有的準備與正確心態,並提高其選擇與高齡者相關工作之意願。
By the end of March, 2009, the percentage of agig population in Taiwan has risen to over 10.4%. As the population ages quickly, research related to elderly people becomes more and more important nowadays. The knowledge and attitudes of the college students, who are about to start working in a few years, will affect how they face a graying occupational environment. And this issue will become even more important for the future medical professionals, since it may affect theirtherapeutic strategies towards their elderly patients, as well as the allocation of medical resources.But there are very few studies concerning to college tudents’ knowledge and attitudes towards
elderly people in Taiwan. This research’s objective is to investigate the degree of college students’(both medical students and non-medical ones) knowledge about and attitudes towards elderly people, their willingness to work with elder people, and the factors which affect these knowledge and attitudes.

This research applies a convenience sampling method, and has as samples all medical students in a university in Southern Taiwan, as well as a group of non-medical students, of similar number to those medical students. These students’ knowledge and attitudes towards the elder people are investigated using structured questionnaires. The knowledge about elders is investigated using
Palmore’s Facts on Aging Quiz 1, and for the general attitude towards elder people, Polizzi’s revised version of Aging Semantic Differential is applied. In order to investigate the geriatrics attitudes, this research uses the UCLA Geriatrics Attitudes Scale. 540 effective questionnaires were recovered, which is 85.2% of the total amount of questionnaires administered. 299 of the
questionnaires are from medical students and 241 of them from non-medical ones. After statistics analysis with tools like independent t-test, Fisher’s exact probability test, Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Wald Chi-Square test, logistic and linear
regression, this research finds out that the college students have a moderate level of knowledge on the elderly people, with a mean score of 53.30, which is lower than the result of similar researcheswith medical students in the US in recent years. As to the general attitudes towards elderly people,the subjects in question have a slightly positive attitude (mean score of each question=3.33) , which
is better then the results of recent researches in the US and in Spain,that demonstrated negative attitudes among college students (both medical and non-medical) towards elderly people. But when it comes to geriatrics attitudes, though the tested medical students have a slightly positive attitude (mean score for each question= 3.39), the score is lower than the results of similar research in the UK, US and Singapore, which range from a mean score of 3.58 to 3.9. College students in this research also prove to have negative images or erroneous stereotype about elderly people: while the male students stress on the mental and physical deterioration of elderly people such like “lack of
interest of capability in sexual activities, too slow for modern society, less organized and more confused, despairing”, the female students focus more on the character stereotyping: “angry, crabby,unfair, pessimistic”. There is a positive correlation among college students’knowledge about elderly people and their general and geriatric attitudes towards elderly people, with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.270 and 0.269 respectively; while there is also a positive correlation
between their general attitudes and geriatrics attitudes, with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.315. Having or not background of medical education has no relation with college students’s knowledge about and attitudes towards elderly people: there is no statistical relevance between
medical and non-medical students’ knowledge and attitude (p<0.05). Meanwhile, there is no statistical difference between the knowledge level of senior medical students and junior ones (p=0.448); but in both general and geriatrics attitudes, senior medical students have a statistically
more negative attitude than junior ones (p<0.05). The most important factors affecting college students’ willingness of choosing a job related to working with elderly people, are their grades in their attitudes scales and the age group for the medical students. Higher mean scores in the attitudes scales and medical students of 20 to 24 years old, are associated with higher possibility of choosing
a job related to working with elder people. The factors which affect college student’s knowledge level about elderly people are the “Family structure”, “Interaction with grandparents” and “Overall perception about interaction with elderly people” (p<0.05, adjusted R squared=0.050). The students who live with their grandparent have the lowest scores in the knowledge scale, while students of other family structures score significantly higher. “Frequent interaction with” and “Daily visit or phonecalls to” grandparents, and feeling “Nothing special”,“Not bad”or“Good”about interaction
with elderly people are associated with higher scores in the knowledge scale. The factors affecting college students’ general attitude towards elderly people are: “Gender”, “Family structure”,“Interaction with grandparents” and “Overall perception about interaction with elderly people”(p<0.05, adjusted R squared= 0.166). Female students have lower scores than male ones (p=0.008). The students who live with their grandparent have the lowest scores in the general attitude scale. Those who have more frequent interaction with their grandparents, have a higher general attitude score (p=0.033~0.010). Those who perceive their interaction with elderly people as
positive or neutral, have higher scores in general attitude scale than those who rank their interaction
as “Not comfortable”, with statistical relevance (p<0.05). The factors affecting geriatrics attitudes
towards elderly people are “Groups”, “Gender”, “Having or not experience taking care of elderly people”, “Interaction with grandparents” and “Overall perception about interaction with elderly people”(p<0.05, adjusted R squared=0.153). Senior medical students and those whose grandparents have deceased or who do not have experience taking care of elderly people are associated with
lower geriatrics attitudes score (p=0.026, 0.047 and 0.024 respectively), while female students (p=0.007), quite frequent interaction with grandparents (p=0.045), and those who perceive their interaction with elderly people as “Not bad” (p=0.041) or “Good” (p=0.027), have higher
geriactrics attitude score.
This research demonstrates that despite of their socio-demographic difference, there is no statistical
difference among college students concerning to their scores in knowledge and attitude scales. This proves that, as a cohort of similar age groups, they share similar cognition and feelings about elderly people. Related literatures have demonstrated that through constant information and education, the knowledge level about elderly people can be improved, as well as the attitude
towards them. Therefore, adding more courses related to the elderly population in the college as well as in the medical education, should be able to improve effectively college students’ knowledge about and attitude toward elderly people, preparing them for a increasingly aging society, as well as increase their willingness to choose jobs related to working with elderly people.
目錄
中文摘要 III
Abstract VI
誌謝 X
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景與動機 1
第二節 研究重要性 1
第三節 研究目的 2
第四節 研究問題 2
第五節 預期成果與效益 3
第二章 文獻回顧 4
第一節 對「老」及「老化」的觀念、刻板印象、迷思 4
第二節 對高齡者的知識與態度的定義與相關理論概念 8
第三節 關於非醫護相關人員對於高齡者之知識與態度的研究
與其研究結果 10
第四節 關於醫護相關人員對高齡者之知識與態度研究及其研究結果 12
第五節 影響選擇與高齡者相關工作意願的因素 17
第六節 相關之測量工具 18
第七節 文獻小結 21
第三章 研究方法 22
第一節 研究概念性架構 22
第二節 研究假設 22
第三節 研究設計、研究對象與研究倫理 23
第四節 研究工具 24
第五節 資料收集與分析 29
第四章 研究結果 31
第一節 受試學生之社會人口學基本特質 31
第二節 受試者量表分數之描述性統計討論 36
第三節 大學生對高齡者知識,與其對高齡者態度間的關係 52
第四節 醫學養成教育之有無對大學生對高齡者知識與態度間的關係 53
第五節 醫學養成教育程度對於對高齡者知識與態度的影響 55
第六節 影響大學生從事與高齡者有關之工作意願的顯著因素 56
第七節 影響大學生對高齡者知識與態度之顯著因素 61
第五章 討論 67
第一節 描述統計討論 67
第二節 推論統計討論 75
第三節 主要結果討論 79
第六章 結論 83
第一節 研究結論 83
第二節 建議 87
第三節 研究限制 88
參考文獻 90
附錄一 同意臨床試驗證明書 101
附錄二 受試者同意書 102
附錄三 人口學特質與跟高齡者接觸經驗之問卷 103
附錄四 FAQ1 老年知識問卷 104
附錄五 Polizzi 版Aging Semantic Differential 106
附錄六 UCLA Geriatrics Attitudes Scale (GAS) 107
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線上資料
台大內科部老人醫學科簡介網頁(無日期)。2009 年7 月,取自國立台灣大學醫學院附設醫院網頁http://med.ntuh.gov.tw/sections/general/intro_geriatric.asp
中華民國統計資訊網(人口靜態統計)。2009 年5 月,取自內政部網頁http://www1.stat.gov.tw/ct.asp?xItem=15408&CtNode=4692
Cicero,quote on age and aging. 2008 年12 月,取自
http://quotationsbook.com/tag/age_and_aging/page=10
Utah 大學醫學生課表。2009 年1 月,取自Utah 大學網頁
(http://medicine.utah.edu/internalmedicine/geriatrics/Education_Programs/2464_MS1StudentPortfolio081908.pdf)
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