跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(44.192.22.242) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/08/03 20:04
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

: 
twitterline
研究生:張齊心
研究生(外文):Chi-hsin Chang
論文名稱:我國因應國際船舶壓艙水及底泥控制與管理發展趨勢之策略研究-以高雄港為例
論文名稱(外文):Taiwan’s Strategy in Response to the International Development Trend for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments-Use the Port of Kaohsiung as an Example
指導教授:劉大綱劉大綱引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ta-kang Liu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:海洋科技與事務研究所
學門:自然科學學門
學類:海洋科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:112
中文關鍵詞:港口國管制壓艙水交換區域外來種風險評估
外文關鍵詞:exchange arearisk assessmentport state controlballast water managementnon-indigenous species
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:4
  • 點閱點閱:314
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:48
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
國際上由於船舶攜帶壓艙水而導致外來物種入侵的現象層出不窮,為了遏止此類現象持續擴大發生,由國際海事組織所訂定之《國際控管船舶壓艙水及底泥公約》已於2004年開放簽署,其目的就是希望能透過一套有效的管理制度、標準、和在實際執行時所能應用的指導方針,來防止、減少和控制壓艙水對於生態環境所造成的威脅、以及對經濟所造成的損失。

高雄港是我國第一大港口,藉由國際船舶所帶來的壓艙水量不可忽視。然而我國目前尚未訂定任何壓艙水管理辦法,因此使得高雄港區環境暴露在壓艙水導入外來侵襲物種的風險之下。於是,本研究透過文獻分析法以清楚定位我國在《國際海洋法公約》及《生物多樣性公約》中擁有的管轄權力、探討《國際控管船舶壓艙水及底泥公約》當中的相關規範,並且透過比較分析法對於美國及澳洲兩國所制定的壓艙水管理辦法中所著重的部分進行探討,再為高雄港未來進行壓艙水管理提出可行的建議事項,避免高雄港環境受外來種危害。

本研究發現,高雄港未來管理壓艙水之應有之作為如下: (1) 儘速劃設出壓艙水交換區域,並禁止外來船舶於港內排放壓艙水;(2) 培訓港口國管制官員並逐步落實管制時壓艙水相關項目的檢查,以防止於港區排放高風險水體的機會;(3) 建立進港船舶的風險評估準則,以判定出高風險船舶進行管理並藉此準則降低港口國管制的營運成本;(4) 建立岸上壓艙水收受設施及處理設備供船舶使用,以強化高雄港之競爭力;(5) 積極開發壓艙水處理設備之新技術,以符合公約要求並且降低裝置門檻。未來政府應分析各項規範的需求及統整規劃出一套適用於全國之壓艙水管理辦法,透過瞭解各項管理方式對我國環境及經濟可能造成的優缺點,並且因地制宜規劃出適合的管理模式,才能夠於日後公約正式實施時,使我國港口能達到水準以上之管理成效,並能徹底防止壓艙水可能對近岸海域造成的污染及傷害。
The adverse impact of non-indigenous species transported by ballast waters has been gradually increased in recent years. In order to combat such problem, the International Maritime Organization (IMO), United Nations body that administers the international regulatory regime for shipping, has determined that an international convention would best meet the needs of the global community. Hence, the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships’ Ballast Water and Sediments was adopted in 2004 and is now open for signature. This convention was set to reduce the transfer and subsequent impact of aquatic organisms in the ballast water and sediment of ships by acting to reduce the load of these organisms in the discharged ballast water.

Port of Kaohsiung is the largest port in Taiwan. A great amount of exotic ballast water was probably discharged daily into the port through international shipping sector. However, there is no law or regulation related to ballast water management in Taiwan. The purpose of this paper is threefold: to analyze Taiwan’s jurisdiction on the matter of ballast water management according to international legal instruments; to conduct case study for the current ballast water management practice in other countries; and to provide some insightful strategy for future management of ballast water in Port of Kaohsiung.

We found that Port of Kaohsiung should consider the following practices for future ballast water management: (1) implement a mandatory ballast water exchange requirement in the designated area; (2) train port state control officers for vessel examination related to ballast water issues to prevent any possible discharge; (3) set risk assessment procedures for foreign vessels and prioritize their risk for port state control examinations; (4) establish land-based reception facilities for treating non-compliance ballast waters; and (5) develop innovative treatment technology to reduce installation costs. In the future, the government should provide a comprehensive ballast water management plan that can be used in all international port in Taiwan, such that we can prevent the negative impacts of non-indigenous species from ballast waters in our nearshore marine environment.
第一章 緒論 ................................................................................................................ 1
第一節 研究動機與目的 ........................................................................................ 1
第二節 研究範圍 .................................................................................................... 1
第三節 研究方法 .................................................................................................... 2
第四節 研究架構 .................................................................................................... 2
第二章 壓艙水之傳輸途徑與危害 ........................................................................... 5
第一節 船舶壓艙水之基本特性 ............................................................................ 5
第一項 壓艙水之定義及重要性 ........................................................................ 5
第二項 壓艙水及底泥傳遞的過程 .................................................................... 5
第三項 船舶種類與攜帶壓艙水量的關係 ........................................................ 7
第四項 進出口量與壓艙水量關係 .................................................................... 7
第二節 壓艙水之危害 ............................................................................................ 8
第一項 十大海洋入侵物種 .............................................................................. 12
第二項 外來物種對於環境的傷害 .................................................................. 13
第三章 國際上與壓艙水相關公約之探討 ............................................................. 19
第一節 《聯合國海洋法公約》 .......................................................................... 19
第一項 公約精神 .............................................................................................. 19
第二項 壓艙水管理之相關性與適用性 .......................................................... 20
第二節 《生物多樣性公約》 .............................................................................. 32
第一項 公約精神 .............................................................................................. 32
第二項 壓艙水管理之相關性與適用性 .......................................................... 32
第三節 《國際控管船舶壓艙水及底泥公約》 .................................................. 33
第一項 公約源起 .............................................................................................. 33
第二項 公約精神 .............................................................................................. 34
第三項 公約效力 .............................................................................................. 34
第四項 公約之規範 .......................................................................................... 35
第五項 附則內容 .............................................................................................. 38
第六項 指導方針內容 ...................................................................................... 44
第四章 美國及澳洲壓艙水管理法令 ..................................................................... 51
第一節 美國壓艙水管理法令 .............................................................................. 51
第一項 聯邦法 .................................................................................................. 51
第二項 加州州法 .............................................................................................. 56
第二節 澳洲壓艙水管理法令 .............................................................................. 64
第一項 聯邦法 .................................................................................................. 64
第二項 維多利亞州環境部管理規範 .............................................................. 66
第三項 壓艙水回報表格分析 .......................................................................... 67
第四項 特殊管理辦法 ...................................................................................... 70
第三節 美澳管理之回報標準比較 ...................................................................... 70
第五章 未來高雄港面對國際控管船舶壓艙水及底泥公約的因應策略 .............. 75
第一節 高雄港現況 .............................................................................................. 75
第二節 建議壓艙水交換區域 .............................................................................. 76
第三節 建立船舶風險評估準則 .......................................................................... 82
第四節 高雄港港口國管制 .................................................................................. 85
第五節 未來壓艙水處置之探討 .......................................................................... 92
第一項 壓艙水及底泥收受設施 ...................................................................... 92
第二項 相關處理技術之發展 .......................................................................... 95
第六章 結論與建議 ............................................................................................... 103
第一節 結論 ........................................................................................................ 103
第二節 建議 ........................................................................................................ 103
1. The Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service, Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry (2008), “Australian Ballast Water Management Requirements”, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia
2. California State Lands Commission (2007), “Biennial Report On The California Marine Invasive Species Program”, Sacramento, California, USA
3. Carlton, J. T. (1991), “An International Perspective on Species Introductions: The ICES Protocol”, Introductions and Transfers of Marine Species - Achieving a Balance between Economic Development and Resource Protection, pp. 31-34
4. Carlton, J.T., Geller, J.B. (1993), “Ecological Roulette: The Global Transport of Non-indigenous Marine Organisms”, Science 261:78-82
5. Commandant United States Coast Guard (1993), “33 CFR 151 - Subpart C Ballast Water Management for Control of Non-indigenous Species in the Great Lakes and Hudson River”, Navigation and Vessel Inspection Circular, No.1~4
6. Dragsund, E., Andersen, A.B., Gollasch, S., ten Hallers-Tjabbes, C.C., Skogen, K. (2005), “ Ballast Water Scoping Study. North Western Europe”, Det Norske Veritas Report 2005-0638:131
7. EPA Victoria (2006), “Protecting the Victorian Marine Environment from Marine Pests”, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
8. Endresen, O., Sorgard, E., Behrens, H.L., Andersen, A.B. (2003), “How Much Ballast?”, Ballast Water News 14
9. Fofonoff, P.W. (2003), “In ships or on ships? Mechanisms of transfer and invasion for non-indigeous species to the coasts of North America.” Invasive species: vectors and management strategies. (Ed.) Ruiz, G.M. and Carlton J.T., Island Press, Washington, DC, pp. 152-82
10. Haskins, G., Davey, P. (1993), “Ballast Water Management”, Ballast Water Research Series. Vol. 4, (Ed.) AQIS, Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, pp. 254
11. International Maritime Organization (2004), “International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships’ Ballast Water and Sediments”, London, UK
12. International Maritime Organization (2002), “GloBallast Legislative Review”, London, UK
13. Jousson, O., Pawlowski, J., Zaninetti, L., Meinesz, A., Boudouresque, C.F.(1998), ”Molecular evidence for the aquarium origin of the green alga Caulerpa taxifolia introduced to the Mediterranean Sea”, Marine Ecology Progress Series 172:275-280
14. McConnell, Moira L. (2001), “GloBallast Legislative Review”, GloBallast Monograph Series No.1, Global Ballast Water Management Programme, International Maritime Organization, London, UK
15. Müller, K. (1995), “Disinfection of Ballast Water - A Review of Potential Options”, Lloyd's Register, London, UK
16. Murphy, K.R., Ritz, D., Hewitt, C.L. (2002), “Heterogeneous zooplankton distribution in a ship’s ballast tanks”, Journal of Plankton Research 24(7):729-734
17. Chiu, R.H., Yuan, C.C., Chen, K.K. (2008), “The Implementation of Port State Control in Taiwan”, Journal of Marine Science and Technology 16(3):207-213
18. Churchill, R.R., Lowe, A.V. (1999), The law of the sea 3rd Edition, Juris Publishing, NY, USA
19. Rigby, G.R., Hallegraeff, G.M. (1994), “The transfer and control of harmful marine organisms in shipping ballast water: behaviour of marine plankton and ballast water exchange on the MV Iron Whyalla”, Journal of Marine Environmental Engineering 1:91-110
20. Stephan Gollasch, Matej David, Matthias Voigt, Egil Dragsund, Chad Hewitt, Yasuwo Fukuyo (2007), “Critical review of the IMO international convention on the management of ships’ ballast water and sediments”, Harmful Algae 6:585-600
21. Stephan Gollasch (2006), “Assessment of the introduction potential of aquatic alien species in new environments”, Assessment and Control of Biological Invasion Risks (Ed.) Fumito Koike, Mick N. Clout, Mieko Kawamichi, Maj De Poorter and Kunio Iwatsuki, IUCN, Gland, Swizerland, pp. 88-91
22. Stephan Gollasch (2000), “Removal of Barriers to the Effective Implementation of Ballast Water Control and Management Measures in Developing Countries”, International Maritime Organization, London, UK
23. Stephen Phillips (2007), “Workshop on Alternate Ballast Water Exchange Areas : Physical and Biological Oceanographic”, Seattle, Washington, USA, 20-22 June 2007
24. Steve Raaymakers (2002), “The Ballast Water Problem: Global Ecological, Economic and Human Health Impacts”, Regional Clean Sea Organization / International Maritime Organization Joint Seminar on Tanker Ballast WaterManagement & Technologies, Dubai, United Arab Emirates, 16-18 Dec 2002
25. Streftaris, N., Zenetos, A., Papathanassiou, E. (2005), “Globalization in marine ecosystems: the story of non-indigenous marine species across European seas”, Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review 43:419-453
26. United Nations Environment Programme (1993), “Convention on Biological Diversity”, Nairobi, Kenya
27. United Nations (1982), “United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea”, New York City, NY, USA
28. US Army Corps of Engineers (1998), “Zebra Mussel Research Technical Notes”, Washington, DC, USA
29. US Commission on Ocean Policy (2004), “An Ocean Blueprint for the 21st Century”, Washington, DC, USA
30. 月岡角治 (1986),船型百科 - 各種船舶の機能と概要 (上卷)
31. 行政院環境保護署(2004),「海洋棄置指定海域」
32. 張碩慧 (2008),「美國防止船舶壓載水轉移外來生物的立法」,世界海運31(4)
33. 錢志松 (2007),「美國加州壓載水管理的新規定」,中國航海2
34. 吳瑩瑩 (2007),「臺灣航運界對國際船舶壓艙水及沉積物控管公約認知研究」,國立中山大學,高階公共政策碩士學程碩士在職專班碩士論文
35. 蔡宗昆 (2009),「以船舶運輸型態分析高雄港海域壓艙水導入外來種之研究」,國立成功大學,海洋科技與事務研究所碩士論文
36. Joana Flor R. Tavares (2007), “Assessing the Importance of Biological Uncertainties to the Control of Species Introductions via Ballast Water”, Master thesis in Marine Study, University of Delaware
網站
1. Aquasearch, Australia
http://www.aquasearch.net.au/aqua/clamculture.htm
2. California Marine Invasive Species Program http://www.slc.ca.gov/Spec_Pub/MFD/Ballast_Water/Ballast_Water_Default.html
3. CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research http://www.cmar.csiro.au/news/media/archive/05releases/24jun05-bgmod.html
4. IMO Globallast Partnerships
http://globallast.imo.org/index.asp?page=problem.htm&menu=true
5. Intergovernmental Review Meeting on the Implementation of the Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-based Activities. http://www.gpa.unep.org
6. Large Marine Ecosystems of the World
http://www.lme.noaa.gov/
7. National Ballast Information Clearinghouse
http://invasions.si.edu/nbic/instructions.html
8. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration http://coastalmanagement.noaa.gov/mystate/docs/StateCZBoundaries.pdf
9. Oceans and Law of the Sea http://www.un.org/Depts/los/index.htm
10. Sothern California Caulerpa Action Team
http://www.sccat.net/#the-eradications-1e86c7
11. Stockholm University
http://www.su.se/english/about/news-and-events/wrong-comb-jelly-found-in-baltic-sea-1.1186
12. Universität Hamburg
http://www.biologie.uni-hamburg.de/b-online/e56/56b.htm
13. USGS
http://nas.er.usgs.gov/taxgroup/mollusks/zebramussel/zebra_gallery.asp
http://fl.biology.usgs.gov/Nonindigenous_Species/ZM_Progression/zm_progression.html
14. USGS Great Lakes Science Center http://www.glsc.usgs.gov/
15. 行政院國家科學委員會
http://web1.nsc.gov.tw/ct.aspx?xItem=7369&ctNode=39&mp=1
16. 行政院農委會
http://www.coa.gov.tw/view.php?%20catid=4252
17. 交通部高雄港務局 http://www.khb.gov.tw/index_m.aspx?Link=Sitemap_List.aspx?type=1
18. 海水污染管理規則 http://law.moj.gov.tw/Scripts/Query4B.asp?FullDoc=%A9%D2%A6%B3%B1%F8%A4%E5&Lcode=K0080007
19. 海洋資料庫 http://140.112.65.17/odbs/Physics/adcp/17/odbs/Physics/adcp/
連結至畢業學校之論文網頁點我開啟連結
註: 此連結為研究生畢業學校所提供,不一定有電子全文可供下載,若連結有誤,請點選上方之〝勘誤回報〞功能,我們會盡快修正,謝謝!
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top