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研究生:林東石
研究生(外文):Tung-Shih Lin
論文名稱:低雷諾數下低展弦比平板翼之三維近場區尾流研究
論文名稱(外文):3-D Near-Wake Flow Investigation behind a Low-Aspect-Ratio Wing at a Low Reynolds number
指導教授:蕭飛賓
指導教授(外文):Fei-Bin Hsiao
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:航空太空工程學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:英文
論文頁數:142
中文關鍵詞:翼尖渦流低展弦比低雷諾數尾流
外文關鍵詞:Tip vorticesLow Reynolds number flowLow-aspect-ratio WingWake flow
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本研究主要探討低展弦比平板機翼的翼尖渦流隨攻角變化之尾流發展情形。實驗是以展弦比1之平板機翼作為量測模型,實驗過程中風洞的風速維持在10m/s,也就是雷諾數為Re=1×105,本實驗先以力平衡儀量測機翼升阻力係數以驗證低展弦比機翼之非線性升力並找出失速攻角,然後以X型熱線測速儀在失速前攻角 (10,20,30,)與失速後攻角(40)機翼後方的0.05~2倍翼弦距離的截面分別量測得到x,y方向及x,z方向的瞬時速度與擾動量。經由資料分析後,可以看到翼尖渦流之結構隨攻角變化而變動之情形,並藉由流場等高線分佈圖可以明顯看出此低展弦比平板機翼尾流在不同攻角下翼尖渦流的發展情形。
在本研究中亦發現,所有的實驗攻角下翼尖渦流往下游移動時其核心軌跡會向內向下移動,而翼尖渦流之大小隨攻角增加而增加。而翼尖渦流在攻角40度前渦流大小不隨流場向下游發展而增大,在攻角40度渦流往下游發展時渦流的尺寸將會變大。根據實驗結果可將流場的變化情形區分成兩類,在第一類中(攻角小於失速攻角37),翼尖渦流中心停留在翼面之上,翼尖渦流之垂直分量抑制翼面中心流場分離程度,此渦流往下游發展時,翼尖渦流中心在翼展方向會向機翼內側移動一段距離然後停住;而在第二類中((攻角大於37),翼尖渦流中心開始向機翼外側移動,翼尖渦流對翼面中心流場影響明顯減緩,而此渦流往下游發展時,直到2倍翼弦距離機翼後緣,翼尖渦流中心都會向機翼下方與內側移動。
This study investigates the near-wake flow structures behind a flat-plate wing at different angles of attack. The flat-plate wing model with AR = 1 is operated at freestream velocity of 10m/s and the corresponding Reynolds number based on the chord length is 1×105. The force balance is used to measure the nonlinear lift curve slope and the stall angle of attack (AOA) of the wing model. For velocity measurements, the wing model was tested at AOA = 10°, 20°, 30° and 40° in the study. In the mean time, the velocity distributions were measured at different chord lengths (C) location downstream behind the trailing edge from 0.05C to 2C in these experiments. In order to analyze the properties of three-dimenstional (3-D) effect, the 3-D flow properties were obtained not only by streamwise and spanwise mean and fluctuation velocities by hot-wire anemometric measurement, but also by streamwise and transverse mean and fluctuation velocity measurements.
The force experimental results show that the lift curve slope of the wing with AR = 1 was very different with that of AR = 2 and 3 shown in previously researches. At AR = 1, the lift curve is characterized by high values of CL,max, CL.max and non-constant lift-curve slope, the stall angle is at AOA = 37, but the stall angle of AR = 2 and AR = 3 is about AOA = 20.
More detailed flow properties when AR = 1 were also investigated and the results indicate that the size of vortex and, the distance between the vortex core and trailing edge will increase with the increase of AOA. For AOA = 10, 20, and 30, the flow field near the root on upper surface of the wing will be affected by tip vortices, which produced the vortex lift to make high stall angle of attack and the nonlinear lift curve. And the flow property is very different for AOA = 40 where the flow will separate from the leading edge and change into stall.
This study also found that the motions of the vortex center in the near wake are primarily due to the continuing rollup of the shear layer arriving from the inboard regions. This rollup process causes more and more of the spanwise vorticity to be rotated into the axial direction and added to the outer layers of the tip vortex. As for the vortex trajectory in the near field, all vortices move inboard and downward along the downstream except for AOA=100, which does not change the core location at this experiment. In addition, the vortex size will keep the same in the near field at AOA=10, 20 and 300, while it changes at AOA=40 along downstream.
ABSTRACT IN CHINESE I
ABSTRACT III
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT V
LIST OF TABLES VIII
LIST OF FIGURES IX
NOMENCLATURE XIV

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Low Reynolds Numbers 3
1.1.1 Boundary-layer behavior 3
1.1.2 Laminar separation bubble 5
1.1.3 Hysteresis phenomena 6
1.2 Low-Aspect-Ratio Wings 8
1.3 The Flow Structure of LAR Wings at Low Reynolds Numbers 11
1.4 Aerodynamic Characteristic of LAR Wings 13
1.4.1 Thin airfoils 14
1.4.2 Lifting-line theory 14
1.4.3 Finite wing theory 16
1.5 Motivation and Objective 18

CHAPTER II EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS AND PROCEDURES 20
2.1 Wind Tunnel 20
2.2 Measuring System 21
2.2.1 Pitot tube and pressure transducer 21
2.2.2 Three-component force balance 21
2.2.3 Hot-wire anemometer 22
2.2.4 Controlling box of step motor 26
2.2.5 Three-axis traversing mechanism 26
2.3 Data Acquisition System 27
2.3.1 Wave book / 512 27
2.3.2 PCI-6123 27
2.4 Experimental Model and Support 27
2.5 Experimental Procedures 28
2.5.1 Forces measuring procedures 28
2.5.2 Velocity measuring procedures 29
2.6 Uncertainty 31

CHAPTER III RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 34
3.1 Results of Force Measurement 34
3.1.1 Lift performance 35
3.1.2 Drag performance 36
3.1.3 Lift to drag ratio 37
3.2 Velocity contours 39
3.2.1 Axial velocity contours 39
3.2.2 Vertical velocity contours 40
3.3 Vortex size 41
3.4 Vortex trajectory in the near field 42
3.5 Flow Structures 44

CHAPTER IV CONCLUSIONS 46

REFERENCE 73

APPENDIX 78
A.1: Aerodynamic results 78
A.2: Flow measurement results 82
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