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研究生:王若衡
研究生(外文):Ruo-Heng Wang
論文名稱:雙傾旋無人飛機之系統模型與控制平台建立
論文名稱(外文):Modeling and Control Platform Design for Twinrotor VTOL Vehicle
指導教授:林清一林清一引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chin E. Lin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:航空太空工程學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:英文
論文頁數:132
中文關鍵詞:垂直起降無人飛行載具航電系統微處理器
外文關鍵詞:VTOLMicrocontroller ImplementationUAVSystem DynamicsTiltrotor Control
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TILT-ROTOR式旋翼及定翼雙型態載具具有許多優點,並利用於各種領域上。在分析載具之動力學特性時,可以發現系統的不穩定性。飛行測試平台的設計,提供了一個安全的環境,進行停懸控制測試,並能安全地調整控制參數。
本文首先提出傾旋機構與飛行測試平台的設計,其中提到架設測試平台的重要性,可用來避免控制律不當或者人為因素而造成飛行載具損毀或人員受傷等問題。再者,分析系統模型並設計了其對應的控制律,能讓載具能穩定停懸,並利用Matlab模擬飛機停懸時,系統的響應以及軌跡追蹤。
在即時航電控制系統中,核心為兩顆C8051微處理器,用來接收慣性感測器和霍爾感測器資訊,分別用於計算姿態和馬達轉速。並且執行控制律和調整制動器的輸出,藉由下載飛行資訊於後擷取系統,提供載具完整的飛行狀態資訊的紀錄。文中所設計的自主性飛行系統,從設計製造到實現,並利用傾旋載具成功停懸於測試平台上。
The tiltrotor aircraft provides advantage of better system operation requirements and performance for many applications. On control aspect, it is a unstable system with critical dynamic characteristics. A flight platform can be used as design project for control practice and system verification.
The design of tilting mechanism and aircraft platform is proposed in this thesis. The main structure of the vehicle is focused on the tilting mechanism as aircraft platform for safe hovering test before the control law can be fully satisfied. To aim at this platform operation, the control effort is developed to make safe flights. The system model and the probability of the control law for hovering flight must be analyzed in advance. The complicated model is separated into several subsystems, and its control algorithm is built for hovering flight. Before hovering experiment, a control strategy is formulated and simulated using MATLAB to examine its effectiveness. The Microcontroller unit (MCU)-based remote control system is built for aerial control. The microcontroller receives the inertial sensor data for flight attitudes, as well as Hall sensor data for motor speeds. Tiltrotor aircraft model and its flight controller are implemented for experiments under scheduled control procedures. The purpose of the experiment in this thesis accomplishes successful for hovering flight on the aircraft platform.
ABSTRACT i
摘 要 iii
誌 謝 v
CONTENTS vi
LIST OF TABLES viii
LIST OF FIGURE ix
NOMENCLATURE xii
ABBREVIATION xvi

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Motivation 1
1.2 Main Idea 2
1.3 Literature Survey 4
1.4 Thesis Out 8
CHAPTER II
TILTING MECHANISM AND AIRCRAFT PLATFORM DESIGN 12
2.1 Tiltrotor UAV Design 12
2.2 Tiltrotor UAV Operation 15
2.3 Aircraft Platform 20
CHAPTER III
DYNAMICAL MODEL 24
3.1 Dynamical Model 25
3.2 Model Reduction 30
3.3 Open Loop Behavior 32
CHAPTER IV
CONTROL STRATEGY FOR HOVERING FLIGHT 35
4.1 Longitudinal Motion Control 36
4.2 Lateral Motion Control 42
4.3 Simulation Results 48

CHAPTER V
DEVELOPMENT OF AERIAL CONTROL SYSTEM 57
5.1 Architecture of MCU C8051 60
5.1.1 Architecture of Master 60
5.1.2 Architecture of Slave 67
5.2 Inertial Sensors and Attitude Algorithm 75
5.2.1 Pseudo Attitude 77
5.2.2 Euler Four Symmetrical Parameters 79
5.2.3 Complementary Filtering 80
5.2.4 Attitude Algorithm Experiment 83
5.3 Actuators 88
5.4 Data Acquisition System 92
CHAPTER VI
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 95
6.1 First Hovering Flight Test 96
6.2 Second Hovering Flight Test 97
6.3 Remarks 103
CHAPTER VII
CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK 105
7.1 Conclusions 105
7.2 Suggestions for Further Work 106
REFERENCES 108
VITA 111
[1] G. R. Gress, “Lift Fans as Gyroscopes for Controlling Compact VTOL Air Vehicles: Overview and Development Status of Oblique Active Tilting,” Annual Forum Proceedings - AHS International, Vol. 1, pp. 69-77, 2007, AHS International 63rd Annual Forum - Proceedings - Riding the Wave of New Vertical Flight Technology.
[2] A. Sanchez, J. Escareno, O. Garcia and R. Lozano, “Autonomous Hovering of a Noncyclic Tiltrotor UAV: Modeling, Control and Implementation,” The International Federation of Automatic Control, July, 2008, pp. 803-808.
[3] P. Castillo, R. Lozano and A. E. Dzul, Modeling and Control of Mini-Flying Machines, Springer, pp. 39-59.
[4] F. Kendoul, I. Fantoni, and R. Lozano, “Modeling and Control of a Small Autonomous Aircraft Having Two Tilting Rotors,” Proceedings of the 44th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, 2005, pp. 8144-8149.
[5] S. Bouabdallah, R. Siegwart, “Backstepping and Sliding-mode Techniques Applied to an Indoor Micro Quadrotor,” Proceedings - IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Vol. 2005, Proceedings of the 2005 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, pp. 2247-2252.
[6] B. Erginer, E. Altug, “Modeling and PD Control of a Quadrotor VTOL Vehicle,” Proceedings of the 2007 IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium, IV 2007, 2007, pp. 894-899
[7] R. Hugo, S. Sergio, S. Anand, C. Pedro, L. Rogelio, “Modelling and Real-Time Control Stabilization of a New VTOL Aircraft with Eight Rotors,” IEEE Control Systems Magazine, Vol. 25, No. 6, December, 2005, pp. 45-55.
[8] C. W. Hsu, Avionics System Integration on Autonomous and Remote Control Enhancement, PhD’s Thesis, University of Cheng Kung University, July 2008.
[9] A. Tayebi, S. McGilvray, “Attitude Stabilization of a VTOL Quadrotor Aircraft,” IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, Vol. 14, No. 3, May, 2006, pp. 562-571.
[10] S. Salazar-Cruz, F. Kendoul, R. Lozano, I. Fantoni, “Real-Time Stabilization of a Small Three-Rotor Aircraft,” IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, Vol. 44, No. 2, April, 2008, pp. 783-794.
[11] M. Saeki, J. Imura, Y. Wada, “Flight Control Design and Experiment of a Twin Rotor Helicopter Model via 2 Step Exact Linearization,” IEEE Conference on Control Applications - Proceedings, Vol. 1, 1999, pp. 146-151.
[12] Silicon Laboratories, “C8051F04x Data Sheet”, Rev. 1.5, Dec. 2005.
[13] H. K. Tenn, GPS Velocity Based Attitude Determination and its Applications for Unmanned Helicopter System, PhD’s Thesis, University of Cheng Kung University, June 2008.
[14] R. P. G. Collinson, Introduction to Avionics Systems, Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 262-268 and 277-280.
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