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研究生:吳佩蓉
研究生(外文):Pei-jung Wu
論文名稱:橋接彈性封包環狀網路上之可調式佇列排程設計與全域公平性之提升
論文名稱(外文):On Adaptive Queue Scheduling and Global Fairness Enhancement in Bridged RPR Networks
指導教授:許靜芳許靜芳引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ching-Fang Hsu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:資訊工程學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:英文
論文頁數:45
中文關鍵詞:公平性演算法優先權佇列排程彈性封包環
外文關鍵詞:Resilient Packet Rings (RPRs)fairness algorithmPriority queue scheduling
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由於網際網路的快速發展,使用者對於頻寬的需求和服務品質的要求也相對提升,因此許多技術也相繼被提出。其中在都會型網路中,最被廣泛使用的有SONET/SDH和乙太網路。這兩種網路型態分別存在著優勢和缺失,SONET使用雙環的架構來達到好的回復機制,但由於它採用線路交換(circuit-switched),使得頻寬無法有效被利用; 而乙太網路採用封包交換(packet-switched)來達到多工(multiplexing)傳輸,並且擁有架構簡單、建構成本較低等優點,但是乙太網路沒有一個良好的公平性機制來達到各個節點傳輸的平衡。
彈性封包環(Resilient Packet Ring, RPR)的提出是為了改善前述兩種網路的缺點,並且加入更多的技術使效能提升。IEEE 802.17於2000年初開始著手制定彈性封包環的相關協定,而在2004年推出彈性封包環的正式版本。發展至今,已有許多研究在探討關於單一彈性封包環下的一些議題,像是公平性以及回復機制。但在橋接式彈性封包環的架構下,卻缺少全域式的公平性保證(global fairness),而彈性封包環橋接器內部制定的排程亦相當缺乏彈性。本篇論文主要著重在多個橋接式彈性封包環的環境,提出一個新的橋接器架構,並配合一套可動態調整得佇列排程演算法。並且在全域的公平性演算法也提出改善,目標是加快全域公平速率值的傳送延遲。
根據模擬得到的結果,我們提出的優先權佇列排程演算法在平均端對端的延遲上較原本來的低,且可以讓各個佇列服務的機會更公平。而當全域公平速率值傳送時間越短,各個節點的傳輸速率可以更趨於穩定,並且頻寬利用率也會相對提升。最後我們針對各個方法的額外控制負擔(extra control overhead)和延遲時間(delay time)來分析比較。
As the increasing developing of Internet, users have been required more and more resource and better quality of service. Therefore, much technology is proposed to cover. SONET/SDH and Gigabit Ethernet (GigE) are the widespread technology applied in metropolitan area networks (MANs). The two network have their advantages, however, they still have drawbacks. SONET is a dual ring architecture and provides protection. However, SONET can not achieve high throughput due to the property of circuit-switching. GigE is a packet-switched technology, and provides full statistical multiplexing. Moreover, GigE has the property of high utilization, low cost and simplicity.

Due to the drawback mentioned above, IEEE 802.17 proposed a MAC protocol, referred to as Resilient Packet Ring (RPR). RPR provides not only the functionalities inherit from SONET and Ethernet, but also another enhanced technology. IEEE 802.17 started to specify the MAC protocol in early 2000, and proposed the standard in 2004. There have been much research works discussed the issues on single ring, like fairness and protection. However, there have no guarantee of global fairness, and the scheduler is lack of flexibility in RPR bridge. In this thesis, we focus on the environment of bridged RPR. We design a new RPR bridge architecture and design an adaptive queue scheduling algorithm, called Priority Queue Scheduling (PQS), to provide more fair service within each queue. Moreover, the other topic is global fairness algorithm. We suppose that the global fair rate notification consumes much bandwidth, therefore, a more efficient method is needed, called Enhanced Global Fairness algorithm (EGF).

Based on the simulation results, we can observe that DQS outperforms than RPR standard in average end-to-end delay. Furthermore, EGF can achieve higher bandwidth utilization and reduce the instable bandwidth consumption. Finally, we investigate the extra control overhead and delay time with EGF.
摘要 III
Abstract V
List of Tables VIII
List of Figures IX
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
Chapter 2 Overview 4
2.1 Concept of Resilient Packet Ring 4
2.2 The bridge architecture of RPR 7
Chapter 3 Related Work 12
3.1 The RPR fairness algorithm 12
3.2 The need for global fairness 15
3.3 Global Fairness algorithm 16
Chapter 4 The Proposed Scheme 19
4.1 Motivation and Problem Definition 19
4.2 Priority Queue Scheduling 20
4.3 Enhanced Global Fairness algorithm 27
Chapter 5 Performance Evaluation 32
5.1 Simulation environment: Priority Queue Scheduling 32
5.2 Numerical results: Load Delay 33
5.3 Simulation environment: Enhanced Global Fairness algorithm 34
5.4 Numerical results: 35
Chapter 6 Conclusion 43
Bibliography 44
[1]IEEE Standard 802.17, “Resilient Packet Ring (RPR),” 2004.
[2]IEEE. ISO/IEC 15802-3: 1998 [ANSI/IEEE Std. 802.1D, 1998 Edition], “Information technology - Telecommunications and information exchange between systems - Local and metropolitan area networks – Common speci_cations - Part 3: Media Acess Control (MAC) bridges,” 1998. IEEE standard for transparent bridges.
[3]IEEE Std. 802.1Q-1998, Draft Standard for Local and Metropolitan Area Networks: Virtual Bridged Local Area Networks, 1998. IEEE standard for transparent bridges in virtual LANs.
[4]ANSI T1.105.06-1996 Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) - Physical Layer Specification (Revision of ANSI T1.106-1988), 1996.
[5]ANSI/IEEE Std. 802.3, 2000 Edition, “IEEE standard for Ethernet,” 2000.
[6]IEEE draft P802.17/D2.1, “Draft 2.1 of the RPR standard,” February 2003.
[7]IEEE Standard 802.17b, “Part 17: Resilient packet ring (RPR) access method and physical layer specifications Amendment 1: Spatially aware sublayer,” 2007.
[8]A. Kvalbein, S. Gjessing, F. Davik, “Performance Evaluation of an Enhanced Bridging Algorithm in RPR Networks,” Proceedings 3rd International Conference on Networking (ICN’04), pp. 760-767, 2004.
[9]E. Ross. An overview of FDDI: the fiber distributed data interface. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, 7(7):1043_1051, Sept 1989.
[10]F. Davik, M. Yilmaz, S. Gjessing, N. Uzun, “IEEE 802.17 Resilient Packet Ring Tutorial,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 112-118, 2004.
[11]J. Zhu, A. Matrawv, I. Lambadaris, “A New Scheduling Scheme for Resilient Packet Ring Networks with Single Transit Buffer,” IEEE Communication Society Globecom, 2004
[12]M. Shreedhar, G. Varghese, "Efficient fair queueing using deficit round robin," ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review, 1995
[13]O. Lysne, S. Gjessing, A. Kvalbein, “Java based RPR simulator,” Avalable at http://simula.no/research/networks/software/rpr
[14]P. Setthawong, S. Tanterdtid, “Inter-ring traffic management for global fairness in bridged resilient packet rings,” Global Telecommunications Conference, 2005.
[15]P. Setthawong, C. Siriakkarap, S. Tanterdtid, “Inter-Ring Traffic Engineering for Bridged IEEE 802.17 Resilient Packet Rings,” Information and Telecommunication Technologies, 2005. APSITT 2005.
[16]P. Setthawong, S. Tanterdtid, “Non-Flooding Bridging Solutions for Resilient Packet Rings,” ECTI TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRICAL ENG., ELECTRONICS, AND COMMUNICATIONS VOL.6, NO.1 February 2008
[17]P. Setthawong, S. Tanterdtid, “Flood avoidance mechanisms for bridged resilient packet rings,” JOURNAL OF COMPUTER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 23(5): 815-824 Sept. 2008
[18]Robert Castellano. Basic bridging compliance requirements for draft 1.2. Presentation at RPR WG meeting in Hawaii, November 2002. Available at http://grouper.ieee.org/groups/802/17/proceedings.htm.
[19]Robert Castellano. Enhanced bridging - spatial reuse of 802.17 bridge tra c. Presentation at RPR WG meeting in Vancouver, July 2002. Available at http://grouper.ieee.org/groups/802/17/proceedings.htm.
[20]V. Gambiroza, P. Yuan, L. Balzano, Y. Liu, S. Sheafor, E. Knightly, “Design, Analysis, and Implementation of DVSR: A Fair, High Performance Protocol for Packet Rings,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Net., 2004
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