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研究生:傅建璋
研究生(外文):Chien-chang Fu
論文名稱:升溫速率對石門水庫淤泥製備輕質骨材之影響
論文名稱(外文):The Influence of Heating Rate on the Preparation of Lightweight Aggregates using Shihmen Reservoir Sediments
指導教授:雷大同
指導教授(外文):Da-tong Ray
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:資源工程學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:材料工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:116
中文關鍵詞:水庫淤泥輕質骨材石門水庫
外文關鍵詞:reservoir sedimentslightweight aggregatesShihmen Reservoir
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台灣地區水庫因天然地質及人為不當開發等因素,造成淤積情形十分嚴重,淤泥的堆積影響水庫的使用年限甚鉅。台灣地區46 座有詳細淤積測量之水庫,總淤積率約為18%,其中以東部地區淤積率最低不到1%,西部之北、中、南區水庫,有半數左右其淤積率高於30 %,情況較為嚴重。石門水庫位於桃園縣境內淡水河支流大漢溪中游,地處大溪鎮與龍潭鄉、復興鄉、新竹縣關西鎮之間。水庫集水區面積763.4平方公里、總蓄水量309,000×103 m3,目前有效總蓄水量約為208,976.0×103 m3,淤積率達32.37%。為延長水庫壽命增加水庫儲水效益,淤積的清理是刻不容緩的工作,水庫淤積清理包括二項重要工作,一為淤泥之清除,另一為淤泥之資源化。
本研究以採自石門水庫之淤泥為試驗樣品,淤泥之化學組成經分析係位於Riley三成份相圖之膨脹區中,顯示適於燒製輕質骨材。將水庫淤泥以不同的熱處理條件燒製,結果顯示:隨著燒結溫度的升高,骨材內部孔隙之數量及大小有逐漸增多(大)及擴大連通之趨勢;密度及抗壓強度隨燒結溫度的升高而降低;隨著持溫時間的增加,氣體的揮發持續進行,體密度及抗壓強度則降低,惟在瓷化溫度(約1200˚C~1250˚C)以上,視密度增大,顯示持溫使內部孔隙減少;升溫速率則對骨材密度之影響並不大。在不同燒結溫度下,抗壓強度隨升溫速率的增加,皆有增加,惟幅度不大,顯示升溫速率對抗壓強度,基本上無不利之影響。
燒製輕質骨材之最佳條件為:升溫速率5~15˚C/min,1200˚C~1250˚C持溫30 min,燒製之輕質骨材,體密度在1.45~1.77 g/cm3,吸水率低於1% ,抗壓強度在30.07~20.80 MPa之間,符合土木工程配製結構用輕質混凝土之要求,另在1300˚C燒製之輕質骨材亦符合隔熱用輕質混凝土用途之要求。
Due to geological condition and improper exploitation, the reservoirs in Taiwan have serious sediments problems, which shorten the life of reservoirs. In Taiwan Province, there are 46 reservoirs, which have detailed sedimentation survey. The total sedimentation amounts are estimated about 18%. Among the reservoirs, in eastern Taiwan, the sedimentations are the lowest, not more than 1%. While in the western, in north, center and south location, half of them sedimentations are over 30%. The situations are quite serious. The Shihmen Reservoir is located in the mid-stream of Tahan River. It is in the administrations of Daxi, Lungtan and Fuxing Townships of Taoyuan County, and of Guanxi Township of Hsinchu County. The area of reservoir watershed is 763.4 square km2 and total capacity is 309,000×103 m3. Its current effective total capacity is approximately 208,976.0×103 m3 and the sedimentation is 32.37%. In order to increase lifetime of reservoirs as well as to increase their capacity, sediments cleansing is a task not to be delayed. The disposal of reservoir sediments includes two major works, one is the removal of sediments, the other is its transformation to useful resources.
Sediments taken from Shihmen Reservoir were tested in this study. The analysis showed that the chemical composition was located in the bloating region of Riley diagram, suggesting its feasibility for lightweight aggregates manufacturing. Reservoir sediments were prepared at different conditions, the results show: raising sintering temperature increases the amount and size of closed pores, as well as the connectivity among the pores. The density and compressive strength decrease as sintering temperature is lengthen. The Bulk density and compressive strength decrease as sintering duration is lengthen, while the apparent density increases for above vitrification temperatures (ca. 1200˚C~1250˚C). The heating rate does not significantly influence the density of the aggregates. Compressive strength increases as the heating rate is increased, however the extent is minor.
The optimal conditions of preparing lightweight aggregates are: heating rate 5~15˚C/min, sintering temperature 1200˚C~1250˚C, duration 30 minutes. The properties of aggregates prepared are: bulk density 1.45~1.77 g/cm3; water absorbing less than 1%; compressive strength 30.07~20.80 MPa. The aggregates can be used for manufacturing lightweight concrete for structural application in civil engineering. Lightweight aggregates prepared at 1300˚C can be used for manufacturing lightweight concrete for insulation prepares.
摘要 I
Abstract III
表目錄 VIII
圖目錄 IX
誌謝 XIII
第1章 緒論 1
1.1 研究背景 1
1.2 研究目的 2
第2章 文獻回顧 3
2.1輕質骨材之種類 3
2.2輕質骨材之特性 6
2.2.1密度 7
2.2.2粒徑 9
2.2.3吸水率 11
2.2.4抗壓強度 12
2.3輕質骨材膨脹機制 14
2.4輕質骨材燒結理論 19
2.4.1燒結過程 19
2.4.2燒結條件 23
2.5水庫淤泥岩石及礦物學 25
2.5.1石門水庫集水區地質 25
2.5.2石門水庫淤泥礦物學 28
2.6前人研究 31
第3章 實驗方法與步驟 37
3.1樣品採集及實驗流程 37
3.2淤泥性質試驗 39
3.2.1粒徑分佈 39
3.2.2礦物組成 39
3.2.3熱性質 39
3.2.4化學組成 40
3.3淤泥燒結試驗 40
3.3.1生胚製作 40
3.4骨材物理性質試驗 40
3.4.1密度、視孔隙率及吸水率 40
3.4.2機械強度試驗 41
3.4.3燒結體顯微結構觀察 42
第4章 結果與討論 43
4.1淤泥性質 43
4.1.1粒徑分佈 43
4.1.2礦物組成 44
4.1.3化學組成 46
4.1.4熱性質 48
4.2骨材磨光及破裂截面在不同燒結條件下之形貌變化 51
4.3燒結條件與骨材物理性質之關係 56
4.3.1燒結溫度對體密度及視密度之影響 56
4.3.2持溫時間對體密度及視密度之影響 57
4.3.3升溫速率對體密度及視密度之影響 58
4.3.4燒結條件對視孔隙率及吸水率之影響 59
4.3.5燒結溫度對抗壓強度之影響 61
4.3.6持溫時間對抗壓強度之影響 61
4.3.7升溫速率對抗壓強度之影響 63
4.4 <5 μm分級樣燒製之骨材性質 65
第5章 結論 67
第6章 建議 68
參考文獻 69
附錄A 安德利森瓶(Andreasen pipette)粒徑分佈量測步驟 74
附錄B Standard Atomic Absorption Conditions 78
附錄C 淤泥之粒徑分佈數據 82
附錄D 燒結溫度與骨材體密度及視密度之關係 83
附錄E 依抗壓強度分類之輕質骨材燒結條件 87
附錄F 使用於結構用及隔熱用輕質骨材之燒製條件 89
附錄G 不同燒結溫度、升溫速率及持溫時間,燒結所得樣品之XRD圖型 90
附錄H 石英、伊萊石、綠泥石及富鋁紅柱石之繞射峰2θ及峰值106
附錄I 台灣地質概況及地質分區 112
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