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研究生:盧建元
研究生(外文):Chien-Yuan Lu
論文名稱:氧化鋅奈米線光電及感測器元件之研究
論文名稱(外文):The study of ZnO nanowires-based optoelectronics and sensor devices
指導教授:張守進張守進引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shoou-Jinn Chang
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:微電子工程研究所碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:英文
論文頁數:121
中文關鍵詞:感測器氧化鋅奈米線
外文關鍵詞:SensorNanowireZnO
相關次數:
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本論文的主要目標為製作氧化鋅奈米線紫外光光檢測器、氣體感測器、p 型氧化鎳/n 型氧化鋅奈米線異質接面二極體及氧化鋅奈米線/p 型氮化鎵發光二極體。在光檢測器研究中,我們分別製作出四種不同結構之紫外光光檢測器,可分為氧化鋅奈米線光檢測器,加入SOG 絕緣層的氧化鋅奈米線光檢測器、側向成長奈米線光檢測器
及無方向成長奈米線光檢測器。對於上面所提到的前兩個光檢測,我們先成長垂直排列整齊氧化鋅奈米線於基板上。為了方便製做光檢測器,於是直接在剛成長好的氧化鋅奈米線上熱蒸鍍金金屬。可以發現奈米線的最上端似乎被所沉積的金金屬給覆蓋,且每一根奈米線的上層會緊密地與相鄰的奈米線上層相接觸,奈米線的表面會形成火材棒形狀的金金屬薄膜並被當作電極使用,成功地製作了3D 結構的光檢測器。在2V之操作電壓上,此光檢測器的暗電流為2.198x10-4A。再者,我們也探討了此結構的氧氧氣體感測器的特性。在注入氧氣的條件下,可以發現氣體感測器的響應會隨著氧
氣流量的增加(50mtorr~500torr)而增加(20.7%~136.6%)。此外,為了要使奈米線能堅固地連接兩端電極,並有效降低元件的暗電流,於是利用旋轉塗佈法塗佈一層SOG薄膜。在2V 之操作電壓上,擁有SOG 絕緣層光檢測器的暗電流密度只有3.8 x 10-9A/cm2。也由於有效降低暗電流,元件的時間常數大約只有0.44mSec,且紫外光對可
見光的拒斥比值和量子效率分別高達1000 與12.6%。除此之外,此元件的雜訊等效功率和檢測度分別可達到5.73x10-11W 和6.17x109cmHz0.5W-1。在使用側向成長技術來製作光檢測器方面,側向成長之氧化鋅奈米線的平均長度和直徑分別為5μm 和30nm,且會橫跨兩鄰近指叉,提供電子傳輸路徑。在2V 外加偏壓下,光檢測器的光暗電流分別為5.0x10-8 和4.1x10-9A。且相對應的時間常數大約為452mSec。至於在無方向成長技術製作光檢測器方面,我們是將氧化鋅奈米線製作在圖案化的ZnO:Ga/SiO2/Si 基板上。我們發現成長在SiO2 上的奈米線並無固定長出的方向,而這些交錯的奈米線亦提供了電子傳輸路徑。當波長375nm 的光射入時,其響應度在外加1V 偏壓下為0.055A/W。且元件的雜訊等效功率和檢測度分別可達
到2.32x10-9W 和7.43x109cmHz0.5W-1。此外,此交錯傾斜氧化鋅奈米線溼度感測器的特性亦被探討。在溼度增加的條件下,此感測器的電阻值會線性遞減。
最後,我們濺鍍氧化鎳薄膜於剛成長好的垂直氧化鋅奈米線上,並發現此薄膜會在奈米線上聚集形成蘑菇狀。此p 型氧化鎳/n 型氧化鋅異質結構的開啟電壓~1V,且有很好的整流特性。而且在1V 的偏壓下電流電壓特性主要是由空間電荷限制電流所主宰。此外我們亦用熱化學氣相沉積法將氧化鋅奈米線成長於p 型氮化鎵基板上。此
發光二極體元件發光特性主要是由p 型氮化鎵鎂摻雜或表面缺陷所造成。
The main goal of this dissertation is the achievement of ZnO nanowire-based UV
photodetectors, sensors, p-NiO/ ZnO nanowires heterojunction P-N diode and ZnO
nanowires/p-GaN light emitting diode. In the study of ZnO nanowire-based photodetectors,
four types of UV photodetectors: photodetectors with Au contacts, photodetectors with
insulating spin-on-glass (SOG) layer, interlaced ZnO nanowires-based photodetectors and
lateral ZnO nanowires-based photodetectors were studied. For the first two
above-mentioned photodetectors, the well-aligned vertical ZnO nanowires used in this
study were gorwn on ZnO:Ga/glass templates. For the fabrication of photodetectors, Au
metal was thermally evaporated onto as-grown ZnO nanowires. It was found that tips of
the ZnO nanowires seem to be covered by the subsequently deposited Au. It was also
found that head of each individual club contacted closely with those of the neighboring
clubs to form continuous Au thin film at the sample surface. Utilizing the matchstick-like
nanowires to form a continuous Au thin film as contact, the 3D nanostructure of
photodetector can be achieved. With a 2V applied bias, it was found that dark current of
this photodetector was 2.198 x 10-4 A. Furthermore, we also reported the characteristics of
he
oxygen gas sensors. Upon the injection of oxygen gas, it was found that the response of
the sensors increased from 20.7% to 136.6% with the increased oxygen gas ratio. Besides,
in order to achieve good electrical contact to both ends of the ZnO nanowires and
effectively reduce the dark current of the PDs, we coated a thin SOG film onto the
as-grown ZnO nanowires. With 2V applied bias, it was found that dark current density of
the photodetector with SOG layer was only 3.8 x 10-9 A/cm2. It was also found that the
time constant and UV-to-visible rejection ratio of the fabricated photodetectors was around
0.44 mSec and 1000 with a maximum quantum efficiency of 12.6%, respectively.
Furthermore, it was also found that noise equivalent power and normalized detectivity of
the ZnO nanowire photodetector were 5.73x10-11W and 6.17x109cmHz0.5W-1, respectively.
By using the crabwise growth technique, the average length and diameter of lateral
ZnO nanowires were around 5μm and 30 nm, respectively. The lateral ZnO nanowires can
be bridged across two neighboring fingers to provide electrical paths. With 2V applied bias,
it was found that dark current and photo current of the fabricated detector were 4.1x10-9
and 5.0x10-8A, respectively. It was also found that the corresponding time constant of our
lateral ZnO nanowire photodetector was around 452 mSec. On the part of the interlaced
ZnO nanowire UV photodetectors, the high-density signle crystalline ZnO nanowires were
grown on patterned ZnO:Ga/SiO2/Si templates. The ZnO nanowires grown on a sputtered
ZnO:Ga layer were vertically aligned while those grown directly on a SiO2 layer were
randomly oriented. Interlaced ZnO nanowires will also provide electrical paths on a SiO2
layer. With an incident wavelength of 375 nm, it was found that measured responsivity was
0.055 A/W for the interlaced ZnO nanowires photodetector with a 1V applied bias. The
transient time constants measured during the turn-on and turn-off states were τon = 12.72
ms and τoff = 447.66 ms, respectively. Furthermore, the low frequency noise spectra
obtained from the UV photodetector were purely due to the 1/f noise. Besides, the noise
Vequivalent
power (NEP) and normalized detectivity (D*) of the ZnO nanowire
photodetector were 2.32x10-9 W and 7.43x109 cmHz0.5W-1, respectively. In addition, we
also reported the characteristics of ZnO nanowire-base humidity sensor. It was found that
measured resistance of the sensor decreased linearly with the increase of RH.
Finally, we reported the depositon of NiO onto ZnO nanowires prepared on
ZnO:Ga/glass templates. With the sputtered NiO, the nanowires became mushroom-like.
The p-NiO/n-ZnO heterostructure exhibits rectifying behavior with a sharp turn on at ~1V.
Furthermore, the current vs. voltage characteristic is dominated by space-charge-limited
current (SCLC) at high (1.1V) forward bias. Besides, the p-GaN/ ZnO nanowire
heterostructure was also fabricated. The photoluminescence spectrum of p-GaN film
exhibited broad bands at 432nm and 583nm and is attributed to shallow donors to deep Mg
acceptor level or interface defects or transitions from conduction band. It was also found
that EL emission of the LED is dominated by defect-related emission in the p-GaN layer.
Abstract (in Chinese)..........................................................................................I
Abstract (in English) ....................................................................................... III
Acknowledgement........................................................................................... Ⅵ
Contents......................................................................................................... VII
Figure Captions ................................................................................................X
CHAPTER 1 Introduction................................................................................. 1
1-1. Background and Motivation ................................................................................. 1
1-2. Organization of dissertation.................................................................................. 3
CHAPTER 2 Experimental equipment and theory of the research .................. 9
2-1. Various methods for growth of ZnO nanowires.................................................. 10
2-1-1. Chemical Vapor Deposition method ...................................................... 10
2-1-2. Template-assisted growth method .......................................................... 10
2-1-3. Solution-base synthesis method ............................................................. 11
2-1-4. Catalyst-driven molecular-beam-epitaxy method .................................. 12
2-1-5. Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition method ................................ 12
2-1-6. Vapor-Liquid-Solid (VLS) method ........................................................ 12
2-1-7. Oxide-assisted growth............................................................................ 13
2-1-8. Vapor-Solid (VS) mechanism................................................................. 14
2-1-9. Self-catalyzed VLS process ................................................................... 15
2-2. Theory of photodetectors .................................................................................... 16
2-2-1. Therory of MSM photodetectors............................................................ 17
2-2-2. Current-voltage ...................................................................................... 18
2-2-3. Spectral response.................................................................................... 18
2-2-4. Noise equivalent power.......................................................................... 20
2-2-5. Detectivity .............................................................................................. 22
2-3. Theory concerning gas sensor based on ZnO nanowires.................................... 23
2-4. Experimental details and analytic ....................................................................... 25
2-4-1. Field-Emission Scanning Electron Sicroscope ...................................... 26
2-4-2. High resultion X-ray diffractometer....................................................... 27
2-4-3. Field Emission transmission electron microscopy ................................. 27
2-4-4. Photoluminescence Spectroscopy .......................................................... 27
CHAPTER 3 Well-aligned ZnO nanowire UV photodetectors and oxygen gas
sensor............................................................................................................... 40
3-1. Vertical single crystal ZnO nanowires grown on ZnO:Ga/glass templates ........ 40
3-2. The novel application of well-aligned ZnO nanowire ........................................ 42
3-2-1. ZnO nanowire-based UV photodetector ................................................ 42
3-2-2. ZnO nanowire-based oxygen gas sensor................................................ 45
3-3. SOG technique applied to ZnO nanowire-based UV photodetector................... 47
3-4. Summary ............................................................................................................. 51
CHAPTER 4 A lateral ZnO nanowire UV photodetector prepared on
ZnO:Ga/glass template.................................................................................... 67
4-1. Laterally ZnO nanowires grown on ZnO:Ga/glass templates............................. 67
4-2. A lateral ZnO nanowire UV photodetector ......................................................... 69
4-3. Summary ............................................................................................................. 71
CHAPTER 5 Interlaced and slantwise ZnO nanowire-based UV
photodetectors and humidity sensor................................................................ 78
5-1. Interlaced and slantwise ZnO nanowires prepared on patterned ZnO:Ga/SiO2/Si
templates .................................................................................................................... 78
5-2. Ultraviolet photodetector with interlaced ZnO nanowires.................................. 80
5-3. A ZnO nanowire-based humidity sensor............................................................. 84
5-4. Summary ............................................................................................................. 86
CHAPTER 6 P-N Diode based on ZnO nanowires ........................................ 96
6-1. Fabrication of P-N Diode based on ZnO nanowire/p-NiO heterojunction ......... 96
6-2. Characteristics of ZnO nanowire/p-NiO heterojunction..................................... 97
6-3. Electrical properties of P-N Diode based on ZnO nanowire/p-NiO heterojunction
................................................................................................................................... 99
6-4. Fabrication of P-GaN/N-ZnO nanowire heterojunction light-emitting diodes... 99
6-5.Optical and physical properties of P-GaN/N-ZnO nanowire heterojunction
light-emitting diodes ................................................................................................ 100
6-6. Electrical properties of P-GaN/N-ZnO nanowire heterojunction light-emitting
diodes .......................................................................................................... ……….101
6-7. Summary ........................................................................................................... 102
CHAPTER 7 Conclusion .............................................................................. 115
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CH4
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injection process for growing ZnO nanorods”, J. Mater. Res. 18, 2837 (2003)
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CH5
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[11]C. L. Hsu, S. J. Chang, H. C. Hung, Y. R. Lin, T. H. Lu, Y. K. Tseng and I. C. Chen, “Selective growth of vertical ZnO nanowires on ZnO:Ga/Si3N4/SiO2/Si templates”, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 2292 (2005)
[12]T. J. Hsueh, S. J. Chang, Y. R. Lin, S. Y. Tsai, I. C. Chen and C. L. Hsu, “A Novel Method for the Formation of Ladder-like ZnO Nanowires”, Cryst. Growth Des. 6 1282 (2006)
[13]Q. H. Li, T. Gao, Y. G. Wang, T. H. Wang, “Adsorption and desorption of oxygen probed from ZnO nanowire films by photocurrent measurements”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 123117 (2005)
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[26]S. J. Chang, T. J. Hsueh, C. L. Hsu, Y. R. Lin, I. C. Chen and B. R. Huang, "A ZnO nanowire vacuum pressure sensor", Nanotechnol. 19, 095505 (2008)
CH6
[1.]M. C. Jeong, B. Y. Oh, M. H. Ham, S. W. Lee, and J. M. Myoung, “ZnO-Nanowire-Inserted GaN/ZnO Heterojunction Light-Emitting Diodes”, Small 3, 568 (2007)
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