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研究生:李奕廷
研究生(外文):Yi-Ting Lee
論文名稱:具低漣波輸出電壓之降壓型直流-直流轉換器
論文名稱(外文):A Step-Down DC-DC Converter with Low Output Voltage Ripple
指導教授:魏嘉玲
指導教授(外文):Chia-Ling Wei
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:電機工程學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:88
中文關鍵詞:降壓切換式電源轉換器直流-直流轉換器
外文關鍵詞:switching regulatorDC-DC converterstep-down
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:5
  • 點閱點閱:689
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:212
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
一般電子產品中,多半會加入電源控管電路,如直流-直流轉換器來將前端的供應電壓源轉換為穩定的輸出電壓以供內部電路使用。因此對於高轉換效率、高精準度且體積小之直流-直流轉換器的需求愈來愈高。交換式電源轉換器具有大負載電流範圍以及高轉換效率的優點,但是架構中採用電感以及電容當作能量傳遞的元件,而且在主迴路中的功率電晶體是當作開關來使用,因此輸出電壓具有漣波。而線性穩壓器架構中的功率電晶體並非當作開關來使用,所以無輸出電壓漣波,但缺點是當輸入與輸出電壓的差距加大時,轉換效率會降低。有鑒於此,本論文提出一個結合交換式電源轉換器以及線性穩壓器的降壓型直流-直流轉換器架構,結合兩種架構的優點,並提供兩組穩定的輸出電壓。
本電路透過國家晶片系統設計中心提供的製程服務,使用台灣積體電路公司0.35μm 2P4M 5V混合訊號製程,以40 S/B封裝,尺寸為1.67×1.70mm2。量測結果如下:線性穩壓器部分,負載調節率為0.24mV/mA,無載時的電源調節率為9mV/V,最大效率為91.626%;降壓型切換式電源轉換器部分,負載調節率為0.46mV/mA,輕載時的電源調節率為75mV/V,最大效率為87.01%。
Power management circuit, such as DC-DC converter, is widely used in electronics to convert power supply to a required stable output voltage for electric circuits. Therefore, there is an increasing demand for the DC-DC converters with high efficiency, high accuracy, and low cost. Switching regulators have the advantages of wide load current range and high efficiency, but their inevitable output ripples is a problem for noise-sensitive analog circuit. On the other hand, linear regulators ideally have no output voltage ripple, but their efficiency drop significantly when the difference between the input and output voltages increases. Therefore, in this work, a low-dropout linear regulator is connected in series with the Buck converter to provide a 3.3V ripple-free output voltage for analog circuit, while the output of the Buck converter, which is 3.6V, is directly provided for digital circuit.
The die area of the proposed chip is 1.67×1.70mm2. The chip was implemented by Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC) 0.35μm 2P4M 5V mixed-signal polycide process, patronized by National Chip Implementation Center(CIC). For the LDO, the measured load regulation is 0.24 mV/mA, the measured line regulation at no load is 9 mV/V, and the max efficiency is 91.626%. For the Buck converter, the measured load regulation is 0.46 mV/mA, the measured line regulation at light load is 75 mV/V, and the max efficiency is 87.01%
第一章 簡介...............................................1
1.1 直流轉換器概論......................................1
1.2 研究動機............................................5
1.3 論文架構............................................5
第二章 背景資料...........................................6
2.1 穩壓特性............................................6
2.1.1 電源調節率.....................................6
2.1.2 負載調節率.....................................6
2.1.3 溫度調節率.....................................6
2.1.4 電源轉換效率...................................7
2.2 暫態響應............................................7
2.3 切換式直流-直流轉換器控制模式......................10
2.3.1 電壓模式控制..................................10
2.3.2 電流模式控制 .................................11
2.3.3 電壓模式與電流模式比較........................13
2.4 線性穩壓器.........................................14
2.4.1 頻率響應......................................14
2.4.2 電壓緩衝器補償................................16
2.4.3 巢狀米勒電容補償..............................17
2.4.4 電容補償......................................18
2.4.5 壓控電流源補償................................19
第三章 電路設計..........................................21
3.1 系統架構...........................................21
3.2 主電路元件數值.....................................22
3.3 脈衝寬度調變模式和脈衝頻率調變模式.................24
3.3.1 脈衝寬度調變模式..............................24
3.3.2 小訊號分析....................................26
3.3.3 補償電路設計..................................29
3.3.4 脈衝頻率調變模式..............................30
3.4 電路設計...........................................31
3.4.1 誤差放大器....................................31
3.4.2 偏壓電路......................................32
3.4.3 端對端比較器..................................33
3.4.4 鋸齒波產生電路................................34
3.4.5 帶差參考電壓產生電路..........................36
3.4.6 緩啟動電路....................................37
3.4.7 零電流偵測電路................................38
3.4.8 Dead time control buffer......................39
3.4.9 反震盪電路....................................41
3.4.10 電流偵測電路以及計數器.......................41
3.4.11 PWM/PFM判斷電路..............................44
3.4.12 模式選擇器...................................46
3.5 低壓降線性穩壓器...................................47
第四章 模擬與佈局........................................50
4.1 模擬結果...........................................50
4.1.1 各電路區塊模擬結果............................50
4.1.2 系統步進響應以及負載轉換暫態波形圖............58
4.2 電路佈局...........................................68
第五章 測試結果..........................................70
5.1 測試儀器...........................................70
5.2 測試結果...........................................71
第六章 結論..............................................86
參考文獻.................................................87
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Electronics, VOL 23, NO. 2, March 2008
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