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研究生:陳侶安
研究生(外文):Liu-an Chen
論文名稱:移動式機械手臂之建構及其在視覺導引物件抓取之應用
論文名稱(外文):Construction of a Mobile Manipulator and Its Application to Vision-guided Material Grasping
指導教授:蔡清元蔡清元引用關係
指導教授(外文):Tsing-Iuan Tsay
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:機械工程學系專班
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:90
中文關鍵詞:移動式機械手臂類神經模糊控制器行為基礎視覺導引眼在手
外文關鍵詞:neural fuzzy controllersbehavior-basedvision-guidedeye-in-handmobile manipulator
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過去數十年來,機器人技術的進步已將各種功能型機器人帶至我們的家中,現今,人們對於智慧型服務用機器人之需求預期將會增加。本論文的目標為設計一機械手臂來使服務用機器人能遞送物件,且提出一具有以行為基礎之看而後動架構之視覺導引控制策略,來抓取所需遞送之物件。本研究利用一個未經校準的眼在手視覺系統來提供視覺資料,用以控制手臂進行目標物之抓取。此策略是基於兩個預先定義的影像特徵,在類神經模糊控制器之設計中,每個影像特徵透過定義特定視覺行為之模糊規則,直覺式地決定相對於攝影機座標的一個自由度運動。藉由整合移動平台逼近階段之行為及機械手臂微調階段之行為,依序執行抓取工作。最後,實驗顯示出所提出之控制策略能用以實現在移動式機械手臂上,以逼近目標物且精確地定位其夾爪來抓取物件。
Over the last decades, progress in the robot technology has brought various functional robots to our homes’ doorsteps. Nowadays, it is also expected that the demand of the intelligent service robots will be increased. The objective of this thesis is to design a robot manipulator for a service robot to transfer material and propose a vision-guided control strategy with a behavior-based look-and-move structure to grasp the object to be transferred. This study utilizes an uncalibrated eye-in-hand vision system to provide visual information for controlling the manipulator to grasp the target object. The strategy is based on two predefined image features. In the designed neural fuzzy controllers, each image feature is taken to generate intuitively one degree of freedom motion command relative to the camera coordinate frame using fuzzy rules, which define a particular visual behavior. The behaviors in the approaching stage of the mobile base and in the positioning stage of the robot manipulator are then combined and executed sequentially to perform grasping tasks. Finally, the proposed control strategy is experimentally applied to realize a mobile manipulator that can approach a target object and precisely position its gripper to grasp the object.
中文摘要 i
英文摘要 ii
誌謝 iii
目錄 iv
圖目錄 vii
表目錄 ix
符號目錄 x

第一章 緒論 1
1.1 前言 1
1.1 研究動機與目的 1
1.2 文獻回顧 1
1.3 研究貢獻 3
1.4 內容與架構 3

第二章 機械手臂之建構及機器人系統之介紹 4
2.1 機械手臂之建構 5
2.2 全方向輪式底盤 8
2.3 機器人感測元件 11
2.3.1雷射測距儀 11
2.3.2網路攝影機 13
2.4 機器人系統之硬體控制架構 15

第三章 影像處理 17
3.1 支援向量機簡介 17
3.2 影像區塊之分割 26
3.3 影像特徵之處理 28
3.4 總結 31

第四章 機械手臂之運動學分析 34
4.1 機械手臂之座標系統 34
4.2 機械手臂之順向運動學 37
4.3 機械手臂之逆向運動學 39
4.4 機械手臂之速度運動解 42
4.5 機械手臂工作空間之軌跡規劃 43
4.5.1 空間之直線路徑 44
4.5.2 軌跡之規劃 45
4.6 OpenGL視覺化模擬環境 47

第五章 抓取行為之機械手臂末端控制 49
5.1 影像特徵選取 49
5.2 基於行為模式之動作規劃 51
5.2.1 逼近(Approach) 52
5.2.2 類神經模糊控制器 53
5.3 粗略運動轉換(Rough Motion Transformation) 56
5.4 控制策略 58

第六章 模擬及實驗 60
6.1 實驗設置 60
6.2 類神經模糊控制器之參數設計 63
6.3 眼在手機械手臂之定位測試 64
6.4 實際應用測試 69

第七章 結論 71
7.1 總結 71
7.2 未來發展 72

參考文獻 73
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