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研究生:陳曉薇
研究生(外文):Hsiao-Wei Chen
論文名稱:溫度與應變速率對Sn-Ag基底銲點結合強度影響之研究
論文名稱(外文):Effects of Temperature and Strain Rate on Adhesive Strength of Sn-Ag-based Lead-free Solder Joints
指導教授:李驊登李驊登引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hwa-Teng Lee
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:機械工程學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:96
中文關鍵詞:結合強度應變率溫度無鉛銲料IMC層
外文關鍵詞:temperaturelead-free solderstrain rateIMC layeradhesive strength
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:3
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  • 下載下載:34
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
本研究的目的為探討Sn-Ag基底無鉛銲料( Sn-3.5Ag、Sn-3Ag 0.5Cu、Sn-3Ag-2Sb與Sn-3Ag-2Sb-3In )與銅銲接後,銲點內部微結構、硬度、界面IMC層厚度與結合強度之差異;並討論測試溫度、應變率與高溫時效對銲點結合強度與破壞模式的影響,以評估各銲料之銲點機械性質與抗熱性之優劣。
研究結果顯示,與Sn-3.5Ag銲料相較之下,添加Cu元素能提升銲料機械性質,但於As-soldered狀態時即具有較厚之界面IMC層,且經高溫時效後會有大量Cu6Sn5化合物形成。添加Sb元素能有效抑制組織受熱粗大化的現象與界面IMC層之成長。Sn-3Ag-2Sb-3In銲點中In元素會固溶於界面IMC層中形成Cu6(Sn,In)5,且經高溫時效後界面IMC層會大幅成長。
於拉伸試驗中顯示銲點結合強度會隨測試溫度上升而下降,隨應變率變快而上升。於As-soldered狀態下,大多以Sn-3Ag-2Sb-3In銲點結合強度為最高,其後依序為Sn-3Ag-2Sb、Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu與Sn-3.5Ag。經150°C ×625hrs高溫時效後所有銲點結合強度皆呈下降趨勢,其中又以Sn-3Ag-2Sb-3In銲點結合強度下降幅度最大,而Sn-3Ag-2Sb銲點擁有最高的結合強度。
隨著測試溫度上升與應變率的減緩,破壞模式會從斷裂於銲料內部之延性破壞轉換成斷裂於界面處且同時包括延性與脆性兩種破壞模式的混合型,推測其主要原因與慢應變率會降低銲料拉伸變形時之應變硬化效應與測試溫度會造成銲料軟化有關。試件經高溫時效後破壞模式皆呈現混合型。
綜合本研究討論結果顯示銲點界面IMC層厚度、硬度、測試溫度與應變率對於結合強度及破壞模式都有很大的影響,且研究結果顯示Sn-3Ag-2Sb銲料具有最佳之抗熱性與良好機械性質。
This research evaluates the microstructure, microhardness, adhesive strength, and the thickness of interfacial intermetallic compound layer of Sn-Ag-X/Cu (Sn-3.5Ag, Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu, Sn-3Ag-2Sb, Sn-3Ag-2Sb-3In) solder joints. After thermal aging at 150°C for 625 h, the tensile tests were carried out at 25, 75, 125°C and strain rate ranging was 2.78×10-2 - 2.78×10-4 s-1 to study the effects of thermal aging, testing temperature and strain rate on adhesive strength of solder joints.
Adding 0.5 wt.% Cu to Sn-3Ag solder can strengthen the solder material, but in as-soldered condition the interfacial IMC layer of Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu/Cu is more thicker than other solder joints. Adding 2 wt.% Sb can depress the IMCs from coarsening. Sn atoms in Ag3Sn and Cu6Sn5 compound are substituted by In atoms in Sn-3Ag-2Sb-3In solder alloy, and the interfacial IMC layer grown rapidly after thermal aging.
Experimental results show that the adhesive strength of solder joints decreased with increasing temperature and decreasing strain rate. In the as-soldered condition, the adhesive strength of Sn-3Ag-2Sb-3In/Cu solder joints was almost higher than other solder joints. After 150°C for 625 thermal aging, the adhesive strength of all solder joints decreased. The adhesive strength of Sn-3Ag-2Sb-3In/Cu solder joints decreased seriously, and Sn-3Ag-2Sb/Cu solder joints show the highest adhesive strength.
When the testing temperature increased or the strain rate decreased, the fracture behavior of solder joints would chang from ductile mode to mix mode (combination of both ductile and brittle modes), with testing temperature increasing and strain rate decreasing. This phenomenon may be attributed to the strain hardening and thermal softening of solder. After 150°C for 625 h thermal aging, all samples presented mix mode.
This study shows that the adhesive strength and fracture mode of solder joints are strongly affected by variable interfacial IMC layer, microhardness of solder, testing temperature and strain rate. In this study the Sn-3Ag-2Sb/Cu solder joints has better mechanical properties, it has relations with that Sn-3Ag-2Sb has nice thermal resistance.
總目錄

口試合格證書 I
中文摘要 II
英文摘要 IV
誌謝 VI
總目錄 VII
表目錄 X
圖目錄 XI
一、前言 1
二、文獻回顧 4
2-1無鉛銲錫發展概況 5
2-2二元無鉛銲錫合金系統 9
2-2-1 Sn-Ag銲料系 9
2-2-2 Sn-Cu銲料系 11
2-2-3 Sn-Bi銲料系 12
2-2-4 Sn-Sb銲料系 13
2-2-5 Sn-In銲料系 14
2-3 Sn-Ag-X三元合金銲料 15
2-3-1Sn-Ag-Cu 15
2-3-2 Sn-Ag-Bi 17
2-3-3 Sn-Ag-Zn 18
2-3-4 Sn-Ag-In 18
2-3-5 Sn-Ag-Sb 18
2-4可靠度測試 22
2-4-1變應變率拉伸試驗 23
2-4-2變應變率與溫度拉伸試驗 23
2-4-3可靠度測試之試件形式 24
2-4-4應變率與測試溫度對銲料拉伸強度之影響 26
2-5實驗動機與目的 26
三、實驗步驟與方法 27
3-1實驗規劃 27
3-2試件製備 30
3-3實驗內容 34
四、結果與討論 37
4-1四種合金銲料之主要化合物 37
4-2銲點微結構 42
4-2-1銲料內部微結構 42
4-2-2高溫時效對銲料內部微結構之影響 48
4-3界面IMC層之成長分析 53
4-4銲點機械性質 61
4-4-1銲點內部之微硬度 61
4-4-2銲點結合強度 64
4-4-2-1測試溫度對銲點結合強度之影響 66
4-4-2-2應變率對銲點結合強度之影響 69
4-4-2-3熱儲存對銲點附著強度之影響 73
4-5銲點破壞模式分析 77
五、結論 82
六、建議與未來方向 84
七、建議與未來方向 86
八、參考文獻 87
著作權聲明 94
自述 95

表目錄

表 2-1 相關軟銲金屬及其合金銲料 6
表 2-2 現有各種無鉛焊料組成 8
表 2-3 ATSDR - 2007 CERCLA有毒物質排行表 21
表 3-1 本研究之主要實驗參數 28
表 3-2 建冠公司Sn-3.5Ag銲料合金成份(wt.%) 32
表 3-3 各合金成份物理性質 32
表 3-4 不同銲料之合金調配比例 32
表 3-5 助銲劑成份表 33
表 3-6 SASxIn銲料ICP成份分析 28
表4-1 各合金銲料之組成化合物 38
表4-2 界面IMC層平均厚度 60
表4-3 銲點內部微硬度 63
表4-4 銲點平均結合強度 66




圖目錄

圖 2-1 無鉛銲料與Sn-37Pb之熔點分佈 7
圖 2-2 Sn-Ag二元合金相圖 10
圖 2-3 Sn-Cu二元合金相圖 11
圖 2-4 Sn-Bi二元合金相圖 12
圖 2-5 Sn-Sb二元合金相圖 13
圖 2-6 Sn-Ag-Cu三元合金相圖 16
圖 2-7 Sn-Ag-Bi三元合金相圖 17
圖 2-8 Sn-Ag-Sb三元合金相圖 21
圖 2-9 銲料塊材拉伸試件示意圖 25
圖 2-10 各種測試式件形式 25
圖 3-1 實驗流程圖 29
圖 3-2 Cu線拉伸試件之示意圖 33
圖 3-3 實際拉伸試件圖 35
圖 3-4 Shimadzu AG-I 5KN微負荷材料試驗機與拉力式高溫箱 36
圖 3-5 高溫平板拉伸夾具 36
圖 4-1 Sn-In 二元合金相圖 39
圖 4-2 Sn-Ag-In三元合金相圖 39
圖 4-3 Ag-In二元合金相圖 40
圖 4-4 In-Sb二元合金相圖 41
圖 4-5 不同In含量銲料之XRD結果 41
圖 4-6 As-soldered時銲點內部微結構OM金相 45
圖 4-7 As-soldered時銲點內部深腐蝕微結構SEM金相 46
圖 4-8 SAS3In於As-soldered銲點內部深腐蝕微結構 47
圖 4-9 高溫時效後銲點內部微結構OM金相 50
圖 4-10 高溫時效後銲點內部深腐蝕微結構SEM金相 51
圖 4-11 SAS銲點內部經高溫時效後EDS成分分析 52
圖 4-12 As-Soldered與高溫時效後之界面IMC層OM金相 57
圖 4-13 As-Soldered與高溫時效後之界面IMC層之BSE影像 58
圖 4-14 界面IMC量測方式 59
圖 4-15 面IMC層總厚度變化 59
圖 4-16 界面IMC層經熱儲存後Cu6Sn5與Cu3Sn之比例 60
圖 4-17 SA銲點內部微硬度試驗實際壓痕 63
圖 4-18 銲點內部微硬度試驗 63
圖 4-19 SAS銲點拉伸曲線圖 65
圖 4-20 測試溫度對銲點結合強度之影響,應變率2.78×10-2 (s-1) 68
圖 4-21 測試溫度對銲點結合強度之影響,應變率2.78×10-3 (s-1) 68
圖 4-22 測試溫度對銲點結合強度之影響,應變率2.78×10-4 (s-1) 69
圖 4-23 應變率對銲點結合強度之影響 72
圖 4-24 高溫時效對結合強度之影響,應變率為2.78×10-2(s-1) 75
圖 4-25 高溫時效對結合強度之影響,應變率為2.78×10-4(s-1) 76
圖 4-26 拉伸試件斷口巨觀 78
圖 4-27 破裂位於銲點內部之韌窩狀延性破壞 79
圖 4-28 破裂位於銲料與界面IMC層交界處之韌窩狀混合破壞 80
圖 4-29 As-soldered之破壞模式統計圖 81
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