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研究生:吳燕婷
研究生(外文):Yen-ting Wu
論文名稱:一凸輪連桿式沖頭驅動機構之最佳設計
論文名稱(外文):Optimal Design of a Cam-Linkage Ram Mechanism
指導教授:邱顯堂
指導教授(外文):Shen-Tarng Chiou
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:機械工程學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:141
中文關鍵詞:凸輪連桿機械式沖床合成最佳設計機械利益
外文關鍵詞:Cam-integrated linkageMechanical pressSynthesisOptimal designMechanical advantage
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  為了迎合個人化的需求,少量而多樣的產品日益而生。若需使用沖床製作此類產品,則沖床必須具備沖壓運動與沖程皆可調的功能;一般而言,伺服沖床與複合式沖床較適於此類加工。然而,伺服沖床需使用一伺服馬達,且較適用於較小出力之加工;複合式沖床需同時使用一普通馬達和額外的伺服馬達,則較不符合經濟效益。
  本研究提出一組六桿之凸輪連桿式沖頭驅動機構,其只需一普通之鼠籠型馬達作為動力源,並藉由傳動裝置而驅動其曲柄與凸輪,使兩者作同向且轉速相同的轉動。其可藉由更換凸輪與少數桿件,達到變換沖壓曲線以及沖程的功能,以滿足各種加工之所需。因此,建立該機構之尺寸設計模式,以滿足不同的加工之所需,亦為研究目的之一。
  本文先利用逆運動分析建立凸輪之輪廓設計模式,接著依據微分幾何而建立凸輪之曲率分析模式;此外,再依序建立該機構的運動分析和運動靜力分析模式。最後依據前述所建立之各模式,建立該機構之最佳設計模式;其中,以提高機構之機械利益為目標,而以凸輪、桿件和彈簧尺寸參數為設計變數,所考量之限制條件則包含:機構之空間限制、接頭力與凸輪應力等。此外,針對各設計與分析模式,進行該機構應用於精密剪斷及精密引伸加工之實例設計與分析,以驗證所提出之模式的正確性,並探討所設計之機構的特性。
  由實例設計之分析結果可知,本研究提出之機構是可行且可用的,其亦達到提升機械利益和降低輸入扭矩的需求。因此,對於機械式沖床的研發,本文所得之成果於其沖頭驅動機構之設計與分析上均有其參考價值。
 Sometimes, products with few quantities but various shapes (or types) are needed. If using mechanical presses to produce them, the ram motions and the strokes of the presses should be adjustable. Servo-presses and hybrid presses are able to satisfy these requirements. However, the servo-press needs a servo-motor and suits works with low ram forces; and the hybrid press requires a normal motor and an extra servo motor which increases its cost.
 In this study, a six-bar cam-integrated linkage is proposed to be the ram mechanism, whose crank can be driven by an ordinary motor, and the cam is also driven by the motor with the aid of a transmission, such that the crank and the cam rotate with the same speed and direction. To satisfy different specifications of the ram motions and the strokes, the cam and some links of the mechanism need be replaced. Thus, the other concern of this research is to develop the methodology to determine the dimensions of the new cams and new links needed to satisfy the requirements.
 Based on the inverse kinematic analysis, the model for determining the cam contour is developed. Consequently, that of curvature analysis is built by using differential geometry. Furthermore, the models of kinematic and kinetostatic analyses are developed. Based on these, an optimal design model of the mechanism is proposed. The object is to maximize the mechanical advantage. The design variables include the dimensions of the cam, links and spring. Various constraints, such as space limitations, bearing loads, cam stress, etc., are considered. Two examples of the design and analysis of presses for precision cutting and precision drawing, respectively, are included to demonstrate the usage of the proposed models and the characteristics of the designed mechanisms.
 Based on the results, not only the proposed mechanisms are feasible and usable, but their mechanical advantages are increased, their input torques are reduced. It is expected that the results of this study have aids on the design and analysis of ram mechanisms in mechanical presses.
目 錄 ...頁次
摘要 ...i
英文摘要 ...ii
目錄 ...v
表目錄 ...ix
圖目錄 ...x
符號說明 ...xiv

第一章 前言 ...1
1-1 動機 ...1
1-2 文獻回顧 ...2
 1-2-1 凸輪連桿機構之合成 ...2
 1-2-2 單自由度之伺服沖頭驅動機構 ...3
 1-2-3 雙自由度之複合式沖頭驅動機構 ...5
 1-2-4 凸輪連桿式沖頭驅動機構之最佳設計...7
1-3 目的與方法 ...7
1-4 本文內容介紹 ...8

第二章 凸輪設計與分析 ...9
2-1 凸輪連桿式沖頭驅動機構構型 ...9
2-1-1 構型介紹與參數定義 ...9
2-1-2 沖床加工特性 ...11
2-2 包絡理論 ...12
2-3 凸輪輪廓設計 ...13
 2-3-1 逆運動分析 ...13
  2-3-1-1 位置分析 ...14
  2-3-1-2 運動係數分析 ...17
 2-3-2 輪廓生成 ...20
2-4 過切分析 ...21
 2-4-1 凸輪曲率分析 ...21
 2-4-2 避免過切條件 ...22
2-5 實例設計與分析 ...23
 2-5-1 實例一:剪斷加工 ...23
  2-5-1-1 尺寸參數及沖壓曲線 ...23
  2-5-1-2 凸輪輪廓生成 ...25
  2-5-1-3 凸輪曲率及過切分析 ...27
 2-5-2 實例二:引伸加工 ...28
  2-5-2-1 尺寸參數及沖壓曲線 ...28
  2-5-2-2 凸輪輪廓生成 ...29
  2-5-2-3 凸輪曲率及過切分析 ...31
2-6 本章小結 ...33

第三章 運動及運動靜力分析 ...34
3-1 運動分析 ...34
3-2 桿件質心之運動分析 ...38
3-3 運動靜力分析 ...42
3-4 實例一:剪斷加工 ...51
 3-4-1 各參數及工件選擇 ...51
 3-4-2 沖壓力及沖壓力曲線 ...52
 3-4-3 運動分析 ...53
 3-4-4 運動靜力分析結果 ...60
3-5 實例二:引伸加工 ...66
 3-5-1 各參數及工件選擇 ...66
 3-5-2 沖壓力及沖壓力曲線 ...67
 3-5-3 運動分析 ...67
 3-5-4 運動靜力分析結果 ...74
3-6 本章小結 ...80

第四章 最佳設計 ...81
4-1 最佳設計數學模式 ...81
 4-1-1 設計變數 ...81
 4-1-2 目標函數 ...83
 4-1-3 限制條件 ...84
  4-1-3-1 機構幾何限制條件 ...86
  4-1-3-2 應力與作用力之限制條件 ...88
  4-1-3-3 彈簧變數之限制條件 ...90
4-2 實例一:剪斷加工 ...90
 4-2-1 最佳設計模式與起始估計值 ...91
 4-2-2 最佳設計結果 ...93
4-3 實例二:引伸加工 ...99
 4-3-1 最佳設計模式與起始估計值 ...99
 4-3-2 最佳設計結果 ...100
4-4 實例三:剪斷加工 ...106
 4-4-1 最佳設計模式與起始估計值 ...107
 4-4-2 最佳設計結果 ...107
4-5 實例四:引伸加工 ...114
 4-5-1 最佳設計模式與起始估計值 ...114
 4-5-2 最佳設計結果 ...114
4-6 本章小結 ...120

第五章 結論與建議 ...123

參考文獻 ...126
附錄A 沖頭之最大沖壓力 ...132
附錄B 平行圓柱之接觸應力分析 ...134
附錄C 桿件幾何性質估算 ...137
自述 ...140
著作權聲明 ...141
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