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研究生:吳怡虹
研究生(外文):Yi-Hung Wu
論文名稱:重金屬對無機廢棄物燒製富貝萊土水泥之影響
論文名稱(外文):The effects of heavy metal on the production of belite-rich cement using inorganic wastes
指導教授:張祖恩張祖恩引用關係
指導教授(外文):Juu-En Chang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:環境工程學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:96
中文關鍵詞:水化行為因子實驗設計β-C2S無機廢棄物重金屬污泥
外文關鍵詞:hydrationβ-C2Sfactor experimental designheavy metal sludgeinorganic wastes
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  • 被引用被引用:2
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為減少水泥產業耗用大量之原料與能源,尋找可替代原料及降低燒結溫度為目前之重要課題。本研究以具有水泥資材化潛力之牡蠣殼、稻殼、淨水污泥及轉爐石進行生料調配,控制水泥化學參數,並添加電鍍污泥作為穩定β-C2S 之離子來源燒製富貝萊土水泥(BRC),最後再以不同比例混拌普通卜特蘭水泥(OPC)進行水泥試體之水化特性試驗,以驗證燒成之BRC 在實際工程應用之可行性。
結果顯示在生料化學參數設定為LSF = 0.75、SR = 4 時,燒成熟料之C2S 達最大含量約為75 wt.%,但其中仍有少部分不具水化能力之γ-C2S。以因子實驗設計探討重金屬穩定β-C2S 之作用,發現Cr2O3 之影響最為顯著,NiO 次之,若考慮交互作用則同時添加CuO 與ZnO 及Cr2O3 與ZnO亦為顯著影響因子。此外,添加電鍍污泥調配生料之研究證實,電鍍污泥之重金屬可有效穩定β-C2S,對照未添加電鍍污泥之燒成熟料,當添加量達14 wt.%時,可使γ-C2S 由7.8 wt.%降至0.3 wt.%,且使β-C2S 由63.4 wt.%增加至77.6 wt.%,有效提升熟料水化活性產物。在水化特性試驗方面,當BRC/OPC 混拌比例在4/6 以下,其抗壓強度皆符合CNS 第I 型水泥之標準規範,而混拌比例為8/2 之水泥試體,其7 天後強度發展明顯提升,至28天之抗壓強度則亦超過CNS 第IV 型水泥之標準規範。搭配晶相消長,可
印證熟料水化反應之進行並生成水化產物,由微觀結構可知混拌水泥之水
化產物有Ca(OH)2、鈣釩石(AFt)、單硫鋁酸鈣(AFm)及C-S-H 膠體。
To reduce the consumption of raw materials and energy in the cement industry, finding the alternative raw materials and reducing the sintering temperature are important issues at the moment. In this study, the potential cement materials such as oyster shell, rice husk, water treatment plant sludge, and Basic Oxygen Furnace slag are utilized as cement raw materials. Cement chemical parameters were controlled and electroplating sludge was added as a source of ion to stabilize the β-C2S thus produces belite-rich cement (BRC). Finally, to verify the feasibility of BRC in the engineering application, the pastes are mixed in different proportions to BRC and ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and undergo the test of hydration characteristics.
The results show that the largest amount of C2S phase in the clinker is about 75 wt.%, when the chemical parameters of raw material settings are LSF = 0.75, SR = 4. But some of γ-C2S still remains inactive with water. Factor experimental design was used to exam the role of heavy metals on β-C2S stabilization, and the effect of Cr2O3 was found to be the most significant, and followed by NiO. For factors interaction assessment, addition of CuO and ZnO as well as Cr2O3 and ZnO are also considered as significant factors. In addition, the research of utilizing electroplating sludge as a part of raw materials confirms that the heavy metals in electroplating sludge have a stabilizing effect on β-C2S. When compared to the clinker without electroplating sludge addition; as the addition amount reaches 14 wt.%, amount of γ-C2S reduces from 7.8 wt.% to 0.3 wt.%, and amount of β-C2S increases from 63.4 wt.% to 77.6 wt.%, which effectively raised the hydration product activity of the clinker.
In the hydration characteristics test, when BRC-to-OPC ratio (B/O) is less than 4 / 6, the compressive strength of pastes are in compliance with the standard of type I cement of CNS. In addition, the compressive strength of pastes has improved significantly after 7 days, and it is also greater than the standard of type IV cement of CNS at 28 days when the BRC-to-OPC ratio is 8 / 2. With the crystal phase rise and fall, it can be confirmed that the hydration of the clinker is ongoing and the hydration products are generated. Obtained from the microstructure, the hydration products in cements are Ca(OH)2, ettringite (AFt), monosulphoaluminate (AFm) and CSH gel.
中文摘要 I
英文摘要 II
誌謝 IV
目錄 VI
表目錄 IX
圖目錄 X
第一章 前言 1
1-1研究動機與目的 1
1-2研究內容 2
第二章 文獻回顧 4
2-1無機廢棄物之特性 4
2-1-1石灰質原料 4
2-1-2土質原料 6
2-1-3矽質原料 7
2-1-4鐵質原料 7
2-2水泥熟料之燒製 9
2-2-1水泥原料組成與生料化學參數 9
2-2-2熟料晶相特性 14
2-2-3水泥種類與工程用途 16
2-2-4低耗能水泥之製造 18
2-3矽酸二鈣相轉變之控制 21
2-3-1再熔融法 21
2-3-2晶粒成長控制 22
2-3-3晶格離子置換 23
2-3-4預測可穩定β-C2S之離子 24
2-4水泥水化特性 27
2-4-1熟料水化行為 27
2-4-2抗壓強度發展及水化物特性 30
2-5 小結 35
第三章 研究材料、設備與方法 36
3-1研究架構與實驗流程 36
3-2研究材料與設備 38
3-2-1廢棄物採樣與前處理 38
3-2-2實驗試藥與儀器設備 38
3-3生料調配與熟料燒製程序 40
3-3-1生料主成分配比 40
3-3-2熟料燒製程序 40
3-3-3因子實驗設計 41
3-4分析方法與判定指標 42
3-4-1分析方法 42
3-4-2判定指標 45
第四章 結果與討論 50
4-1廢棄物之基本特性與水泥生料配比 50
4-1-1廢棄物之物化特性 50
4-1-2生料主成分與熟料C2S晶相含量之關係 55
4-1-3小結 61
4-2重金屬對熟料C2S生成與相轉變之影響 62
4-2-1重金屬之主要影響與交互作用 62
4-2-2熟料晶相組成與重金屬殘留 66
4-2-3小結 70
4-3電鍍污泥燒製富貝萊土水泥之特性 71
4-3-1燒成熟料晶相組成與重金屬殘留量 71
4-3-2水化試體抗壓強度發展與晶相變化 75
4-3-3水化物微觀結構 79
4-3-4小結 87
第五章 結論與建議 89
5-1結論 89
5-2建議 90
參考文獻 91
附錄一 24設計之對照常數 95
附錄二 24因子實驗設計之Yates計算公式 96
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