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研究生:張瑋婷
研究生(外文):Wei-ting Chang
論文名稱:機車排放氣態污染物區域性特徵與影響因素研究
論文名稱(外文):Regional characteristics and relevant factors of gaseous pollutant emissions from motorcycles
指導教授:蔡俊鴻蔡俊鴻引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jiun-Horng Tsai
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:環境工程學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:195
中文關鍵詞:CO排放濃度區域性機車定檢站調修HC排放濃度觸媒
外文關鍵詞:CO and HC concentrationsUrban and rural areaTuneupCatalystSmoke-check station
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本研究藉由對機車定檢站發放機車檢測調修問卷,進行都會區及鄉村區之車齡、觸媒及調修效用等資訊調查,以了解區域性機車排放CO及HC之影響因素及差異性;並針對“調修”效用進行解析,對定檢站調修制度進行有效性研究。 研究顯示區域性影響主要反應在四行程機車CO及HC排放濃度,四行程機車CO排放濃度都會區為1.7%、鄉村區為1.3%,HC排放濃度都會區為449 ppm、鄉村區為348 ppm,都會區排放濃度皆高於鄉村區;區域性對二行程機車排放濃度影響無統計顯著性。裝設觸媒影響主要反應在二、四行程機車CO排放濃度,皆為無觸媒機車高於有觸媒機車,二行程機車CO排放濃度無觸媒為3.4%、有觸媒為2.9%;四行程機車CO排放濃度無觸媒為1.9%、有觸媒為1.4%。裝設觸媒對改善CO排放濃度有統計顯著性;觸媒對二、四行程機車HC排放濃度無統計上之顯著性。 以車體動力計實驗結果顯示,四行程無觸媒機車CO及HC排放係數為13.47 g/km、0.85 g/km,裝設新觸媒後降為5.14 g/km、0.427 g/km, CO及HC排放改善效率分別為62%及56%。
調修機車對降低不符合法規標準之二、四行程機車CO及HC排放濃度皆有統計顯著性,研究顯示二、四行程機車調修前CO及HC排放濃度越高則調修後減量效果越好。二、四行程機車調修後CO排放濃度減量比例分別集中在1-2.5%、3.5-5.5%,調修對CO排放濃度減量效用四行程機車高於二行程機車;二、四行程機車調修後HC排放濃度減量比例分別集中在1000-3000 ppm、0-500 ppm,調修對HC排放濃度減量效用二行程機車高於四行程機車。不符合法規標準之二、
四行程機車調修項目大部分為調整空燃比或清理空氣濾清器及火星圔積碳;研究顯示二、四行程機車CO及HC排放濃度改善效用最高為同時調整空燃比及清理空氣濾清器&火星圔積碳。 推估機車調修後CO及HC削減量相對全國機車排放量比例,研究顯示調修後CO排放削減量二、四行程機車分別佔全國二、四行程機車之4.4%、3.2%;調修後HC排放削減量二、四行程機車分別佔全國二、四行程機車之1.2%、1.2%,調修對CO減量效果高於HC。
This study investigates the CO and HC emission concentration for motorcycles that attributed to vehicle age, catalyst, and tuneup in urban and rural area in Taiwan. Exhaust testing data of motorcycles in idle test mode were collected through questionnaire to the motorcyclists that stop for smoke-check at inspection station in several cities around Taiwan. Moreover, high-polluted motorcycles were tested again after tuneup that included change of parts (lubricant oil, air filter, spark plug, and air cleaner) to assess the effect of tuneup on emission reduction. Total data were collected from the questionnaires. In order to differentiate the significance effects, a statistical analysis was conducted. The results indicated that CO and HC emissions are significant different in urban and rural area, especial for four-stroke motorcycles. The emissions of CO are 1.7 and 1.3%, and HC are 449 and 348 ppm for urban and rural area, respectively. The concentrations for both air pollutants are higher than rural area in urban.
Catalyst installation may effect on CO emissions regardless of two- or four-stroke engine. For the two-stroke motorcycles, the average CO emission is 3.4% for motorcycles without catalyst and 2.9% for those with catalyst. For the four-stroke motorcycles, the average CO emission is 1.9% for motorcycles without catalyst and 1.4% for those with catalyst. In contrast, catalyst installation shows no significant effects on HC emissions for both of two- or four-stroke motorcycles. From the result of chassis dynamometer test shows that the CO emission factors are 13.5 and 5.14 g/km for without and with catalyst, respectively, in the tested four-stroke motorcycle. And the HC emission factors are 0.85 g/km for the motorcycle with no catalyst and 0.43 g/km for the one with catalyst.
The emission reductions are 62% for CO and 56% for HC. For the high-polluted motorcycles, the result indicated that the tuneup may reduce CO and HC emission concentrations of two- and four-stoke motorcycles. The result shows that the motorcycle with higher CO and HC concentration may get higher emission reduction caused by tuning. The reductions of CO concentration caused by tuneup are 2-2.5% and 5-5.5% for two- and four-stoke motorcycles, respectively. For HC concentrations, the reductions are 2-3000 ppm、0-500 ppm for two- and four-stoke motorcycles, respectively. In order to estimate the effect of tuneup on emission, we calculated the CO and HC emission reduction of motorcycles from whole country. The result shows that the CO emission will be reduced by 4.4% from two-stroke motorcycles and 3.2% from four-stroke motorcycles. For HC emission, the reduction percentages are 1.2% for both of two- and four-stoke motorcycles. This result implied that the tuneup is more effective on two-stroke than four-stroke motorcycles.
中文摘要............................Ι
Abstract...……………………………..III
誌謝………………………………………...V
目錄…………………………………………VI
表目錄………………………………....….X
圖目錄……………….……...……...…XIII
第一章 前言...........................1
1-1 研究緣起.......................1
1-2研究目標.....................3
第二章 文獻回顧.........................4
2-1機車定檢站制度建立...................4
2-1-1 台灣地區機動車輛使用概況..............4
2-1-2 美國稽查管制及維修保養(I/M)計畫........5
2-1-3 台灣地區機車管制現況.................8
2-2 機動車輛尾氣排放區域性差異................14
2-2-1 國外區域性差異特性研究................14
2-2-2 台灣地區道路差異特徵討論..............15
2-3 機動車輛尾氣排放影響因素..................16
2-3-1 引擎形式..............................16
2-3-2 觸媒轉化器裝置........................17
2-3-3 累積行駛里程及行車速度...............20
2-3-4 油品差異及冷車、熱車啟動方式..........20
2-4 機車定檢站檢測資料統計分析方法..............23
2-4-1 歷年機車定檢站數據統計方法.............23
2-4-2 ANOVA 變異數分析…...................24
第三章 研究方法........................34
3-1 研究架構...............................34
3-2 問卷數據來源流程...........................36
3-2-1 問卷設計及發放準則.....................36
3-2-2 問卷篩選方法...........................38
3-3 進行動力計測試.............................39
3-3-1 機車篩選與測試條件選擇....................39
3-3-2 動力計操作...............................39
3-3-3 機車排氣測定程序......................41
3-3-4 機車尾氣CO、HC排放係數計算.................43
3-4 數據分群方式及分析方法......................45
3-4-1 分群方式...........................45
3-4-2 變異數分析因子選定.....................45
3-5 單因子分析................................46
3-5-1 差異性檢定................................46
3-5-2 各變數對機車尾氣排放影響分析...............47
3-5-3 顯著因子分析...................48
3-6 調修效用分析方法.............................49
3-6-1調修前後差異性檢定……………….....…49
3-6-2 調修效用比較…………………….… .50
3-6-3 排放量推估……………………...51
第四章 結果與討論...............................62
4-1 問卷解析機車群特徵分析.................62
4-1-1 問卷回收基本資料.................62
4-1-2 問卷分群基本資訊...................64
4-2 機車尾氣排放氣態污染物區域性差異分析...........73
4-2-1 都會/鄉村區CO排放差異性比較..............74
4-2-2 都會/鄉村區HC排放差異性比較................77
4-3 影響機車尾氣排放氣態污染物影響因子分析.........92
4-3-1 車齡影響分析..............................92
4-3-2 裝設觸媒影響分析................94
4-3-3 調修影響分析.......................96
4-3-4 觸媒對行駛里程分析..............98
4-3-5 各影響因子分析................100
4-4 調修效果分析......................118
4-4-1 不合格機車調修前後CO及HC排放濃度差異性.......118
4-4-2 調修效用分析.......................121
4-4-3 機車排放CO及HC排放量推估................124
4-4-4 檢驗不合格機車調修項目效用分析..........130
第五章 結論與建議................166
5-1 結論.....................166
5-2 建議....................168
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