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研究生:施巧玲
研究生(外文):Chiao-Ling Shih
論文名稱:芳香蠟燭使用時多環芳香烴化物與揮發性有機物之排放特徵評估
論文名稱(外文):Characteristics of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) Emissions from the Use of Scented Candles
指導教授:蔡朋枝蔡朋枝引用關係
指導教授(外文):Perng-Jy Tsai
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:環境醫學研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:公共衛生學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:97
中文關鍵詞:健康危害風險評估揮發性有機物 (VOCs)多環芳香烴化物 (PAHs)芳香蠟燭
外文關鍵詞:Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)Scented CandlesHealth Risk Assessment
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本研究目的在於瞭解芳香蠟燭的組成及燃燒環境操作條件,與有害物逸散之相關性,並藉最佳化之選擇技術以擬訂最佳控制策略。研究首先建置一暴露腔,並對其環境控制條件之穩定性及均勻性加以確認。測試之芳香蠟燭成分組合包括三種精油(薰衣草精油、迷迭香精油及香茅精油) 及其三種精油添加比例 (0%、6%及12%)。測試之環境參數包括相對濕度 (60%、75%及90%)及空氣換氣率 (0.5 ACH、1.0ACH、及2.0ACH)。測試時針對每一測試條件重複實施三次,每次測試之採樣樣本包括多環芳香烴化物 (PAHs)及揮發性有機物 (VOCs)。PAHs針對氣固相,分別以濾紙採樣匣及XAD-2 吸附管進行採樣;VOCs則利用熱脫附管進行採樣之。
不同芳香蠟燭組成在相同環境條件(0.5 ACH, RH=75%)下,對PAHs及VOCs排放特徵影響之結果顯示:(1)添加0%及6%薰衣草精油其總PAHs及VOCs平均濃度及排放係數均以果凍蠟>石蠟。(2)總PAHs及總VOCs之平均排放濃度隨著精油種類而有所不同,以6%薰衣草精油>6%迷迭香精油>6%香茅精油;在排放係數方面與總PAHs及總VOCs平均排放濃度趨勢一致。(3)總PAHs平均排放濃度與精油添加比例呈正比,但排放係數卻與精油添加比例呈反比。但總VOCs平均濃度及排放係數均與精油添加比例呈正比。不同環境條件下使用組成成分相同之芳香蠟燭(6%薰衣草精油+石蠟),對PAHs及VOCs排放特徵影響之結果顯示:(1)總PAHs平均排放濃度及排放係數均以0.5 ACH>2.0 ACH>1.0 ACH;總VOCs平均濃度及排放係數則以1.0 ACH >0.5 ACH>2.0 ACH。(2)總PAHs平均排放濃度及排放係數均以60%>75%>90%;總VOCs平均濃度及排放係數均以90%>60%>75%。本研究發現所有測試條件組合之PAHs排放特徵均以二、三環之低分子量為主;VOCs排放特徵均甲苯、乙苯為主。呼吸道風險危害推估方面,本研究選取添加6%薰衣草精油之石蠟來進行推估,如以PAHs暴露而言,若每天暴露2小時,連續暴露10年,則其增加之致肺癌風險將會達1.28×10-5;VOCs方面,若每天暴露1小時,連續暴露1年,則其致肺癌風險亦達1.69×10-5。因此可知主關機關宜對芳香蠟燭可能的危害加強宣導,並做適當的管制。
The aim of this study was set out to assess the relationship between hazardous substance emissions and chemical compositions of scented candles and their operating conditions during the combustion process. The whole study was conducted in an exposure chamber, and its stability and uniformity had been tested prior to experiments were conducted. The scented candles tested in this study were selected according to their ingredient compositions. We selected candles blended with the three types of most used essential oil (lavender essential oil, rosemary essential oil and citronella essential oil), and each with three adding fractions (0%, 6% and 9% adding fractions in scented candles). The testing environmental conditions included three relative humidity (RH) conditions (60%, 75% and 90%), and three air exchange rates (0.5 ACH, 1.0 ACH and 2.0 ACH). For each testing condition, three repeat measurements were conducted. Samples of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were collected. For PAHs sampling, both gas- and particle-phase were collected by using a filter cassettes sampler and a XAD-2 sorbent tubes, respectively. VOCs samples were collected by using thermal desorption tubes.
For the operating condition of 0.5 ACH, RH=75% and scented candles with different chemical compositions, we found that (1) for the same additive of the lavender essential oil in paraffin wax and gel wax: both emission concentrations (i.e., total PAHs and total-VOCs) and emission factor (i.e., EFPAHs, and EFVOCs) showed the same trend as gel wax > paraffin wax; (2) for the same wax of paraffin that mixed with different essential oils with the fraction (i.e., 6%): total PAHs and EFPAHs were found as lavender essential oil> rosemary essential oil > citronella essential oil. The same trend was also found in total VOCs. (3) For the same wax of the paraffin mixed with lavender essential oil with different fractions: total PAHs, total VOCs, and EFVOCs were found as 12%>6%>0%; but EFPAHs was found as 0%>6%>12%. For scented candles with the same chemical compositions (6% lavender essential oil+ paraffin wax) but operated with different operating conditions, we found that (1) for same RH but with different ACHs: total PAHs and EFPAHs were found as 0.5 ACH > 2.0 ACH>1.0 ACH; but for total VOCs and EFVOCs were found as 1.0 ACH >0.5 ACH>2.0 ACH; (2) for the same ACH and that with different RHs: total PAHs and EFPAHs were found as 60%>75%>90%; but for total VOCs and EFVOCs were found as 90%>60%>75%. All collected samples were mainly contributed by gaseous PAHs, which were dominated by the low molecular weight PAHs containing two to three aromatic rings. Both benzene and toluene were the major composition in collected VOCs. The estimated lung cancer risk was found as 1.28×10-5 for that caused by the use of scented candles (6% lavender essential oil + paraffin wax) associated with the resultant PAH exposures for 2 hr/day for continuous 10 year. The estimated cancer risk associated with the resultant benzene exposures for 1 hr/day for 1 year was found as 1.69×10-5. The above results indicating that scented candles should be used with caution, particularly should prevent from long-term exposures in indoor environments with low ACHs.
表目錄 VI
圖目錄 VIII
第一章 前言 1
1-1.研究背景 1
1-2.研究目的 3
第二章 文獻回顧 4
2-1.多環芳香烴化物 4
2-2.揮發性有機物 9
2-3.芳香蠟燭與PAHs及VOCs逸散 11
第三章 研究設計及方法 21
3-1.研究架構 21
3-2.研究方法及步驟 22
3-3.樣本分析方法 27
3-4.資料處理 30
第四章 研究品質控制 35
4-1.PAHs與VOCs採樣及分析之品質管制 35
第五章 結果與討論 54
5-1.暴露腔穩定性與均勻性測試評估 54
5-2.不同芳香蠟蠋組成成分對PAHs及VOCs等成分特徵與排放之相關性探討 54
5-3.不同環境條件下,PAHs及VOCs成分特徵與排放之影響 58
5-4.使用芳香蠟燭之呼吸道健康危害風險推估 60
第六章 結論與建議 90
6-1.結論 90
6-2.建議 92
第七章 參考文獻 93
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