跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(3.235.56.11) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/07/29 10:00
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

: 
twitterline
研究生:陳美如
研究生(外文):Mei-Ru Chen
論文名稱:螺絲製造業製程之油霧滴、及多環芳香烴化合物逸散特徵及其勞工之暴露危害評估
論文名稱(外文):Characteristics of the process emissions of oil mists, and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the corresponding exposure assessment for workers in a fastener manufacturing industry
指導教授:蔡朋枝蔡朋枝引用關係
指導教授(外文):Perng-Jy Tsai
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:環境醫學研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:公共衛生學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:82
中文關鍵詞:油霧滴多環芳香烴化合物暴露評估螺絲製造業健康風險評估金屬加工用油
外文關鍵詞:health-risk assessmentoil mistexposure assessmentpolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbonsmetalworking fluidsfastener manufacturing industry
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:5
  • 點閱點閱:761
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:194
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
本研究目的在於評估螺絲製造業製程中,使用金屬加工用油之作業環境空氣中之油霧滴、多環芳香烴化合物(PAHs;Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons)之特徵與勞工暴露情形。整個研究可區分為四部份,第一部份探討螺絲製造業不同製程勞工呼吸道不同區域(頭區、氣管及支氣管區及肺泡區)之油霧滴暴露特徵;第二部份探討螺絲製造業勞工經由呼吸道及皮膚同時暴露PAHs之暴露特徵;第三部份探討重複循環使用之金屬加工用油其油品內之PAHs含量變化情形;第四部份探討油品內之PAHs含量變化情形,與作業環境PAHs濃度之相關性,並依此建立空氣中PAHs濃度之預測模式,及推估螺絲製造業勞工暴露PAHs之健康風險,以釐訂控制策略。第一部份的研究結果發現:(1)勞工可吸入性油霧滴暴露情形依序為搓牙(2.11mg/m3)>成型(1.58mg/m3)>熱處理(0.0801mg/m3);(2)三製程區作業勞工暴露之油霧滴發現均呈雙峰分布,其中細粒徑油霧滴之氣動粒徑介於0.309~0.501μm之間。粗粒徑油霧滴之氣動粒徑介於8.16~13.0μm之間;(3)依粒徑分布結果推估油霧滴之呼吸道沉積情形,可發現三製程區作業勞工暴露主要集中在肺泡區(佔66.9~77.9﹪),次為頭區(佔14.5~19.1﹪),最後為氣管與支氣管區(佔7.56~15.8﹪);及(4)成型及搓牙勞工可呼吸性油霧滴推估暴露濃度高達1.34mg/m3及1.40mg/m3,已明顯大於可能造成肺部傷害之0.20mg/m3,顯示應針對細粒徑部分之油霧滴採取合適之控制方法。第二部份的研究結果發現:(1)搓牙製程勞工暴露可吸入性氣相Total-PAHs平均濃度 (8.60�e104 ng/m3)>可吸入性固相Total-PAHs (2.90�e103 ng/m3)。勞工暴露可吸入性氣相+固相Total-PAHs平均濃度 (8.83�e104 ng/m3)雖低於台灣對PAHs的標準值 (1.00�e105 ng/m3),然而其95%信賴上限值 (1.02�e105 ng/m3)卻超過該標準值;及(2)身體所有皮膚暴露Total-PAHs平均量為5.44�e106 ng/day,且前五名的暴露部位依序為前臂、手、上臂、頸、和頭/前。第三部份的研究結果發現:(1)當日螺絲生產量可用以預測空氣中油霧滴濃度;及(2)螺絲累積生產量則可用以預測金屬加工用油中PAHs含量。第四部份的研究結果發現:(1)結合預測之油霧滴濃度及預測之金屬加工用油中PAHs含量,可有效推估出作業環境空氣中PAHs濃度;及(2)利用預測模式推估之致皮膚癌平均風險(3.51~5.12×10-4)低於預測模式推估之終生致肺癌平均風險(2.09~2.71×10-3)。但預測模式推估之終生致肺癌平均風險(2.09~2.71×10-3)高於美國最高法院定義之顯著危害風險值(10-3),因此建議搓牙機械裝設局部排氣裝置應視為控制策略的第一選擇。假如未來個人防護具能被勞工接受,應要求勞工優先選擇配戴呼吸防護具。
This study is to assess the emission characteristics and workers’ exposures to oil mist, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) arising from processes using metalworking fluids (MWFs) in a fastening industry. There are four parts in whole study. The first one is to estimate workers’ oil mist exposures to the different regions of the respiratory tract (head, tracheobronchial, and alveolar regions). The second is to assess the characteristics of both inhalatory and dermal exposures to PAHs for fastener workers. The third is to examine the change of PAH contents contained in MWFs during the recycling period. The fourth is to know how PAH contents contained in MWFs affecting airborne PAH concentrations in the workplace, and to predict airborne PAH concentrations based on PAH contents contained in MWFs. The predicted airborne PAH concentrations are used to estimate health-risks for workers exposed to PAHs contained in oil mist. The results obtained from the first one part include: (1) personal inhalable oil mist exposure levels are found as: threading workers (2.11mg/m3) > forming workers (1.58mg/m3) > heat treatment workers (0.0801mg/m3), (2) the mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of the fine mode and coarse mode of oil mists fall to the range 0.309�{0.501�慆 and 8.16�{13.0�慆, respectively, (3) the fractions of inhaled particles exposed to alveolar region(66.9�{77.9%) is consistently higher than both head (14.5�{19.1%) and tracheobronchial (7.56�{15.8%) regions in all three studied exposure groups, and (4) the estimated respirable exposure concentrations for both forming and threading workers (1.34mg/m3 and 1.40mg/m3, respectively) are higher than the level known for “increased risk of pulmonary injury” (0.20mg/m3) suggesting that appropriate control measures should be taken to reduce their exposures to the oil mists of the respirable fraction immediately. The results obtained from the second part include: (1) the inhalatory gas phase total PAH exposure level (8.60�e104 ng/m3) is much higher than that of particle phase (2.30�e103 ng/m3). Workers’ mean inhalatory exposure level (8.83�e104 ng/m3) was lower, but its corresponding 1-sided upper 95% confidence level (UCL1,95%=1.02�e105 ng/m3) was higher than the time-weighted average permissible exposure level (PEL-TWA) regulated in Taiwan for PAHs (1.00�e105 ng/m3), and (2) the mean whole body total PAHs dermal exposure levels is 5.44�e106 ng/day and the top five exposed surface areas are lower arm, hand, upper arm, neck, and head/front. The results obtained from the third part include: (1) oil mist emissions can be predicted based on the production rate of fasteners, and (2) PAH contents in MWFs can be predicted based on the cumulative production rate of fasteners. The result from the fourth part include: (1) the predicted oil mist concentration together with the predicted PAH contents in MWFs can be used to predict PAH concentrations in the workplace atmosphere, and (2) the estimated lifetime excessive skin cancer risk (3.51~5.12×10-4) was lower than that estimated lifetime excessive lung cancer risk (2.09~2.71×10-3). Particularly, the latter are higher than the significant risk level (10-3) defined by the US Supreme Court in 1980. Therefore, the installation of a local exhaust ventilation system at the threading machine should be considered as the first priority measurement. On the other hand, if the personal protection equipment would be adopted in the future, the respiratory protection equipment should be considered as the one with the highest priority.
第一章 前言...1
1-1 研究背景...1
1-2 研究目標...3
第二章 文獻回顧...6
第三章 研究材料與方法...12
第四章 研究品質控制...29
第五章 結果與討論...39
第六章 結論與建議...69
第七章 參考文獻...72
Ameille J, Wild P, Choudat D, Ohl G., Vaucouleur JF, Chanut JC. Respiratory symptoms, ventilatory lmpairment, and bronchial reactivity in oil mist-exposed automobile workers. Am J Ind Med 27:247�{56 (1995).
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Draft report on the proposed TLV for mineral oil mists, ACGIH, Cincinnati, OH (2001).
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Threshold limit values for chemical substances and physical agents and biological exposure indices, C. Cincinnati, (OH): ACGIH pp. 42–5 (1993–1994).
Apostoli P, Crippa M, Fracasso ME, Cottica D, Alessio L. Increase in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content and mutagenicity in a cutting fluid as a consequence of its use. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 64:473�{77 (1993).
Armstrong B, Hutchinson E, Unwin J. Lung cancer risk after exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: a review and meta-analysis. Environ Heal Persp 112:970�{8(2004).
Attfield MD, Hewett P. Exact expressions for the bias and variance of estimators of the mean of a lognormal distribution. Am Ind Hyg Asso J 53:432–5 (1992).
Bakke B, Stewart P, Ulvestad B, Eduard W. Dust and gas exposure in tunnel construction work. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J62:457�{65 (2000).
Bardin J, Eisen EA, Woskie SR, Monson RR. Mortality studies of machining fluid exposure in the automobile industry. V: a case-control study of pancreatic cancer. Am J Ind Med 32: 240�{7(1997).
Becher H, Ramroth H, Ahrens W, Risch A, Schmezer P, Dietz A. Occupation, exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and laryngeal cancer risk. Int J Cancer116:451–7 (2005).
Bj�琀seth A, Ramahl T. Sources and Emission of PAHs. Handbook of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Dekker, M, Inc. New York (1983).
Boffetta P, Jourenkova N, Gustavsson P. Cancer risk from occupational and environmental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Cancer Causes Control 8:444–72 (1997).
Bourgkard E, Wild P, Courcot B, Diss M, Ettlinger J,Moulin JJ. Lung cancer mortality and iron oxide exposure in a French steel-producing factory. Occup Environ Med 66:175–81 (2009).
Chan TL, D’Arcy JB, Siak J. Size characteristics of machining fluid aerosols in industrial metalworking environment. Appl Occup Environ Hyg 5:162�{70 (1990).
Chen YC, Lee WJ, Uang SN, Lee SH, Tsai PJ. Characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions from a UH-1H helicopter engine and its impact on the ambient environment. Atmos Environ 40:7589�{97 (2006).
Chen MR, Tsai PJ, Chang CC, Shih TS, Lee WJ, Liao PC. Particle size distributions of oil mists in workplace atmospheres and their exposure concentrations to workers in a fastener manufacturing industry. J Hazard Mater 146:393�{8 (2007).
Chu M, Chen C. Evaluation and estimation of potential carcinogenic risks of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. Paper presented at the symposium on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the workplace. Pacific Rim Risk Conference, Honolulu (1984).
Clonfero E, Nardini B, Marchioro M. Mutagenicity and contents of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in used and recycled motor oils. Muta Resear 368:283�{91 (1996).
Cohen H, White E. Metalworking fluid mist occupational exposure limits: a discussion of alternative methods. Occup Environ Hyg 3:501�{07(2006).
Comité Européen de Normalization (CEN), Workplace atmospheres: size fraction definitions for measurement of airborne particles in the workplace, CEN, Brussels (Standard EN 481) (1992).
Cullen MR, Balmes JR, Robins JM, Smith G.JW. Lipoid pneumonia caused by oil mist exposure from a steel rolling tandem mill. Am J Ind Med 2:51�{8 (1981).
Evans MJ, Hooper WB, Ingram AJ, Pullen DL, Aston RH. The chemical, physical and biological properties of a neat cutting oil during prolonged use in a large manufacturing facility. Ann Occup Hyg 33:537�{53 (1989).
Eyres AR. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contents of used metalworking oils. Petroleum Review 32�{5 (1981).
Fox J, Anderson H, Moen T, Gruetzmacher G, Hanrahan L, Fink J. Metalworking fluid-associated hypersensitivity pneumonitis: an outbreak investigation and case-control study. Am J Ind Med 5:58�{67 (1999).
Gauthier SL. Metalworking fluids: oil mist and beyond. Appl Occup Environ Hyg 18:818�{24 (2003).
Godderis L, Deschuyffeleer T, Roelandt H, Veulemans H, Moens G. Exposure to metalworking fluids and respiratory and dermatological complaints in a secondary aluminium plamt. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 81: 845�{53 (2008).
Grimmer G, Jacob J, Naujack KW. Profile of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from lubricating oils. Inventory by GC/MS-PAH in environmental materials. Part 1. Fresenius Z. Anal Chem 306:347�{55(1981).
Grimmer G, Naujack KW, Dettbarn G, Brune H. Misfeld J. Studies on the carcinogenic action of used engine lubricating motor oil. Erdol Kohol 35:466�{72 (1982).
Grimmer G.. Environmental Carcinogens; Polycylic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Environ Sci Technol 24: 1581–85(1983).
Gilbert RO. Statistical methods for environmental pollution monitoring. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold (1987).
Granella M, Clonfero E. The mutagenic activity and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compound content of mineral oils. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 63:149�{53 (1991).
Heyder J, Gebhart G., Rudolf G., Schiller CF, Stahlofen W. Deposition of particles in the human respiratory tract in the size range 0.005�{15μm. J Aero Sci 17: 811�{25 (1986).
Health and Safety Executive: MDHS 84 Measurement of Oil mist from Mineral Oil Based Metalworking Fluid, Method for the Determination of Hazardous Substances. HSE, London (1997).
Hinds WC. Chap13, Condensation and evaporation, in Aerosol Technology Properties, Behavior, and Measurement of Airborne Particles. 2nd ed, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, USA, pp. 278–303 (1999).
Hoshutama T, Pan G, Tanaka C, Feng Y, Yu L, Takahashi K. Mortality of iron-steel workers in Anshan, China: a retrospective cohort study. Int J Occup Environ Health 12:193�{202 (2006).
Hussain M, Rae J, Gilman A, Kauss P. Lifetime health-risk assessment from exposure of recreational users to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 35:527�{31 (1998).
International Agency of Research on Carcinogens. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, part II: carbon blacks, mineral oils (lubricant-based oils and derived products), and some nitroarenas. IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risks Humans 33. IARC, Lyon, pp87�{168 (1984).
International Agency of Research on Carcinogens. Mineral oils (Lubricant based oils and derived products). Lyon, France: IARC 87�{168(1987).
Ingram AJ, Phillips JC, Davies S. DNA adducts produced by oils, oil fractions and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in relation to repair processes and skin carcinogenesis. J Appl Toxicol 20:165�{74 (2000).
International Standards Organization (ISO), Air quality-particle size fraction definitions for health-related sampling, International Standards Organization, Geneva (ISO CD7708) (1992).
Jaakkola MS, Suuronen K, Luukkonen R, Jarvela M, Tuomi T, Alanko K, Makela EA, Jolanki R. Respiratory symptoms and conditions related to occupational exposures in machine shops. Scand J Work Env Health 35: 64�{73. (2009).
Jarvholm B, Bake B, Lavenius B, Thiringer G., Vokmann R. Respiratory symptoms and lung function in oil mist-exposed workers. J Occup Med 24:473�{9 (1982).
Jongeneelen FJ, Scheepers PJF, Groenendijk A, Van Aerts LA, Anzion RBM, Bos RP, Veestra SJ. Airborne concentrations, skin contamination, and urinary metabolite excretion of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons among paving workers exposed to coal tar derived road tars. Am Ind Hyg Asso J 49:600�{7 (1988).
Josephson J. Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Environ Sci Technol 18:93�{5 (1984).
Kazerouni N, Thomas TL, Petralia SA, Hayes RB. Mortality among workers exposed to cutting oil mist: update of previous reports. Am J Ind Med 38:410�{6 (2000).
Kennedy SM, Chan YM, Teschke K, Karlen B. Change in airway responsiveness among apprentices exposed to metalworking fluids. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 159:87�{93 (1999).
Kennedy SM, Greaves IA, Kriebel D, Eisen EA, Smith TJ, Woskie SR. Acute pulmonary responses among automobile workers exposed to aerosols of machining fluids. Am J Ind Med 15:627–41 (1989).
Krewski D, Gaylor D, Szyzkowicz M. A model-free approach to low-dose extrapolation. Environ Health Perspect 90:279�{85 (1991).
Lee WJ, Chao WH, Shih ML, Tsai CH, Chen TCH, Tsai PJ. Emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from batch hot mix asphalt plants. Environ Sci Technol38:5274�{80 (2004).
Li CT, Lin YC, Lee WJ, Tsai PJ. Emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their carcinogenic potencies from cooking sources to the atmosphere of the urban area. Environ Health Perspect 111:483�{7 (2003).
Lin YC, Lee WJ, Li HW, Chen CB, Fang GC, Tsai PJ. Impact of using fishing boat fuel with high poly-aromatic content on the emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from the diesel engine. Atmos Environ 40:1601�{9 (2006).
London MA, Boiano JM, Lee SA. Exposure assessment 3.3’-dicholorbenzidine (DCB) at two chemical plants. Appl Ind Hyg 4:101�{4 (1989).
Mackerer CR, Griffis LC, Grabowski JS, Reitman FA. Petroleum mineral oil refining and evaluation of cancer hazard. Appl Occup Environ Hyg 18:890�{901 (2003).
Massin N, Bohadana AB, Wild P, Goutet P, Kirstetter H, Toamain JP. Airway responsiveness, respiratory symptoms, and exposures to soluble oil mist in mechanical workers. Occup Environ Med 53:748�{52 (1996).
Michalek DJ, Hii WWS, Sun JS, Gunter KL. Experimental and analytical efforts to characterize cutting fluid mist formation and behavior in machining. Appl Occup Environ Hyg 18:842�{54 (2003).
Monarca S, Pasquini R, Sforzolini G.S, Savino A, Viola V. Mutagenic/carcinogenic hazards in a cold-rolling steel plant exposed to mineral oils: environmental monitoring phase. Int Arch Occup Environ Heal 54:345�{54 (1984).
Mulhausen JR, Damiano J. A stategy for assessing and managing occupational exposures, Fairfax: American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) (1998).
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Occupational exposure to metalworking fluids, DHHS (NIOSH) Pub. No.98-102, NIOSH, Cincinnati, OH (1998).
NIOSH Publication No. 77-173: Occupational Exposure Sampling Strategy Manual (1977).
Nisbet C, LaGoy P. Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 16:290�{300 (1992).
Oudyk J, Haines AT, D’Arcy J. Inveatigating respiratory responses to metal working fluid exposure. Appl Occup Envir Hyg18:939�{46 (2003).
Parkinson P. Casarett and Doull’s Toxicology, the basic science of poisons, unit 2: Disposition of toxicants. 5th Ed., New York, Pergamon Press, 114�{25(1992).
Petry T, Schmid P, Schlatter C. The use of toxic equivalency factors in assessing occupational and environmental health risk associated with exposure to airborne mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Chemosphere 32:639�{48 (1996).
Pilliere F, Rousselin X. Huiles de coupe et bronchopneumopathies non tumorales. Une mise au point. Arch mal prof 53:355�{362(1992).
Pott F. Pyrolyseagase, PAH und lungenkrebrisiko-daten und bewertung. Staub-Reinhaltung dedr Luft 45:368�{79 (1985).
Rappaport SM. Assessment of long-term exposures to toxic substances in air. Ann Occup Hyg 35:61–121 (1991).
Redmond C, Strobino B, Cypess R. Cancer experience among coke by-product workers. Ann NY Acad Sci 271:102�{15 (1976).
Rodrics JV, Brett SM, Wrenn GC. Significant risk decisions in Federal regularory agencies, Regul Toxicol Parmocol 7:307-20 (1987).
Ronneberg A, Skyberg K. Mortality and incidence of cancer among oil exposed workers in a Norwegian cable manufacturing company Part I Exposure conditions 1920�{79. Brit J Ind Med 45:589�{94 (1988).
Roy TA, Johnson SW, Blackburn GR, Merkerer CR. Correlation of mutagenic and dermal carcinogenic activities of mineral oils with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compound content. Fundam Appl Toxicol 10:466�{76 (1988).
Russi M, Dubrow R, Flannery JT, Cullen MR, Mayne ST. Occupational exposure to machining fluids and laryngeal cancer risk: contrasting results using two separate control groups. Am J Ind Med 31:166�{71 (1997).
Savitz DA. Epidemiologic evidence on the carcinogenicity of metalworking fluids. Appl Occup Environ Hyg18:913�{20 (2003).
Silverstein M, Park R, Marmor M. Mortality among bearing plant workers exposed to metalworking fluids and abrasives. J Occup Med 30:706�{14(1988).
Simpson AT, Ellwood PA. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in quench oils. Ann Occup Hyg 40:531�{7(1996).
Simpson AT, Groves J, Unwin J. Mineral oil metalworking fluids (MWFs)-development of practical criteria for mist sampling. Ann Occup Hyg 44:165�{72 (2000).
Simpson AT. Comparison of methods for the measurement of mist and vapor from light mineral oil-based metalworking fluids. Appl Occup Environ Hyg18:865�{76 (2003).
Simpson AT, Stear M, Groves JA, Piney M. Occupational exposure to metalworking fluid mist and sump fluid contaminants. Ann Occup Hyg 47:17�{30 (2003).
Skyberg K, Ronneberg A, Kamoy JI, Dale K, Borgersen A. Pulmonary fibrosis in cable plant workers exposed to mist and vapor of petroleum distillates. Environ. Resear 40:261–73 (1986).
Svendsen K, Hilt B. Exposure to mineral oil mist and respiratory symptoms in marine engineers. Am J Ind Med 32:84�{9 (1997).
Svendsen K, Borresen E. Measurements of mineral oil mist, hydrocarbon vapor, and noise in engine rooms of ships. Appl Occup Environ Hyg 1:186�{91 (1999).
Thornburg J, Leith D. Size distribution of mist generated during metal machining. Appl Occup Environ Hyg 15:618�{28 (2000).
Thornburg DL. Mist generation during metal machining. J Tribol 122:544�{9 (2000).
Thorslund T, Farrer D. Development of relative potency estimated for PAHs and hydrocarbon combustion product fractions compared to benzo(a)pyrene and their use in carcinogenic risk assessments. US Environmental Protection Administration (EPA), Washington DC (1991).
Tolbert PE, Eisen EA, Pothier LJ, Monson RR. Mortality studies of machining fluids exposure in the automobile industry. II. Risks associated with specific fluids types. Scand J Work Environ Heal 18:351�{60(1992).
Tsai PJ, Hsieh HY, Lee WJ, Lai SO. Health-risk assessment for workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a carbon black manufacturing industry. Sci Total Environ 278:137�{50 (2001).
Tsai PJ, Shieh HY, Hsieh LT, Lee WJ. The fate of PAHs in the carbon black manufacturing Process. Atmos Environ 35:3495�{501 (2001).
Tsai PJ, Vincent JV. A study of workers’ exposures to inhalable and total aerosol fractions in the primary nickel production industry using mannequins to simulate personal sampling. Ann Occup Hyg45:385�{94 (2001).
Tsai PJ, Shih TS, Chen SL, Lee WJ, Lai GH, Liou SH. Assessing the contents of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the tollbooths of a highway toll station via direct and indirect approaches. Environ Sci Technol 36:4748�{53 (2002).
Tsai PJ, Shih TS, Chen SL, Lee WJ, Lai GH, Liou SH. Assessing and predicting the exposures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their carcinogenic potencies from vehicle engine exhausts to highway toll station workers. Atmos Environ 38:333�{43 (2004).
Tolbert PE. Oils and cancer. Cancer Causes Control 8:386�{405 (1997).
Tuominen J, Salomaa S, Pyysalo H. Polynuclear Aromatic Compounds and Genotoxicity in Particulate and Vapor phase of Ambient Air: effect of traffic, season, and Meteorological Conditions. Environ Sci Technol 22:1228–34(1988).
US EPA. Health effects assessments for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, EPA 549/1-86-013, Cincinnati (1984).
US EPA. Pesticide assessment guideline, subdivision U, applicator exposure monitoring. US Environmental Protection Administration (EPA), U.S. Department of Commerce, National Technical Information Service, Springfield (1987).
US EPA. Dermal exposure assessment: principles and applications. US Environmental Protection Administration (EPA), EPA/600/8-91/011B, Washington DC (1992).
Van Rooij G.M, Bodelier-Bade MM, Jongeneeien F J. Estimation of individual dermal and respirstory uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in 12 coke oven workers. Brit J Ind Med 50: 623�{632 (1993).
Van Rooij G.M, Bodelier-Bade MM, Hopmans PJ. Reduction of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene excretion in coke-oven workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons due to improved hygienic skin protective measures. Ann Occup Hyg 38: 247�{56 (1994).
WHO. World Health Organization field surveys of exposure to pesticide protocol. Toxicol Lett 33:223�{35 (1986).
WHO. Air quality guideline for Europe. WHO European Series, WHO Regional Bureau, Copenhagen (1987).
Wu YH. Refinement of cascade impactor system for representative assessment of occupational aerosol exposure, In Proceedings of 22nd AAAR Conference (2002).
Zacharisen MC, Kadambi AR, Schlueter DP, Kurup VP, Shack JB, Fink JN. The spectrum of respiratory disease associated with exposure to metal working fluids. J Occup Environ Med 40:640�{7 (1998).
Zmirou D, Masclet P, Boudet C, Dor F, Dëchenaux J. Personal exposure to atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a general adult population and lung cancer risk assessment. J Occup Environ Med 42:121�{6 (2000).
中國技術服務社:切削油回收及處理技術探討與推廣綜合報告(1994)。
顏玉山:螺絲製造技術。全華科技圖書股份有限公司:1�{10(1985)。
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
無相關期刊