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研究生:李璧伊
研究生(外文):Pi-i Li
論文名稱:氣象雷達之射頻射線的健康效應
論文名稱(外文):Adverse Health Effect of Radiofrequency Exposures from Weather Radar System
指導教授:張志欽張志欽引用關係郭浩然郭浩然引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chih-ching ChangHow-ran Guo
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:環境醫學研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:公共衛生學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:39
中文關鍵詞:死亡率發生率健康效應射頻射線氣象雷達
外文關鍵詞:weather radar systemincidenceradiofrequencymortality
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背景:民國九十一年台灣地區在中央氣象局的規劃之下,於四個不同地方闢建新一代都卜勒氣象雷達網。氣象雷達為了捕捉天氣資訊,採用脈衝式發射,發射時間極短,當氣象雷達發射電磁波之後,必須等待回波接收之後,才會繼續發射,且氣象雷達始終都是朝著天空做360度旋轉,週而復始,因此每次照射的時間非常短暫,與廣播電視,電信基地台採用全程,連續性照射的做法完全不同。本研究希望針對氣象雷達設置的其中兩個鄉鎮及兩個村落附近居民進行身心健康狀態的流行病學調查分析,以瞭解射頻電磁波健康效應之本土概況。

方法:本研究是以鄰近氣象雷達設置地區居民為對象的生態研究,癌症個案資料及死亡資料分別取自1997至2006年的癌症登記資料庫以及死因資料庫,並以ICD9做為癌症及死因分類依據;資料分析主要是雷達站設置後五年來跟設置前五年相比。利用間接年齡標準化(age-adjusted standardized rate)來分析民國91-95年全死因、因病死亡、全癌症、血癌及腦癌的標準化死亡率(SMR)及癌症標準化發生率(SIR)。以民國九十一年為切點,往前推5年(86-90年)的死亡個數經後5年(91-95年)的人口年齡分層來校正做為該地之期望值,而以民國91年後五年的死亡個數做為該地的觀察值,將觀察值除以期望值即為間接年齡標準化死亡率計算方式,且研究考慮兩年潛伏期。另以台灣為標準人口,分析各地前五年及後五年之直接年齡標準化比(SRR)。

結果:本研究結果顯示, <1>因惡性癌症死亡: 七股SMR: 1.06 (p=0.40), 花蓮SMR: 1.01 (p=0.80),台灣SMR: 0.97 (p<0.001);<2>非游離輻射相關癌症死亡:七股SMR: 1.08 (p=0.97), 花蓮SMR: 0.65 (p=0.11),台灣SMR: 1.01 (p=0.73);<3> 因白血病死亡: 七股SMR: 1.49 (p=0.35), 花蓮SMR: 0.68 (p=0.26),台灣SMR: 1.02 (p=0.44); <4>全癌症發生: 七股SIR: 1.28 (p<0.001), 花蓮SIR 1.02 (p=0.39),台灣SIR: 1.04 (p<0.001);<5>非游離輻射相關癌症發生:七股SIR: 1.66 (p=0.18), 花蓮SIR : 0.95(p=0.91),台灣SIR: 1.16 (p<0.001);<6>白血病發生: 七股SIR: 2.59 (p<0.01), 花蓮SIR : 1.01(p=0.90),台灣SIR: 1.34 (p<0.001);<7>因惡性癌症死亡: 塩埕村SMR: 1.91 (p=0.10), 龍山村SMR: 0.65 (p=0.10);<7>前五年因惡性癌症死亡: 七股SRR: 1.251 (95% CI : 1.119-1.398), 花蓮SRR: 0.998 (95% CI : 0.932-1.069),台灣SRR:1;<8>後五年因惡性癌症死亡: 七股SRR: 1.273 (95% CI : 1.146-1.414), 花蓮SRR: 0.965 (95% CI : 0.903-1.031),台灣SRR:1;<9>前五年非游離輻射相關癌症死亡:七股SRR: 1.503 (95% CI : 0.826-2.734), 花蓮SRR: 0.924 (95% CI :0.635-1.343),台灣SRR:1;<10>後五年非游離輻射相關癌症死亡:七股SRR: 1.295 (95% CI : 0.712-2.354), 花蓮SRR: 1.065 (95% CI :=0.758-1.495),台灣SRR:1;<11>前五年因白血病死亡:七股SRR: 1.599 (95% CI : 0.768-3.332), 花蓮SRR: 0.959 (95% CI :0.608-1.511),台灣SRR:1;<12>後五年因白血病死亡:七股SRR: 1.959 (95% CI : 1.078-3.563), 花蓮SRR: 1.169 (95% CI :0.786-1.738),台灣SRR:1;<13>前五年全癌症發生: 七股SRR: 0.946 (95% CI : 0.877-1.020), 花蓮SRR: 1.021 (95% CI : 0.981-1.063),台灣SRR:1;<14>後五年全癌症發生: 七股SRR: 1.093 (95% CI : 1.020-1.170), 花蓮SRR: 1.001 (95% CI : 0.963-1.040),台灣SRR:1;<15>前五年非游離輻射相關癌症發生:七股SRR: 1.179 (95% CI : 0.614-2.265), 花蓮SRR: 1.133 (95% CI : 0.818-1.569),台灣SRR:1;<16>後五年非游離輻射相關癌症發生:七股SRR: 0.903 (95% CI : 0.485-1.680), 花蓮SRR: 1.162 (95% CI : 0.869-1.555),台灣SRR:1;<17>前五年白血病發生:七股SRR: 1.398 (95% CI : 0.640-3.052), 花蓮SRR: 1.145 (95% CI : 0.757-1.732),台灣SRR:1;<18>後五年白血病發生:七股SRR: 1.228 (95% CI : 0.644-2.342), 花蓮SRR: 1.119 (95% CI : 0.785-1.596),台灣SRR:1; <19>前五年因惡性癌症死亡: 塩埕村SRR: 1.020 (95% CI : 0.456-2.280), 龍山村SRR: 1.707 (95% CI : 1.230-2.368),台灣SRR:1;<20>後五年因惡性癌症死亡: 塩埕村SRR: 1.725 (95% CI : 0.925-3.217), 龍山村SRR: 1.052 (95% CI : 0.706-1.567),台灣SRR:1。

結論:各地後五年之各死因間接標準化死亡率,無明顯一致性增加的情形(無統計學上意義存在),因此關於氣象雷達所引起的效應,仍須更進一步的研究來證實;且研究結果發現,無論是雷達設置前五年或後五年,七股鄉之全死因、因病死亡及因癌症死亡之直接標準化死亡率皆較參考族群高,然而此情形在雷達設置前已發生,無法顯示是氣象雷達所造成,因此需進一步尋找其他因素來解釋;此外,本研究屬生態型研究,做因果推論時若根據群體的特質來推斷其中個體的特質時則會發生謬誤,因此建議往後可以其他研究的方式來觀察氣象雷達與健康效應間的關係。
Background
The health effect of radiofrequency has been a public concern for years. To improve the quality of weather forecasting, the Center Weather Bureau set up four Doppler radar stations in Taiwan in 2002. The weather radar disc moves in circles, transmits short pulses of electromagnetic waves, and listens for the reflected signals. The frequency of the radar system stations is 2836MHz, within the radio-frequency range of 300Hz to 300GHz. In order to assess the health effects of radiofrequency exposures form weather radar system, we conducted this study to evaluate the associations between weather radar system and the mortality or neoplasm incidence of the residents living in the two areas (Chi-Guw as Area I and Hualien as Area II) and two villages locating in Area I where the radar stations were
located.

Method
The all-cause mortality and neoplasm incidence of residents nears the radar stations were studied over the period 1997-2006. We compared the data between five years before and five years after the weather radar system was established. We calculated the age-standardized mortality ratio (SMR) method by dividing the number of cases observed in the study period by the expected number of cases (the number of cases observed in the five-year period before 2002). The total number of expected deaths was summed across all age categories. For comparing the mortality and incidence rates between the early, we calculated the standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) using the mortality and incidence rates observed in the five-year period before the establishment of the radar station as the reference. We considered two years as the latent
period.

Result:
The SMR of the all malignant neoplasm combined mortality was 1.06 (p=0.40) in Area I, 1.01 (p=0.80) in Area II, and 0.97 (p<0.001) in Taiwan. The SMR of the non-ionizing radiation related malignant neoplasm combined mortality was 1.08 (p=0.97) in Area I, 0.65 (p=0.11) in Area II, and 1.01 (p=0.73) in Taiwan. The SMR of all leukemia combined mortality was 1.49 (p=0.35) in Area I, 0.68 (p=0.26) in Area II, and 1.02 (p=0.44) in Taiwan. The SIR of the all neoplasm combined was 1.28 (p<0.01) in Area I, 1.02 (p=0.39) in Area II, and 1.04 (p<0.01) in Taiwan as a whole. The SIR of the non-ionizing radiation related malignant neoplasm combined was 1.66 (p=0.18) in Area I, 0.95 (p=0.91) in Area II, and 1.16 (p<0.01) in Taiwan. The SIR of the all leukemia combined was 2.59 (p=0.01) in Area I, 1.01 (p=0.90) in Area II, and 1.34 (p<0.01) in Taiwan. The SMR of the all malignant neoplasm combined mortality was 1.91 (p=0.10) in village I, 0.65 (p=0.10) in village II;<7> The SRR of the all malignant neoplasm combined mortality five years before was 1.251 (95% CI : 1.119-1.398) in area I, 0.998 (95% CI : 0.932-1.069) in area II,1 in Taiwan;<8> The SRR of the all malignant neoplasm combined mortality five years after was 1.273 (95% CI : 1.146-1.414) in area I, 0.965 (95% CI : 0.903-1.031) in area II, 1 in Taiwan;<9> The SRR of the non-ionizing radiation related malignant neoplasm combined mortality five years before was 1.503 (95% CI : 0.826-2.734) in area I, 0.924 (95% CI :0.635-1.343) in area II,1 in Taiwan;<10>The SRR of the non-ionizing radiation related malignant neoplasm combined mortality five years after was 1.295 (95% CI : 0.712-2.354) in area I , 1.065 (95% CI :=0.758-1.495) in area II,1 in Taiwan;<11> The SRR of all leukemia combined mortality five years before was 1.599 (95% CI : 0.768-3.332) in area I, 0.959 (95% CI :0.608-1.511) in area II,1 in Taiwan;<12> The SRR of all leukemia combined mortality five years after was 1.959 (95% CI : 1.078-3.563) in area I, 1.169 (95% CI :0.786-1.738) in area II,1 in Taiwan;<13> The SRR of the all neoplasm combined incidence five years before was SRR: 0.946 (95% CI : 0.877-1.020) in area I, 1.021 (95% CI : 0.981-1.063) in area II,1 in Taiwan;<14> The SRR of the all neoplasm combined incidence five years after 1.093 (95% CI : 1.020-1.170) in area I, 1.001 (95% CI : 0.963-1.040) in area II,1 in Taiwan;<15> The SRR of the non-ionizing radiation related malignant neoplasm combined incidence five years before was 1.179 (95% CI : 0.614-2.265) in area I, 1.133 (95% CI : 0.818-1.569) in area II,1 in Taiwan;<16> The SRR of the non-ionizing radiation related malignant neoplasm combined incidence five years after was 0.903 (95% CI : 0.485-1.680) in area I, 1.162 (95% CI : 0.869-1.555) in area II,1 in Taiwan;<17> The SRR of the all leukemia combined incidence five years before was 1.398 (95% CI : 0.640-3.052) in area I, 1.145 (95% CI : 0.757-1.732) in area II,1 in Taiwan;<18> The SRR of the all leukemia combined incidence five years after was 1.228 (95% CI : 0.644-2.342) in area I, 1.119 (95% CI : 0.785-1.596) in area II,1 in Taiwan; <19> The SRR of the all malignant neoplasm combined mortality five years before was 1.020 (95% CI : 0.456-2.280) in village I, 1.707 (95% CI : 1.230-2.368) in village II,1 in Taiwan;<20> The SRR of the all malignant neoplasm combined mortality five years after was 1.725 (95% CI : 0.925-3.217) in village
I, 1.052 (95% CI : 0.706-1.567) in village II,1 in Taiwan.

Conclusion:
We found no consistent increase in the mortality and incidence of all malignant neoplasm combined or leukemia in residents living in areas with radar station (Areas I、II and two villages). The study was designed as a ecological study, so it can’t determine the causal correlation between radar staion and personal health effect. The correlations between the morality or incidence of the non-ionizing radiation related malignant neoplasm and distance from the radar stations should be evaluated in the future study.
第一章 緒論
第一節 國外對極低頻電磁場之防制現況………………………………………….2
第二節 國外對射頻電磁場之防制現況…………………………………………….2
第三節 先進國家對非游離輻射之建議值………………………………………….3
第四節 國際組織對非游離輻射之防制現況……………………………………….3
第五節 國外對非游離輻射之防制現況及我國管制方式………………………….4
第六節 雷達的由來………………………………………………………………….5
第七節 台灣都卜勒氣象雷達網之設置…………………………………………….5
第八節 氣象雷達原理……………………………………………………………….6
第九節 氣象雷達作業型態………………………………………………………….7
第二章 文獻回顧 --- 非游離輻射健康效應
第一節 非游離輻射與細胞毒性及熱能危害……………………………………….8
第二節 非游離輻射與生殖危害…………………………………………………….9
第三節 非游離輻射與兒童癌症…………………………………………………....10
第四節 非游離輻射與其他影響(心血管、神經系統與心理性危害)……...….11
第五節 非游離輻射與癌症……………………………………………………...….12
第六節 雷達的健康效應…………………………………………………………....13
第七節 非游離輻射效應之專家論點………………………………………...…….14
第八節 非游離輻射健康效應總結…………………………………………...….…16
第三章 材料與方法
第一節 研究對象與材料………...………………………………………………….18
第二節 研究方法……………………………………………………………...…….18
第四章 結果
第一節 三地各死因之間接年齡標準化死亡率……………………………………24
第二節 三地之間接年齡標準化癌症發生率………………………………………25
第三節 三村各死因之間接年齡標準化死亡率……………………………………27
第四節 三地各死因之直接年齡標準化死亡率………………………..……….….27
第五節 三地之直接年齡標準化癌症發生率………………………………....……28
第六節 三村各死因之直接年齡標準化死亡率……………………………....……29

第五章 討論
第一節 死亡率與死因分類…………………...……………………………………30
第二節 氣象雷達電磁波暴露估計………………………………...………………30
第三節 雷達站與癌症之相關性………………………………………………...…30
第四節 研究限制…………………………………………………………...………31
第六章 結論與建議
第一節 結論…………………………………………………………………...…..34
第二節 建議…………………………………………………………………...…..34
第七章 參考文獻………………………………………………………………...………35
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