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研究生:吳宗勳
研究生(外文):Tsung-hsun Wu
論文名稱:基於無基礎架構網路語音之分析與效能評估
論文名稱(外文):On the Analysis and Performance Evaluation of Infrastructure-less VoIP
指導教授:藍崑展
指導教授(外文):Kun-chan Lan
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:醫學資訊研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:醫學技術及檢驗學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:英文
論文頁數:38
中文關鍵詞:成對比較同儕式網路網路語音
外文關鍵詞:VoIPpaired-comparisonSkypepeer-to-peerChord
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網路語音電話(VoIP)是現今相當普及的一項服務。在一般網路語音電話協定(如:SIP)的信號交換階段中(signaling phase),是透過集中式伺服器來交換使用者的訊息。發話者需先連到伺服器,取得受話者的資訊(如: IP位址),再去和受話者做連線。但集中式管理有許多缺點,如負載不均,單點癱瘓等等。因此當前研究提出使用同儕式網路(peer-to-peer)方式運作在信號交換階段,但在使用同儕式網路上搜尋資訊會需要更多的時間,過長的等待時間會使得使用者不欲使用此項服務。當前世界上便有許多研究便想改進其效能。於是,我們研究分析在真實世界網路語音環境中,何種同儕式網路協定效能較佳,並評估人們對此實驗數據的實際感受程度。我們的收集真實世界的Skype使用者IP位址及上線時間,並取得所有IP位址的經緯度,描繪出使用者的地理位置拓樸。並找出拓樸分佈及上線時間的模型,以供未來模擬使用。之後,我們模擬各種同儕式網路在我們收集的網路拓樸之上,比較個別的查尋時間。我們做了集中式管理的模擬,再做了Chord的模擬。因為Chord是屬於平坦式分散式雜湊表(FDHT),因此我們做了階層式雜湊表(HDHT),但不考量鄰近因素。接著再做考量鄰近因素的分散式雜湊表(PDHT)。我們得到了各別的數據,但都是在秒以下的差距。我們欲了解使用者的感受程度如何,於是我們利用成對比較(Paired-comparison)來做使用者經驗的實驗,以得到感受程度差異。
Voice over IP (VoIP) is a popular application nowadays. In signaling phase of general VoIP protocol (e.g. SIP), users exchange information of each other by central server. The caller needs to connect to central server to get the callee’s information (e.g. IP address), then connects to callee. But centralized manner has some drawbacks, for example, load imbalance, single point failure, etc. There are some researches utilize peer-to-peer (P2P) protocols in signaling phase. However P2P technique takes more time in querying information. The too long waiting time stops user willing to use this service. There are many researches want to improve its performance. Therefore, we study which P2P protocol works better in realistic VoIP network and evaluate the user subjective feeling degree for the experiment results.
We have collected Skype user IP address and session time in the real world, obtained lat/longitude of all IP addresses, and depicted the user geographic topology. We also model the topology and session time distribution for simulation purpose. We simulate various P2P protocols on our collected topology to compare each lookup latency. We simulate centralized manner and Chord. Because Chord is a kind of flat DHT, we then simulate hierarchical DHT without concerning proximity. Then we simulate proximity DHT. After above simulation we get each result but the difference is under one second. We want to realize the user perception degree. Therefore we utilize paired comparison to do the experiment for quality of experience and to get the difference perception degree.
Contents
Chapter 1 Introduciton 1
1.1 Background and motivation 1
1.2 Overview of this thesis 3
1.3 Contributions 4
Chapter 2 Related work 5
2.1 Skype 5
2.2 Peer-to-peer network 6
2.2.1 Structured P2P network 6
2.2.2 Unstructured P2P network 7
2.3 Infrastructure-less VoIP system 9
2.3.1 Singh’s P2P SIP 9
2.3.2 SOSIMPLE 9
2.4 Quality of experience 10
2.4.1 Mean Opinion Score 10
2.4.2 Paired comparison 11
Chapter 3 Traces colleciton and analysis 12
3.1 VoIP user network topology 12
3.1.1 Experiment methodology 13
3.1.2 Geographic topology visualization 15
3.1.3 Node density analysis 17
3.2 Session time 20
3.2.1 Experiment methodology 20
3.2.2 Session time analysis 21
Chapter 4 P2P performance comparison 24
4.1 Comparing metric 24
4.2 Centralized manner 25
4.2.1 A central server 25
4.2.2 Simulation and result 26
4.3 Flat DHT 27
4.3.1 Chord 27
4.3.2 Simulation and result 28
4.4 Hierarchical DHT 29
4.4.1 Hierarchical DHT approach 29
4.4.2 Simulation and result 30
4.5 Proximity DHT 31
Chapter 5 Quality of experience 32
5.1 Paired Comparison Methodology 32
5.2 Experiment result 34
Chapter 6 Conclusion and future work 35
References 37
[1] Chunhong Zhang, Juwei Shi, Lichun Li, Wenjie Lin, Yao Wang, Lanzhi Gu, Yang Ji, Zhiyong Feng, Signaling Latency Analysis of Peer-to-Peer SIP Systems. Consumer Communications and Networking Conference, (CCNC) 2008. 5th IEEE
[2] T. Eyers and H. Schulzrinne, Predicting Internet Telephony Call Setup Delay, Proc. First IP Telephony Workshop, Apr. 2000
[3] Guha, S., N. Daswani, and R. Jain, An Experimental Study of the Skype Peer-to-Peer VoIP System. Proceedings of IPTPS, 2006.
[4] S. A. Baset and H. Schulzrinne. An analysis of the Skype peer-to-peer internet telephony protocol. In Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM '06, Barcelona, Spain, Apr. 2006.
[5] H. Xie and Y. R. Yang. A measurement-based study of the skype peer-to-peer VoIP performance. In Proceedings of IPTPS, Bellevue, WA, Feb. 2007.
[6] D.A. Bryan, B.B. Lowekamp, and C. Jennings, SOSIMPLE: A Serverless, Standards-based, P2P SIP Communication System, Proceedings of the 2005 International Workshop on Advanced Architectures and Algorithms for Internet Delivery and Applications (AAA-IDEA 2005), Jun. 2005
[7] Kundan Singh , Henning Schulzrinne, Peer-to-Peer Internet Telephony using SIP, NOSSDAV' 05, June 13-14, 2005, Stevenson, Washington, USA.
[8] Faloutsos, M., Faloutsos, P. & Faloutsos, C. On power-law relationships of the internet topology.Comp. Comm. Rev. 29, 251–262 (1999).
[9] E-K Lua, J. Crowcroft, M. Pias, R. Sharma and S. Lim. A Survey and Compari-
son of Peer-to-Peer Overlay Network Schemes, IEEE Communications Surveys and
Tutorials, 7(2005).
[10] I. Stoica, R. Morris et al., Chord: A Scalable Peer-to-Peer Lookup Protocol for Internet Applications, IEEE/ACM Trans. Net., vol. 11, no. 1, 2003, pp. 17–32.
[11] A. Rowstron and P. Druschel, Pastry: Scalable, Distributed Object Location and Routing for Large-scale Peer-to-peer Systems, Proc. Middleware, 2001.
[12] S. Ratnasamy et al., A Scalable Content Addressable Network, Proc. ACM SIGCOMM, 2001, pp. 161–72.
[13] B. Y. Zhao et al., Tapestry: A Resilient Global-Scale Overlay for Service Deployment, IEEE JSAC, vol. 22, no. 1, Jan. 2004, pp.41-53.
[14] (2002) Gnutella ultrapeers, available at http://rfc-gnutella.sourceforge.net/Proposals/Ultrapeer/Ultrapeers.htm/
[15] Michele Garetto , Don Towsley, Modeling, simulation and measurements of queuing delay under long-tail internet traffic, Proceedings of the 2003 ACM SIGMETRICS international conference on Measurement and modeling of computer systems, June 11-14, 2003, San Diego, CA, USA
[16] Michalis Faloutsos Riverside, Michalis Faloutsos, On Power-Law Relationships of the Internet Topology, Proceedings of the conference on Applications, technologies, architectures, and protocols for computer communication 1999
[17] L. Garces-Erice, E.W.Biersack, P.A. Felber, K.W. Ross, and G. Urvoy-Keller, Hierarchical peer-to-peer systems, Parallel Processing Letters,Vol.13, 2003.
[18] Mark E. Crovella , Murad S. Taqqu, Estimating the Heavy Tail Index from Scaling Properties, Methodology and Computing in Applied Probability, v.1 n.1, p.55-79, July 1999
[19] J. Rosenberg, H. Schulzrinne, G. Camarillo, A. Johnston,J. Peterson, R. Sparks, M. Handley, and E. Schooler. RFC 3261 - SIP : Session initiation protocol. Http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3261.txt
[20] Kuan-Ta Chen, Yu-Chun Chang, Chien-Ju Ho, Chen-Chi Wu,Chin-Laung Lei, Online Game QoE Evaluation using Paired Comparisons
[21] MaxMind GeoIP http://www.maxmind.com/app/ip-location
[22] Skype http://www.skype.com
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