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研究生:鄧婉君
研究生(外文):Wan-Chun Teng
論文名稱:H.264降解析度轉換編碼之研究
論文名稱(外文):Study of Spatial Downsizing Transcoding for H.264
指導教授:林銀議
指導教授(外文):Yinyi Lin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:通訊工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:126
中文關鍵詞:模式改良移動估測H.264視訊壓縮標準H.264視訊轉換編碼降解析度降低位元率
外文關鍵詞:mode refinementbit-rate reductionmotion estimationdownsizing(downscaling)H.264video transcoding
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不同網路環境下的傳輸頻寬能力皆不相同,伺服端透過有線或無線網路以即時的方式傳輸視訊串流至電腦或手機…等用戶端時,如何使視訊串流滿足各種頻寬要求是一大課題,本篇論文以轉換編碼(transcoding)的方式將原以較高位元率及高解度壓縮之H.264 視訊串流轉換編碼成為較低位元率及低解析度壓縮的H.264 視訊串流,使其能適應當下的網路頻寬要求並有效的利用頻寬,進而讓用戶端可順暢的播放視訊影片並獲得較佳的畫面品質。而在H.264 中加入很多了高複雜度的預測和壓縮技術,使其可以提供比以往的視訊壓縮標準更佳的壓縮效能,但同時也因此讓H.264 編碼端複雜度過高,若要將之運用於即時之轉換編碼系統是有難度的,本篇論文即是針對H.264 轉換編碼,探討如何在降低位元速率及解析度之應用下以最快的速度進行轉換編碼,並提出了快速畫面間預測轉換編碼演算法,實驗結果顯示本篇論文所提出之兩種轉換編碼演算法,能在維持一定的畫面品質效能下,有效的加速轉換編碼時間。
Through wired or wireless network, the server transmits real-time video bit-stream to the client device, such as computer and cellular phone. To efficiently transmit video bit-stream form high resolution to low resolution would be difficult since the bandwidth varies in different network environment. In this thesis, we will increase the compression ratio of the H.264 transcoder to reduce bit-rate and change video resolution stream, thence to achieve efficiency in video bit-stream transmission and improve bandwidth utilization for different devices. In this way, the client can play video smoothly and get a better image quality. H.264 supports many advanced compression techniques that can achieve better coding performance than the previous standards. However, the compression techniques require high computational complexity, which would be difficult to achieve real time implementation. In this thesis, we will explore how to perform H.264 bit-rate reduction and down-resolution transcoding as fast as possible and propose fast intra and inter frame prediction
transcoding algorithms. The experimental results show that our propose transcoding algorithms can maintain the coding performance and speed up transcoding process simultaneously.
第一章 緒論
1.1 H.264 視訊壓縮標準簡介 ..............................1
1.2 動機與目的 ..........................................3
1.3 論文架構 ............................................3
第二章 視訊轉換編碼之介紹
2.1 視訊轉換編碼介紹 ....................................5
2.2 H.264 視訊編碼系統簡介 ..............................7
2.2.1 畫面間(Inter)預測方式 .............................9
a. 可變區塊大小 .........................................9
b. 移動估測 ............................................10
c. 非整數點移動估測 ....................................14
d. 多幅參考畫面 ........................................16
2.2.2 畫面內(Intra)預測方式 ............................17
2.3 視訊串流格式及降解晰度說明 .........................18
第三章
相同量化參數下快速畫面間降解析度轉換編碼之研究
3.1 畫面間預測轉換編碼資訊擷取與架構 ...................23
3.2 針對畫面間(Inter mode)模式預測加速演算法探討 .......26
3.2.1 畫面間區塊模式決策演算法 .........................27
a. 基於原始巨區塊資訊畫面間模式決策演算法 ..............28
b. 基於零區塊之畫面間區塊模式決策演算法 ................33
c. 增強型畫面間模式決策演算法 ..........................40
3.2.2 快速多幅參考畫面選擇演算法 .......................41
3.2.3 可變搜尋視窗演算法 ...............................49
3.3 針對畫面內(Intra mode)模式預測加速演算法探討 .......60
3.3.1 基於原始巨區塊之畫面內模式決策演算法 .............60
3.3.2 基於零區塊之畫面內模式決策演算法 .................63
3.3.3 增強型畫面內模式決策演算法 .......................66
3.4 綜合效能分析與比較 .................................67
3.5 結論 ...............................................72
第四章
不同量化參數下快速畫面間降解析度轉換編碼之研究
4.1 畫面間預測轉換編碼資訊與架構 .......................73
4.2 針對畫面間(Inter mode)模式預測加速演算法探討 .......75
4.2.1 畫面間區塊模式決策演算法 .........................76
a. 基於原始巨區塊資訊畫面間模式決策演算法 ..............76
b. 基於零區塊之畫面間區塊模式決策演算法 ................80
c. 增強型畫面間模式決策演算法 ..........................85
4.2.2 快速多幅參考畫面選擇演算法 .......................86
4.2.3可變搜尋視窗演算法 ................................91
4.3 針對畫面內模式(Intramode)預測加速演算法探討 ........96
4.3.1基於原始巨區塊之畫面內模式決策演算法 ..............96
4.3.2基於零區塊之畫面內模式決策演算法 ..................98
4.3.3增強型畫面內模式決策演算法 .......................101
4.4 綜合效能分析與比較 ................................102
4.5 結論 ..............................................106
第五章 結論與未來展望 .................................108
參考文獻 ..............................................109
[1]“Draft ITU-T recommendation and final draft international standard of joint video specification (ITU-T Rec. H.264 | ISO/IEC 144496-10 AVC),” Joint Video Team of ISO/IEC and ITU-T, March 2003.
[2]“Generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information,” ISO/IEC 13818-2: Video (MPEG-2), May 1996.
[3]“Video coding for low bit rate communication, version 1,” ITU-T recommendation H.263, 1995.
[4]“Coding of audio-visual objects - Part 2: Visual,” in ISO/IEC 14496-2 (MPEG-4 Visual Version 1), Apr. 1999.
[5]M. Ravas, M. Mattavelli and C. Clere. A, ”A computational complexity comparison of MPEG4 and JVT codecs,” Joint Video Team (JVT) of ISO/IEC MPEG & ITU-T VCEG, Austria, 22-26 July, 2002.
[6]A. Vetro, C. Christopulos and H. Sun, “Video transcoding architectures and techniques: An Overview,” IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, Vol.20, no. 2, pp. 18–29, Mar. 2003.
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[8]M.J. Chen, M.C. Chu and C.W. Pan, “Efficient motion estimation algorithm for reduced frame rate video transcoder,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and System for Video Technology, Vol. 12, pp. 269-275, Apr.2002.
[9]J. Xin, M.T. Sun, B.S. Choi and K.W. Chun, “An HDTV to SDTV spatial transcoder,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and System for Video Technology, Vol. 12, no. 11, pp. 998-1008, Nov. 2002.
[10]G. Fernandez-Escribano, H. Kalva, P. Cuenca, L. Orozco-Barbosa and A. Garrido, “A fast MB mode decision algorithm for MPEG-2 to H.264 P-frame transcoding,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and System for Video Technology, Vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 172-185, Feb. 2008.
[11]J. Wang, E.H. Yang and X. Yu, An efficient motion estimation method for H.264-based video transcoding with spatial resolution conversion, Multimedia Electrical and Computer Engineering University, 2007.
[12]P. Zhang, Y. Lu, Q. Huang and W. Gao, “Mode mapping method for H.264/AVC spatial downscaling transcoding,” Proceeding of IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, Vol. 4, pp. 2781 – 2784, Oct. 2004.
[13]Y. Peng and H. Sun, “Fast motion re-estimation for arbitrary downsizing video transcoding using H.264/AVC standard, ” IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, Vol. 50, No. 3, Aug. 2004.
[14] C.H. Li, C.N. Wang and T. Chiang, “A fast downsizing video transcoder based on H.264/AVC standard,” Proceeding of IEEE Pacific-Rim Conference on Multimedia, pp. 215-223, 2004.
[15] H. Shen, X. Sun, F. Wu, H. Li and S. Li, “A fast downsizing video transcoder for H.264/AVC with rate-distortion optimal mode decision,” Proceeding of IEEE International Conference on Multimedia & Expo, pp. 2017-2020, July 2006.
[16]Y.M. Lee and Y. Lin, “An improved zero-block mode decision algorithm for H.264/AVC,” Proceeding of IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, Vol. 293- Vol.296, 2007.
[17]K.C. Hou, M.J. Chen and C.T. Hsu, “Fast motion estimation by motion vector merging procedure for H.264,” Proceeding of IEEE International Conference on Multimedia & Expo, pp. 1444-1447, July 2005.
[18]Joint Video Team software JM12.2 http://iphome.hhi.de/suehring/tml/download/
[19]C.D. Wu, Study of H.264 intra and inter frame transcoding, National Central University, July 2008.
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