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研究生:馮上容
研究生(外文):Arina
論文名稱:外語註釋對台灣國中生文化學習的影響
論文名稱(外文):The Effect of Glosses on Chinese EFL Junior High School Students’ Culture Learning
指導教授:郭鳳蘭郭鳳蘭引用關係
指導教授(外文):Feng-lan Kuo
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立彰化師範大學
系所名稱:英語學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:97
語文別:英文
論文頁數:147
中文關鍵詞:外語註釋單字學習文化學習閱讀理解故事結構教學
外文關鍵詞:glossesstory grammar instructionculture learningvocabulary acquisitionreading comprehension
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鑑於文化學習在全球教育政策和台灣九年一貫的綜合課程中所扮演的重要性,本研究旨在探索外語註釋對台灣國中生文化學習的影響。本研究亦探討台灣國中生對故事結構教學運用在文化學習的態度。本研究的實驗對象為兩班共七十四位來自台灣中部某所公立國中的七年級學生,分別分成對照組和實驗組 (每組各37位學生)。兩組分別進行為期兩週的節慶故事結構教學訓練。教學後,兩組學生分別接受不同型式的電腦多媒體輔助線上故事閱讀。其中,對照組閱讀沒有外語註釋的節慶故事,實驗組則閱讀有外語註釋和動畫影像的節慶故事。之後,兩組學生立即接受單字和閱讀測驗,以及填寫學習態度問卷。 三週後,在沒有任何額外教學和說明的情況下再進行同樣的單字和閱讀測驗。 研究結果發現︰ (1) 問卷調查結果顯示兩組學生都認為故事結構教學有助於他們對外語文化的學習都持正面態度。 (2) 立即測驗的結果顯示有外語註釋和動畫影像的實驗組在單字和故事理解任務中表現顯著比對照組好。因此,輔以外語註釋及動畫影像使學習單字和閱讀理解變得容易。 (3) 三週後的測驗結果顯示輔以外語註釋和動畫影像的文化學習能延長台灣國中生學習外語單字的記憶和增進閱讀理解的能力。
In view of the importance of culture practiced on global education policies and the Nine-Year Integrated Curriculum in Taiwan, this thesis aims to explore the effect of glosses on EFL junior high school students’ culture learning. The students’ attitude towards story grammar instruction on culture learning was also probed. The subjects were seventy-four seventh graders from two intact classes of a public junior high school in central Taiwan. They were divided into the control group and the experimental group (with 37 subjects in each group), and received story grammar instruction without glosses or with glosses plus pictorial animation respectively. Both groups received the same story grammar instruction with one holiday story for a 45-minute session twice a week, for a total of four classes. After the instruction, the two groups were asked to read another assigned online story and then completed the questionnaire of subjects’ language background and immediate posttests. Three weeks later, the subjects took the delayed posttests and questionnaire on students’ attitude toward story grammar instruction without any additional instruction and advanced notice. The findings of the present study were: (1) Results of the questionnaire indicated both groups had a positive attitude towards story grammar instruction in improving their culture learning. (2) Results of the immediate posttests revealed that the experimental group receiving glosses plus pictorial animations performed significantly better on vocabulary recognition, vocabulary production, and story comprehension tasks than the group receiving no glosses did. Hence the results showed glosses could facilitate learners’ vocabulary acquisition and reading comprehension. (3) Results of the delayed posttests indicated culture learning by means of glosses plus pictorial animations could extend students’ retention of vocabulary and reading comprehension.
TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Background and Motivation 1
1.2 The Purpose of the Study 9
1.3 Research Questions of the Study 11
1.4 Definition of Terms 12
1.5 Organization of the Study 14

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 15
2.1 Cultural Teaching in Primary and Junior High Schools in Taiwan 15
2.2 The Concept of Culture 20
2.3 Culture and Language Connection 23
2.4 Culture Must Be Taught in Language Teaching 25
2.5 Proper Cultural Reading Materials 26
2.6 The Application of Culture on Computers 29
2.6.1 CALL in the EFL Class 32
2.6.2 Chapelle’s Seven Evaluation Criteria of CALL Website for SLA 34
2.7 Dual-Coding Theory 36
2.7.1 The Application of Dual-Coding in SLA 37
2.7.2 Effects of Multimedia Annotations/Glosses on Vocabulary Acquisition and Reading Comprehension 39
2.7.2.1 History 39
2.7.2.2 The Relevant Studies in Foreign Countries 41
2.7.2.3 The Comparison of L1 Glosses and L2 Glosses 43
2.7.2.4 The Advantage of Multimedia Glosses on Language Learning 45
2.7.2.5 The Application of Glosses in Taiwan 47
2.8 Story Grammar Instruction 53

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY 56
3.1 Subjects 56
3.2 Instruments 58
3.2.1 English Reading Proficiency Test 58
3.2.2 Questionnaire on Students’ Background Knowledge and Questionnaire on Students’ Attitude toward Story Grammar Instruction 59
3.2.3 Teaching Materials 59
3.2.4 Reading Materials 60
3.2.5 Testing Materials 63
3.2.6 Results of the Pretests 64
3.2.6.1 Results of the Vocabulary Production Tasks 64
3.2.6.2 Results of the Vocabulary Recognition Tasks 65
3.2.6.3 Results of the Reading Comprehension Tasks 65
3.3 Procedures 66
3.4 Data Analysis 68

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 70
4.1 Results of the Questionnaire on Students’ Attitude towards Story Grammar Instruction 71
4.2 Results of the Immediate Posttests 79
4.3 Results of the Three-week Delayed Posttests 86

CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION 92
5.1 Summary of the Major Findings 92
5.2 Pedagogical Implications 95
5.3 Limitations of the Study 97
5.4 Suggestions for Future Research 98

REFERENCES 101

APPENDIXES 117
Appendix A: Questionnaire on Students’ Background Knowledge 117
Appendix B: Happy Easter—Vocabulary Production Pretest 119
Appendix C: Happy Easter—Vocabulary Recognition Pretest and Reading Comprehension Pretest 121
Appendix D: Happy Easter—Immediate Vocabulary Production Posttest 125
Appendix E: Happy Easter—Immediate Vocabulary Recognition Posttest and Immediate Vocabulary Reading Comprehension Posttest 127
Appendix F: Happy Easter—Delayed Vocabulary Production Posttest 131
Appendix G: Happy Easter—Delayed Vocabulary Recognition Posttest and Delayed Reading Comprehension Posttest 133
Appendix H: Questionnaire on Students’ Attitude toward Story Grammar Instruction 137
Appendix I : Teaching Material—Short Stories of Festivals 138
Appendix J : Reading Material—Nani Company’s Supplementary Teaching CD of Easter 140
Appendix K: The Pilot Study 142

LIST OF TABLES
Table 3.1 Percentage of Known and Unknown Target Language Culture 57
Table 3.2 Mean Group Scores and Standard Deviations on the Pre-instructional English Reading Proficiency Test 57
Table 3.3 Mean Group Scores and Standard Derivations on the Vocabulary Production Pretest 65
Table 3.4 Mean Group Scores and Standard Deviations on the Vocabulary Recognition Pretest 65
Table 3.5 Mean Group Scores and Standard Deviations on the Reading Comprehension Pretest 66
Table 4.1 Mean Group Scores and Standard Derivations on the Questionnaire Items 73
Table 4.2 Comparison of the Percentage of the Responses to Q1 75
Table 4.3 Comparison of the Percentage of the Responses to Q2 76
Table 4.4 Comparison of the Percentage of the Responses to Q3 76
Table 4.5 Comparison of the Percentage of the Responses to Q4 77
Table 4.6 Comparison of the Percentage of the Responses to Q5 78
Table 4.7 Comparison of the Percentage of the Responses to Q6 78
Table 4.8 Paired Samples T-test Results of the Control Group in the Immediate Posttest 80
Table 4.9 Paired Samples T-test Results of the Experimental Group in the Immediate Posttest 82
Table 4.10 Independent T-test Results on the Scorings between the Two Groups in the Immediate Posttest 85
Table 4.11 Mean Group Scores and Standard Deviation on the Vocabulary Production in the Three-week Delayed Posttest 87
Table 4.12 Mean Group Scores and Standard Deviation on the Vocabulary Recognition in the Three-week Delayed Posttest 87
Table 4.13 Mean Group Scores and Standard Deviation on the Reading Comprehension in the Three-week Delayed Posttest 88
Table 4.14 Independent T-test Results on the Scorings between the Two Groups in the Three-week Delayed Posttests 89

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 3.1 Screen Shot of the Non-glossing Version of the Story 62
Figure 3.2 Screen Shot of the Textual plus Pictorial Glossing Version of the Story 62
Figure 3.3 Procedures of the Study 68
Figure 4.1 Comparison of the Mean Group Scores of the Questionnaire between the Two Groups 74
Figure 4.2 Comparison of the Scorings of the Three Tasks of the Control Group in the Pretests and the Immediate Posttests 81
Figure 4.3 Comparison of the Scorings of the Three Tasks of the Experimental Group in the Pretests and the Immediate Posttests 83
Figure 4.4 Comparison of the Scorings of the Three Tasks between the Two Groups in the Pretests and the Immediate Posttests 86
Figure 4.5 Comparison of the Scorings of the Three Tasks between the Two Groups in the Three-week Delayed Posttests 89
Figure 4.6 Comparison of the Scorings of the Three Tasks between the Two Groups in the Posttests and the Three-week Posttests 90
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