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研究生:張真維
研究生(外文):Chen-wei Chang
論文名稱:英語為外語之學生於讀寫過程中寫作策略運用之研究
論文名稱(外文):Investigating EFL Writers' Writing Strategies Use in Reading-to-Write Tasks
指導教授:游毓玲游毓玲引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yu-ling You
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立彰化師範大學
系所名稱:英語學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:英文
論文頁數:134
中文關鍵詞:讀寫任務英語為外語之學生挑選文本內容使用文本內容
外文關鍵詞:reading-to-write taskthe EFL writerinformation selectioninformation integration
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中文摘要
本研究探討英語為外語之學生在讀寫任務中寫作策略的使用。自1980年代時期,閱讀和寫作兩者皆被視為是意義發現和意義創造之認知過程,閱讀和寫作是基於共享認知過程和認知知識而相關。然而,探討閱讀寫作關係之研究大部分著重在閱讀增進寫作能力之效應;而從讀寫過程中,認知策略使用之相關研究依然不足。因此,本研究旨在探討英語為外語之學生在讀寫任務中選擇使用文本內容之類型,以及使用文本內容之策略。另外,本研究試圖檢視選用文本內容之原因,以及外語學生在讀寫任務中挑選和使用文本內容之相似和差異之處。
本研究對象為九名英語系研究生。九名研究對象先接受寫作能力測驗,並分為較具寫作技巧、具有寫作技巧及較少寫作技巧三組,然後完成一項讀寫任務。此讀寫任務要求學生先閱讀四篇文本,然後撰寫一篇關於故事演說之文章。完成此讀寫任務後,在兩週內訪談研究對象。研究者係依據挑選文本內容及使用文本內容之編碼基模,針對研究對象之作文以及訪談博多稿進行分析。
本研究首先發現外語學生在寫作文章中挑選文本中事實內容(the fact information)多於其見解內容(the opinion information)。第二,在讀寫任務中,三組寫作者對直接引用(direct quoting)、修改(modifying)以及釋寫(paraphrasing)三項寫作策略使用最多。較具寫作技巧者及具有寫作技巧者使用摘要(summarizing)及推論(inferencing)策略多於較少寫作技巧者;而較少寫作技巧者使用直接引用策略則多於較具寫作技巧者及具有寫作技巧者。第三,選用文本內容至寫作文章裡受到五大因素影響,即(一)選用文本內容與寫作文章之主旨相符,(二)選用文本內容與寫作文章之關連性,(三)選用文本內容之重要性及在文本中之重覆性,(四)選用文本內容資料之豐富性及多元性,(五)文章寫作者對文本內容之認同。
根據研究結果,本研究建議英語寫作教師應明確教導讀寫任務之寫作認知策略性知識。此外,本研究建議英語寫作教師給予學生各種形式之讀寫任務充分練習。



關鍵詞:讀寫任務,英語為外語之學生,挑選文本內容,使用文本內容
ABSTRACT
The study intends to investigate the EFL writers’ writing strategy use in reading-to-write tasks. Since the 1980s reading and writing are both considered as active cognitive process of meaning discovery and meaning making; they are related based on the shared cognitive process and knowledge. However, the previous empirical studies exploring the relationship between reading and writing mostly focus on the effects of reading on improving writing proficiency; whereas the cognitive strategies employed in the process of composing from sources are still remain less explored. This study thus aims to explore what type of information the EFL writers selected from the reading material (source texts) to be integrated into their writing tasks and the strategy use of information integration among the EFL writers in reading-to-write tasks. Also, the research attempts to examine the reasons for integrating the selected information from source reading material into compositions and the similarities and differences of information selection and information integration among the EFL writers in writing strategy use in reading-to-write tasks.
Nine English-majored graduate students participated in this study. The writing placement test was conducted for classifying them as the more skilled, the skilled, and the less skilled writers. They were, then, asked to accomplish a reading-to-write task. When performing the reading-to-write task, they were firstly required to read the four pieces of the source texts on storytelling in advance; then write an essay that requires them for the topic “Storytelling.” After finishing the writing task, a semi-structured retrospective interview was conducted with each subject individually within two weeks. The written products of the writing tasks and the semi-structured retrospective interview protocols were collected and further analyzed in terms of two coding schemes of information selection and information integration.
The results showed firstly that the EFL writers selected more the fact information of the source texts than the opinion information of the source texts in their writing tasks. Secondly, three strategies of information integration – direct quoting, modifying, and paraphrasing – are most applied in completing the reading-to-write tasks among the three groups of writers. The more skilled and the skilled writers used the strategies of summarizing and inferencing more than the less skilled writers do; while the less skilled writers used the strategy of direct quoting more than the other two writer groups in their writing tasks. Finally, the five factors contributing to integrating the selected information from the source texts into their writings generally were (a) the topic consistency between the selected information and the EFL writers’ compositions, (b) the selected information which is coherent and relevant to the EFL writers’ main thesis of writings, (c) the significance and repetition frequency of the selected information in the source texts, (d) the selected information which is resourceful and informative to be referred to with lots of relative data, and (e) the recognition of the writers toward the authors’ perspectives in the source texts.
Based on the findings of the study, it is suggested that there was a need for explicit instruction on strategic knowledge involved in reading-to-write tasks. In addition, the EFL writing teachers are suggested to sufficiently expose students to different types of reading-to-write tasks.

Key words: reading-to-write task, the EFL writer, information selection, information integration.
TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT (CHINESE) i
ABSTRACT (ENGLISH) iii
ACKNOWLDEGEMENTS v
TABLE OF CONTENTS vi
LIST OF TABLES viii
LIST OF FIGURES ix

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
Background of the Study 1
Purposes of the Study 6
Research Questions 7
Definitions of the Terms 7
Significance of the Study 9

CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 12
Reading-Writing Connection 12
Rationales of Reading and Writing Relationships 12
Research on Composing from Sources 17
Research on Strategies used in Reading-to-Write Tasks 22
Characteristics of Skilled and Unskilled EFL Writers 24
Characteristics of Skilled Writers 24
Characteristics of Unskilled Writers 25

CHAPTER THREE METHDOLOGY 26
Participants 26
Instruments 28
The Reading-to-Write Task 28
Semi-structured Retrospective Interview 34
Data Collection Procedures 36
Data Analysis 37
The Coding scheme 38
Data Analysis Procedures 39
The Pilot Study 44

CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS 47
Types of Information Selection among the EFL Writers 48
Information Integration Strategies among the EFL Writers 50
Differences in Making Selected Information across the Three Writer Groups
65
The Mark of Information Selection by the More Skilled Writer 67
The Mark of Information Selection by the Skilled Writer 71
The Mark of Information Selection by the Less Skilled Writer 76
Reasons for Integrating the Selected Information into Writing 83

CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSIONS AND CONCLUSIONS 93
Summary of Findings of the Study 93
Discussions 96
Differences in Type of Information Selection among the More Skilled, the Skilled, and the Less Skilled Writers 96
Differences in Mark of Information Selection among the More Skilled, the Skilled, and the Less Skilled Writers 99
Differences in Strategies of Information Integration among the More Skilled, the Skilled, and the Less Skilled Writers 103
Pedagogical Implications 108
Delimitations of the Study 109
Suggestions for Future Studies 110
Conclusions 111

REFERENCES 113

APPENDIXES 122
Appendix A The Reading-to-Write Task I 122
Appendix B Interview Guide for the Interviewees 123
Appendix C Sample Transcript of the Interview 125

LIST OF TABLES

Table 3.1 The average scores of writing placement tests 28
Table 3.2 Tokens (and Percentage) for Vocabulary Range of the Four Source Texts 32
Table 3.3 The Readability of the Four Source Texts 33
Table 3.4 The Interview Questions (translated) 35
Table 3.5 The Coding Scheme for Selecting Information 38
Table 3.6 The Coding Scheme for Integrating Strategy 39
Table 3.7 Sample Analysis of Types of Information on Source Texts 40
Table 3.8 Sample Analysis of Types of the Selected Information on Written Texts. 41
Table 3.9 Sample Analysis of Writing Strategies on Written Texts. 42
Table 4.1 Percentages of Types of Selected Information on Written Texts 48
Table 4.2 Strategies/Acts of Information Integration of EFL Writers Employed 50
Table 4.3 Frequencies and Percentages of Writing Strategies EFL Writers Employed 63
Table 4.4 Summary of Selecting information from Source Texts across the Three Writer Groups 66

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 2.1 Key Features of Students’ Task Representations 14
Figure 3.1 Steps of conducting data collection 36
Figure 4.1 Sample of Underlined Information by the More Skilled Writer 69
Figure 4.2 Sample of Underlined Information by the Skilled Writer 74
Figure 4.3 Sample of Underlined Information by the Less Skilled Writer 80
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