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研究生:莊晴妃
研究生(外文):Ching-fei Chuang
論文名稱:艾蜜莉.狄瑾蓀詩作中自然生態批評觀點之研究及其在高中英語教學上之應用
論文名稱(外文):Ecocritical Perspectives on Nature in Emily Dickinson's Poems and Its Application to English Teaching for Senior High School Students in Taiwan
指導教授:蔣筱珍蔣筱珍引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hsiao-chen Chiang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立彰化師範大學
系所名稱:英語學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:英文
論文頁數:159
中文關鍵詞:艾蜜莉.狄瑾蓀英文詩作生態批評理論自然生態意識英語教學
外文關鍵詞:Emily DickinsonEnglish poetryEcocriticismecological consciousnessecocritical perspectiveinterrelatednessenvironmental ethicsecological feminist consciousnessEnglish teaching
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中文摘要

本論文主要探究英文詩作在高中英文課程中之應用。藉由以自然生態為主題的英文詩作為教材,激發學生學習英語的動機以及對於閱讀英文詩作的興趣,進而提升學生的自然生態意識。
在文學作品之中,尤其是詩歌,往往展現出人類語言以及思想的極致與菁華,蘊含著普世的經驗以及豐沛的情感,經常能夠感動人心且傳唱後世。然而,即便詩歌值得世人學習且傳誦,在英語教學中,仍然有許多老師對於以英文詩作為英語學習教材持保留態度。台灣高中英文老師對於文學作品融入英語教學總是懷著遲疑,對於英文詩作融入高中英文課程中更是躊躇不前,如此普遍懷疑的態度,很可能讓台灣高中生失去一種更有效的學習英文的方式,以及更有趣且更有深度及廣度的學習英文的機會。本研究目的在於深入了解台灣高中生對於英文詩作融入英語教學的看法以及回應,並且證明以自然為主題的英文詩作做為英語教材的適用性以及提昇自然生態意識的可能性。本研究採用艾蜜莉.狄瑾蓀(Emily Dickinson)以自然為題材的四首詩作作為實驗體裁,擬定周詳教案並且配合學習工作單、圖片、音樂等教具進行教學實驗,以期提升學生的學習動機以及學習成效,並且進而讓學生從詩作中去思考當今的生態環保議題,提升自然生態意識。本研究於教學實驗前以及教學實驗後,皆針對參與教學實驗的學生們實施問卷調查,並且對於實驗結果進行比較、分析,以及深入討論,證明以自然為主題的英文詩作確實能夠應用於台灣高中英語教學,不僅適切地結合了語言之美與生態意識之養成,並且進一步增添英語學習興趣以及成效。
本文共分為六個章節。第一章首先點明當今自然生態意識提升的重要性,並且說明英詩教學文獻探討、研究者的研究動機等。第二章則就當代生態批評理論進行整理分析以及探討。第三章針對生態批評理論應用於分析實驗體裁──艾蜜莉.狄瑾蓀的四首英文詩作。第四章指出這四首英文詩作作為英語教材的適用性,並且呈現詳細的教學設計以及教學實驗內容。第五章分析此教學實驗施行之後的結果以及成效。最後,第六章提出本研究之總結、研究實驗限制,以及給予未來相關研究者的建議。
Abstract

This thesis attempts to explore the ecocritical perspectives on nature in Emily Dickinson’s poems and applies the ecocritical concepts to English poetry teaching in EFL senior high school in Taiwan with a view to enhance ecological consciousness among them. Although a large number of studies have been made on Emily Dickinson’s poems, what seems to be lacking is to read her poems with ecocritical perspectives which echo the contemporary concerns about the environment. In this study, therefore, the author seeks to relate Dickinson’s love for nature to interrelatedness, environmental ethics, revaluing the text, and ecological feminist consciousness, and to re-read Dickinson’s poems in light of ecocritical perspectives. Additionally, the researcher intends to integrate four selected Emily Dickinson’s poems into the discussion of ecocrtical conceptions, thereby enlightening the students generally on the urgent needs in our time of environmental crisis. To obtain the optimal effect during the teaching and learning process, the researcher in the experimental classes adopted an eclectic teaching method and strategies to teach Emily Dickinson’s poems in order to testify the appropriateness of teaching English poems in senior high schools and the feasibility of employing literary work to promote students’ learning motivation and ecological awareness as well.
This thesis consists of six main chapters. Chapter One is the introduction of the ecocritical perspectives, with an aim to probe into the contemporary pressing need in realizing a harmony bond between humanity and nature. Chapter Two is the classification of the most essential ecocritical concepts relating to ecocritical perspectives of this study. In Chapter Three, the detailed analysis and discussion of the four essential notions relating to ecocriticism in Emily Dickinson’s major poems are rendered. Chapter Four places a particular emphasis on the application of Emily Dickinson’s major poems to English teaching in Taiwan EFL Senior High School. Chapter Five offers the findings of the study and a thorough discussion of the results, including the analyses of the responses of pre-/post-instructional questionnaires and also the analyses of the results of students’ interview. Chapter Six is the conclusion of the thesis, and the summary pertaining to the major findings, the limitations of the present study and suggestions for further studies are also specified.
Table of Contents
Page
Chinese Abstract……………………………………………………i
English Abstract……………………………………………………iii
Acknowledgments………………………………………………………v
Table of Contents…………………………………………………………………vi
List of Tables………………………………………………………xii

Chapter One Introduction………………………………………………………..1
1.1 Ecocritical Perspectives .……………………………..2
1.1.1 The Rise of Eco-consciousness …… ………3
1.1.2 The Start of Ecocriticism …………………..4
1.2 Appropriateness of Teaching Poetry ………………… 6
1.3 Literature Review of Ecocriticism …………………….9
1.4 Literature Review of Emily Dickinson’s Eco-conscious...........................................11
1.5 Introduction to the Research ……………………………. 13
1.5.1 Motivations …………………………………............13
1.5.2 Purposes and Research Questions…………………………15
1.5.3 Organization of the Thesis ……………………………….16

Chapter Two The Claims and Concepts in Ecocriticism………………….............................19
2.1 Interrelatedness ………………………………………… 23
2.1.1 Interrelatedness among God, Nature, and Human Beings ………….................................................24
2.1.2 Interrelatedness between Nature and Culture ……………….………......................................25
2.2Environmental Ethics ………………………….………………… 26
2.2.1 Wildness ………….………………………………………………..28
2.2.2 Simplicity …………….………………………………………...30
2.3 Revaluing the Natural World …………………………..….. 32
2.3.1 From Anthropocentrism to Ecocentrism .......…….…33
2.3.2 Reframing the Text ………………………………………..… 35
2.4 Ecological Feminist Consciousnes ……………..………….36
2.4.1 Earth-based Spirituality ……………………………… .. 38
2.4.2 Diversity ………………………………………………………. 40

Chapter Three An Ecocritical Reading of Emily Dickinson’s Poems………..............................................42
3.1 Interrelatedness ………………....…………………………...44
3.1.1 Interrlatedness among God, Nature and Human Beings ........…….....................................45
3.1.2 Interrelatedness between Nature and Culture .………………………..….....................................49
3.2 Environmental Ethics …..………………………………………52
3.2.1 Wildness ….……………………………………………………. 53
3.2.2 Simplicity…..………………………………………………………55
3.3 Revaluing the Natural World ……………………………….. 58
3.3.1 From Anthropocentrism to Ecocentricism ……………...61
3.3.2 Reframing the Text ……………………………………………...63
3.4 Ecological Feminist Consciousness …………………..…….65
3.4.1 Earth-centered Spirituality ………..……………………….66
3.4.2 Diversity ……..……………………………………………………68

Chapter Four Analysis and Application of Emily Dickinson’s “Nature,” ” A Bird Came down the Walk,” “If I can stop one Heart from breaking,” and “Apparently with No Surprise,” to English Teaching………………….........................…………71

4.1 Appropriateness of Pedagogical Application of “Nature,” ” A Bird Came Down the Walk,” “If I can stop one Heart from breaking,” and “Apparently with No Surprise”……………………………………………………………… 72

4.2 Application of “Nature,” ” A Bird Came Down the Walk,” “If I can stop one Heart from breaking,” and “Apparently with No Surprise” to English Teaching ……………………………………………………………………….…74
4.2.1 Teaching Methods ……………...………………………………75
4.2.1.1 Grammar Translation Method …………….……… 76
4.2.1.2 Reader-Response Approach …………………….. 77
4.2.1.3 Content-Based Instruction …..………………… 79
4.2.1.4 Affective-Humanistic Approach ………………… 81
4.2.2 Participants ………………………..…………………….....82
4.2.3 Instruments ………………………………..……………………82
4.2.4 Teaching Plan …..………………………………………... 83
4.2.5 Teaching Procedure ………………………………………….. 88
4.2.5.1 The First Period ………..………………………. 88
4.2.5.2 The Second Period ……………………………….…90
4.2.5.3 The Third Period ……………………………...… 91
4.2.5.4 The Fourth Period ……..……………………….… 93
4.2.6 Data Collection and Analysis …………………………..…94

Chapter Five Results and Discussion…………………………..96
5.1 Data Analysis and Results of the Teaching Application………..............................…………….96
5.1.1 Analysis of the Studsents’ Responds of the Pre-instructional Questionnaire………………………………………….98
5.1.2 Analysis of the Studsents’ Responds of the Post-instructional Questionnaire……………………..………….109
5.2 Analysis of the Findings from Interpretation of Interviews….….…...……................................120

Chapter Six Conclusion………………………………..………….…125
6.1 Summary of the Major Findings……...……………………….125
6.1.1 The Literary Part…………………………….…….………….125
6.1.2 The Instructional Part…………………..…………………..128
6.2 Limitations of the Present Study…………...…………….131
6.3 Suggestions for Further Studies…………………………..132

Bibliography……………………………………………………………….134
Appendix I: Text………………………………………………………. 146
Appendix II: Pre-instructional Questionnaire……………….150
Appendix III: Post-instructional Questionnaire……….…..153
Appendix IV: Worksheet 1................................155
Appendix V: Worksheet 2..................................156
Appendix VI: Worksheet 3................................157
Appendix VII: Worksheet 4................................158
Appendix VIII: Student Interview……………..........……….159

List of Tables

Table
Page
Table 5-1 Results of the Students’ Opinions on Reading English Poetry before the Instruction 98
Table 5-2 Results of the Students’ Responses towards Understanding the elements of poetry reading before the Instruction 99
Table 5-3 Results of the Students’ Responses towards further English Poetry Reading in the Future before the Instruction 100
Table 5-4 Results of the Students’ Opinions on Eco-consciousness: Interrelatedness: Interrelatedness among God, Nature, and Human Being before the Instruction 101
Table 5-5 Results of the Students’ Opinions on Eco-consciousness: Interrelatedness: Interrelatedness between nature and culture before the Instruction 102
Table 5-6 Results of the Students’ Opinions on Eco-consciousness: Environment Ethics: Wildness before the Instruction 103
Table 5-7 Results of the Students’ Opinions on Eco-consciousness: Environment Ethics: Simplicity before the Instruction 104
Table 5-8 Results of the Students’ Opinions on Eco-consciousness: Revalue the Nature World: from Anthropocentrism to Ecocentrism before the Instruction 105
Table 5-9 Results of the Students’ Opinions on Eco-consciousness: Revalue the Nature World: Reframing the Text before the Instruction 106
Table 5-10 Results of the Students’ Opinions on Eco-consciousness: Ecological Feminist Consciousness: Earth-based Spirituality before the Instruction 107
Table 5-11 Results of the Students’ Opinions on Eco-consciousness: Ecological Feminist Consciousness: Diversity before the Instruction 108
Table 5-12 Results of the Students’ Opinions on Reading English Poetry
after the Instruction 109
Table 5-13 Results of the Students’ Responses towards Understanding the elements of poetry reading after the Instruction 110
Table 5-14 Results of the Students’ Responses towards further English Poetry Reading in the Future after the Instruction 111
Table 5-15 Results of the Students’ Opinions on Eco-consciousness: Interrelatedness: Interrelatedness among God, Nature, and Human Being after the Instruction 112
Table 5-16 Results of the Students’ Opinions on Eco-consciousness:
Interrelatedness: Interrelatedness between Nature and Culture after the Instruction 113
Table 5-17 Results of the Students’ Opinions on Eco-consciousness: Environment Ethics: Wildness after the Instruction 114
Table 5-18 Results of the Students’ Opinions on Eco-consciousness: Environment Ethics: Simplicity after the Instruction 115
Table 5-19 Results of the Students’ Opinions on Eco-consciousness: Revalue the Nature World: from Anthropocentrism to Ecocentrism after the Instruction 116
Table 5-20 Results of the Students’ Opinions on Eco-consciousness: Revalue the Nature World: Reframing the Text after the Instruction 117
Table 5-21 Results of the Students’ Opinions on Eco-consciousness: Ecological Feminist Consciousness: Earth-based Spirituality after the Instruction 118
Table 5-22 Results of the Students’ Opinions on Eco-consciousness: Ecological Feminist Consciousness: Diversity after the Instruction 119
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