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研究生:林鋐宇
論文名稱:國小兒童注意力測驗之編製與應用
論文名稱(外文):The development and application of the Attention Test for Children of Elementary School
指導教授:周台傑
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立彰化師範大學
系所名稱:特殊教育學系所
學門:教育學門
學類:特殊教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:412
中文關鍵詞:注意力測驗編製驗證性因素分析注意力缺陷過動症注意力缺陷亞型
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  本研究旨在編製一套可以連結適當理論與訓練方案之國小兒童注意力測驗,以便提供教師與醫療工作者客觀地篩選注意力異常學童,並能依測驗結果採取適當的訓練方案。
  在編製測驗方面,研究者採用Sohlberg與Matter所提出的「注意力臨床理論」作為理論依據,依照集中性注意力、持續性注意力、選擇性注意力、交替性注意力與分配性注意力等五種向度之架構,編製適用於國小學童之注意力測驗,施測者得以依據測驗結果選取相對應注意力缺陷之訓練方案,強化學童之注意力功能。本研究以1200名普通班學生與60名資源班學生,作為測驗模式驗證性因素分析與常模編製之樣本,此1260份樣本涵蓋國小一至六年級學生,每一年級各210名,特殊學生人數所佔之比例符合精神疾病診斷和統計手冊第四版之修訂版(DSM-IV-TR)的調查數據。所得資料經統計分析,結果如下:
一、 測驗模式的驗證性因素分析:驗證性因素分析之結果顯示,排除純聽覺性注意力分測驗後的10項分測驗模式適配度最高,且所有的適配指標均達良好適配之標準。
二、 信度:本測驗以三種方法求取測驗之信度,各因素層面之Cronbach α信度係數介於 .78至 .97之間,各年級的測量標準誤數值介於7.78至8.15之間,各分量表與全量表的重測信度值介於 .71至 .91之間。
三、 效度:本測驗除敦請專家學者校正測驗內容的內容效度外,亦與其它兩種注意力測驗求取同時效度係數,數值介分別為 .53與 .65 。構念效度除驗證性因素分析結果之支持外,測驗全量表與各分量表的內部一致性分析數值介於 .75至 .80之間,其餘各種不同屬性學生之比較結果亦支持本測驗具有良好的構念效度。
四、 常模:本測驗以百分等級、T分數與常態T分數建立各年級注意力分量表與全量表之標準分數對照表。
  在應用研究方面,研究者利用「國小兒童注意力測驗」之結果,區分注意力缺陷過動症學生之注意力缺陷亞型。集群分析之結果顯示注意力缺陷過動症學生的注意力問題可區分成三種不同亞型。其中「重度注意力缺陷亞型」在五種注意力向度表現均最差,且集中性、選擇性與交替性等注意力向度呈現顯著低落;「中度注意力缺陷亞型」則在持續性與分配性注意力表現不如其它注意力向度;「輕度注意力缺陷亞型」的各項注意力向度缺陷均最輕。
  本研究最後根據上述各項研究結果,提供研究者、教師與醫療工作者相關應用與輔導之建議。
The purpose of this study was first to develop an attention test for elementary school children, which could built on suitable theory and connect to corresponding attention training program. Teachers and medical workers could use this assessment tool to sift children with attention deficit out objectively, and also could adopt appropriate training program according to the assessment result.
In the part of developing assessment tool, the researcher adopted Sohlberg and Matter’s attention theory, Clinical Model of Attention, as the theory base of this self-made assessment tool. According to the theory, this self-made attention assessment tool for elementary school children was constructing of five attention dimensions, these dimensions including focused attention, sustained attention, selective attention, alternating attention, and divided attention. Test administer could select corresponding training program of specific attention deficit to strengthen attention ability according to the assessment result. 1200 students of general classroom and 60 students of remedial education classroom were adopted as samples of confirmatory factor analysis and developing norm in this study, this sample including 210 students in each grade, the rate of students with special diagnosis of this sample is conform to the criterion of DSM-IV-TR. After the statistics analysis, the result of this research part as follows:
1. Confirmatory factor analysis of the assessment model: The result reveled that the model of 10 subtests, which excluded pure hearing attention subtests, got best fit result. All fit indices of this 10 subtests model are well fit.
2. Reliability: Three methods were adopted to verify the reliability of this self-made attention assessment. The Cronbach α coefficient of each factor was ranged from .78 to .97. The standard error of measurement
of each grade was ranged from 7.78 to 8.15. The coefficient of test-retest reliability of each attention subscale and total scale was ranged from .71 to .91.
3. Validity: Beside the content validity, which was did by correcting test
content according to the specialists and scholars’ suggestions, this self-made assessment was also run the concurrent validity with other two attention tests, the coefficient are .53 and .65. In the part of construct validity, beside the strong support from the result of confirmatory factor analysis, internal consistency of each attention subscale and total scale was ranged from .75 to .80. Also, the results of comparing studies, which compared different attributes of elementary school students, showed that this self-made assessment had good construct validity.
4. Norm: Percentile rank, T scores, and normalized T scores were set to each attention subscale and total scale of each grade as contrast scales of standard scores.
In the part of applied study, the researcher adopted the result of this self-made assessment to sort the attention deficit subtypes of ADHD. Three attention deficit subtypes of ADHD could be sorted by cluster analysis; the subtype of heavy attention deficit had worst performance in all five attention dimensions, especially the dimensions of focus attention, selective attention, and alternative attention. The subtype of moderate attention deficit showed worse performance in sustained and divided attention than other attention dimensions. The subtype of mild attention deficit showed mild attention deficit in all five dimensions.
According to the above-mentioned study results, the researcher offered relative suggestions of application to researchers, teachers, and medical workers.
中文摘要I
英文摘要IV
目次VIII
表次XII
圖次XVI
第一章 緒論•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••1
第一節 研究背景及動機•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••2
第二節 研究目的與待答問題••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••8
第三節 名詞釋義•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••10
第四節 研究限制•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••15
第二章 文獻探討•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••17
第一節 注意力的概念與向度 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••17
第二節 注意力的理論與模式 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••28
第三節 注意力的評量方式 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••56
第四節 注意力及其相關因素之探究•••••••••••••••••••••••••78
第五節 注意力缺陷過動症患者的注意力問題探究•••••••••••••••90
第三章 研究方法•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••113
第一節 研究架構•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••113
第二節 測驗的設計與編製••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••115
第三節 研究樣本•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••133
第四節 研究工具•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••147
第五節 研究步驟與流程•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••151
第六節 資料處理•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••157
第四章 研究結果•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••159
第一節 測驗模式驗證•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••159
第二節 信度研究••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••169
第三節 效度研究••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••171
第四節 常模編製•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••191
第五節 應用研究••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••193
第五章 討論、結論與建議•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••207
第一節 綜合討論••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••208
第二節 結論•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••228
第三節 建議•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••233

參考文獻••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••242
中文部分•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••242
英文部分••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••247

附錄
附錄一 注意力評定量表、檢核表一覽表••••••••••••••••••••••284
附錄二 電腦化注意力測驗一覽表••••••••••••••••••••••••••288
附錄三 DSM-IV-TR之ADHD診斷標準••••••••••••••••••••••••290
附錄四 「國小兒童注意力訓練方案」草案•••••••••••••••••••291
附錄五 測驗編製雙向細目表•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••310
附錄六 「國小兒童注意力測驗」指導語及範例•••••••••••••••312
附錄七 初編「國小兒童注意力測驗」內容分析表•••••••••••••342
附錄八 徵求參與者說明書(學校教師版)••••••••••••••••••344
附錄九 徵求參與者說明書(學生家長版)••••••••••••••••••345
附錄十 專家學者建議修正內容摘要•••••••••••••••••••••••346
附錄十一 分測驗原始分數與量表分數對照表•••••••••••••••••348
附錄十二 各分量表分數與T分數、百分等級、常態T分數
       對照表•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••366
附錄十三 全量表分數與標準分數、T分數、百分等級、常
       態T分數對照表•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••396
附錄十四 連結「國小兒童注意力測驗」與「國小兒童注意
       力訓練方案」之應用範例•••••••••••••••••••••••408
表 次
表2- 1 注意力過程訓練(APT)內容一覽表 51
表2 -2 操作式注意力測驗一覽表 61
表2 -3 紙筆式注意力測驗一覽表 69
表2 -4 ADHD 的診斷標準在DSM 上的沿革 92
表3- 1 第一次預試樣本人數分配表 135
表3- 2 第二次預試樣本人數分配表 135
表3 -3 96 學年度八縣市國小學生人數與比例一覽表 137
表3 -4 普通班學生樣本之學校與人數分配表 138
表3- 5 資源班特殊學生樣本之學校與人數分配表139
表3 -6 常模樣本各年級學生團體人數分配與比例表140
表3 -7 國小兒童注意力測驗重測信度樣本141
表3 -8 專家效度之專家學者名冊142
表3- 9 效標關聯效度樣本人數分配表 143
表3- 10 常模樣本年級、性別差異樣本人數分配表144
表3- 11 學業成績差異分析樣本人數分配表144
表3- 12 不同團體三年級學生之人數分配表145
表3- 13 150 名ADHD 學童集群分析人數分配表146
表4- 1 五因素暨15 項分測驗模式適配指標摘要表 162
表4- 2 15 項與10 項分測驗適配指標比較摘要表 165
表4- 3 注意力因素層面的Cronbach α 信度考驗比較表166
表4- 4 各年級之Cronbach α 信度係數 169
表4- 5 「國小兒童注意力測驗」重測信度係數171
表4- 6 「國小兒童注意力測驗」之同時效度 173
表4- 7 各分量表與全量表之內部相關矩陣175
表4- 8 各分測驗與全量表之內部相關矩陣175
表4- 9 不同年級各注意力分量表之平均數177
表4- 10 不同年級學童的變異數摘要表177
表4- 11 不同年級Scheffé 事後比較摘要表178
表4- 12 各年級不同性別差異之考驗179
表4- 13 各年級不同性別在各注意力分量表差異考驗 180
表4- 14 各年級全量表分數與學業成績相關係數摘要表182
表4- 15 各注意力分量表與學業成績相關摘要表182
表4- 16 三年級不同學生團體之測驗平均數與標準差 185
表4- 17 不同學生團體得分之變異數分析摘要表 186
表4- 18 不同團體在全量表得分之Scheffé 事後比較表187
表4- 19 不同團體在集中性注意力分量表得分之Scheffé 事後比較表 187
表4- 20 不同團體在持續性注意力分量表得分之Scheffé 事後比較表 188
表4- 21 不同團體在選擇性注意力分量表得分之Scheffé 事後比較表188
表4- 22 不同團體在交替性注意力分量表得分之Scheffé 事後比較表188
表4- 23 不同團體在分配性注意力分量表得分之Scheffé 事後比較表189
表4- 24 集群分析樣本之年級與性別資料 194
表4- 25 集群變數之相關係數矩陣摘要表 195
表4- 26 集群變數容忍值與VIF 值摘要表 196
表4- 27 集群數與相對融合係數摘要表 197
表4- 28 三集群各變項之中心點位置與隸屬函數 198
表4- 29 不同亞型間向度差異之變異數分析摘要表 202
表4 -30 集中性注意力在亞型間差異之事後比較 202
表4 -31 持續性注意力在亞型間差異之事後比較 203
表4 -32 選擇性注意力在亞型間差異之事後比較 203
表4- 33 交替性注意力在亞型間差異之事後比較 203
表4- 34 分配性注意力在亞型間差異之事後比較 203
表5- 1 不同年級各注意力向度事後比較整理表 214
表5- 2 三種特殊學生團體注意力缺陷向度一覽表 225
表5- 3 DSM-IV-TR 與本研究之亞型分類對照一覽表 226

圖 次
圖2 -1 瓶頸理論比較圖 31
圖2 -2 注意力網路理論-視覺定位機制的腦區圖 38
圖2 -3 監督式注意力系統(SAS)的運作模式圖 43
圖3- 1 初步測驗架構圖 118
圖3- 2 集中性注意力分量表分析圖 129
圖3- 3 持續性注意力分量表分析圖 129
圖3 -4 選擇性注意力分量表分析圖 129
圖3 -5 交替性注意力分量表分析圖 129
圖3 -6 分配性注意力分量表分析圖 129
圖3- 7 研究步驟及流程圖 152
圖3- 8 初編國小兒童注意力測驗因素分析模式圖 155
圖4- 1 五因素暨15 項分測驗模式徑路圖 161
圖4- 2 五因素暨10 項分測驗模式徑路圖 164
圖4- 3 正式測驗架構圖 168
圖4 -4 分測驗施測程序圖 192
圖4- 5 集群中各注意力向度之z 分數中心點位置圖 200
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