跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(44.200.77.92) 您好!臺灣時間:2024/03/01 09:05
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

: 
twitterline
研究生:黃國禎
論文名稱:智能障礙成人適應行為之研究
指導教授:徐享良徐享良引用關係鳳華鳳華引用關係
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立彰化師範大學
系所名稱:特殊教育學系所
學門:教育學門
學類:特殊教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:540
中文關鍵詞:適應行為SEM單因子多變量變異數分析趨向分析
外文關鍵詞:adaptive behaviorSEMone-way multivariate analysis of variancetrend analysis
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:10
  • 點閱點閱:2123
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:462
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:5
本研究之主要目的在於驗證智能障礙成人適應行為二階理論模型,區別智能障礙成人與一般成人適應行為模型上差異,釐清智能障礙成人與一般成人在輕信性格、天真行為、聽從管理、遵守法律、預防受冤等五項能力上差異,探討智能障礙成人適應行為的現況與差異情形,了解智能障礙成人適應行為表現隨著年齡增長而發展情形,檢定智能障礙成人適應行為與年齡的關係,了解智能障礙成人適應行為曲線的發展情形。本研究主要採用測驗法,以我國臺灣地區18~60歲智能障礙成人為母群,採叢集抽樣抽取(1)62所高職綜合職能科,有效樣本385人,(2)18所啟智(特教)學校,有效樣本204人;(3)103所教養機構,有效樣本342人;(4)27個智障者家長協會,有效樣本235人;(5)26所國民就業服務站,有效樣本28人,共計1194人為有效樣本。其次,一般成人採方便取樣方式,有效樣本224人,合計有效樣本1418人。使用的測驗研究工具為研究者編製的「成人適應行為量表」,內容包括六個分量表。測驗量表研究所得資料經結構方程模式分析、描述統計、單因子多變量變異數分析、單因子變異數分析、趨向分析等統計方法以驗證模式的適配度,及考驗研究假設。
根據研究發現,本研究得到下列幾項結論:
一、 成人適應行為量表工具檢驗符合SEM簡約原則。
二、 成人適應行為一階理論模型是責任感、工作能力、溝通能力;二階理論模型是認知能力、自主能力、社交能力。
三、 智能障礙成人適應行為是二階理論模型。
四、 一般成人適應行為是二階理論模型。
五、 智障成人與一般成人之適應行為理論模型是相似的。
六、 智障成人與一般成人之差異在於聽從管理、遵守法律、預防受冤等三項能力。
七、 智能障礙成人67%的適應行為表現在成人適應行為量表平均數之下。
八、 智能障礙成人在責任感、溝通能力等二個分量表適應行為表現得分在成人適應行為量表平均數之上。
九、 智能障礙成人在認知、工作、自主、社交等四個分量表適應行為表現得分在成人適應行為量表平均數之下。
十、 性別等七個背景變項在適應行為上有顯著差異。
十一、 除性別之外,其他六個背景變項在適應行為六個分量表上有顯著差異。
十二、 性別變項在責任感、認知能力、工作能力、自主能力、溝通能力等五個分量表上,均達到統計上顯著差異,且女性適應行為表現優於男性,但在社交能力分量表,未達顯著差異。
十三、 年齡等六個背景變項在六個分量表事後比較上有顯著差異。
(一) 年齡方面,溝通能力事後比較,18~24歲高於25~29歲,亦高於35~39歲;其它五個分量表則多了18~24歲高於40~44歲。
(二) 障礙等級方面,在六個分量表上事後比較:輕度高於中度、重度;中度高於重度。
(三) 教育程度方面,在責任感分量表事後比較,高職高於國中、國小、未受教育;國中高於未受教育。認知能力分量表,則多了國中高於國小、國小高於未受教育。其他四個分量表,高職高於國中、國小、未受教育;國中高於未受教育,國小高於未受教育,少了國中高於國小。
(四) 工作狀態方面,在六個分量表事後比較,全時工作高於部份時間、沒有工作、其他;部份時間工作高於沒有工作。
(五) 就業情形方面,在六個分量表事後比較,競爭型高於庇護型、未就業;支持型高於庇護型、未就業型。未支薪高於未就業,顯現在責任感、工作能力、溝通能力等三個分量表上。
(六) 社經地位方面,在六個分量表事後比較,高階社經地位高於中階、低階層;中階社經地位高於低階層。
十四、年齡在責任感、工作、社交、溝通能力等四個分量表上趨向是直線、三次趨向。
十五、年齡在認知、自主能力二個分量表上趨向是直線趨向、二次趨向、三次趨向。
十六、智障成人適應行為曲線在四十五歲時急速衰退。
最後,根據上述研究假設提出八項建議供啟智教育界、勞政、社政、內政、醫護、教養機構、及後續研究者參考。
The purpose of this study was to verify that adults with mental retardation theoretical model of second-order adaptive behavior. Adults with mental retardation to clarify the general adult character in the gullible, naivete’, follows rules, obeys laws, avoids victimization five differences, to explore the act of mentally retarded adults adapting themselves to the current status of the situation and differences, and to understand the mental retardation adult behavior adapting themselves to growth and development with aging. Test mental retardation and adaptive behavior of adult age, adult understanding of mental retardation in the development of adaptive behavior curve.
This study adopted the test method to 18 to 60-year-old mentally retarded adult female group in Taiwan, taking a sample from the cluster (1) 62 integrated functions of vocational schools, 385 valid samples; (2) 18 special education schools, 204 valid samples; (3) 103 education and nursing institutions, 342 valid samples; (4) 27 mentally challenged parents associations, 235 valid; (5) 26 National Employment Service Station, 28 valid, and the total valid samples are 1194. Secondly, general adults adopted purposive sampling, 224 samples; the total effective samples are 1418. The research tools for researchers were the "Adult Adaptive Behavior Scale," including six sub-scales. Scale test research data by structural equation modeling analysis(
SEM),descriptive statistics ,one-way multivariate ANOVA, one-way ANOVA, trend analysis and other statistical methods to verify the degree of model fit, and test hypotheses.
According to the study, the conclusions are as follows:
a. A tool for Adaptive Behavior Scale for adults tested
accords with the principle of parsimony SEM.
b. The adult first-order theory of adaptive behavior
model are a sense of responsibility, capabilities of work, and communication skills; second-order model are a cognitive theory, autonomy, and social ability.
c. Adaptive behavior for adults with mental retardation
is the second-order model.
d. The general adult adaptive behavior is the
second-order model.
e. The mentally retarded adults and the adults of the
general theoretical model of adaptive behavior are similar.
f. The differences between the mentally retarded adults and the general adults are the following three abilities: follows rules, obeys laws and avoids victimization.
g. The performance of the adaptive behavior for the adults with mental retardation is 67 percent under the average.
h. The performance of adaptive behavior Adults with mental retardation on the two subscale scores such as the sense of responsibility, communication skills are above the average.
i. The performance of adults with mental retardation on the cognitive, work, independence, social and other adaptive behavior in four sub-scales scores is under the average.
j. Gender and other seven background variables on adaptation were of significant differences in behavior.
k. Other than gender, the other six variables in the context of adaptive behavior on the six sub-scales were significantly different.
l. Gender variable on the sense of responsibility, cognitive ability, the ability to work, autonomy, and the ability to communicate on the five sub-scales were statistically significant differences in adaptive behavior and performance, besides, women were better than men, but in the social skills sub-scales, there were no significant differences.
m. The age of gender background variables compared with six sub-scales had significant differences.
(a) In terms of age, the ability to communicate of the 18~24-year-old was higher than that of 25 to 29 years old, and 35~39 years of age; the other five sub-scales showed 18~24 years old was higher than 40~44-year-old.
(b) In terms of the level of obstacles, the six sub-scales showed that the slight was higher than the moderate and the severe; and the moderate higher than the severe.
(c) In terms of education, after compared with the sense of responsibility on sub-scales, people from the vocational schools were higher than the junior high, elementary school and the uneducated; people from the junior high were higher than the uneducated. While on cognitive sub-scales; the junior high higher than the elementary school; the elementary higher than the uneducated. While the other four sub-scales showed the vocational schools higher than the junior high, elementary school and the uneducated; junior high higher than the uneducated; elementary school higher than the uneducated, but there was no knowing for junior high higher than elementary school.
(d) In terms of working condition, full time higher than part-time or no work; part-time work higher than no work.
(e) In terms of the employment situation, the competitive higher than asylum-based, non-employment; support type higher than asylum-based, non-employment type. The no-paid higher than the unemployed shown on the three sub-scales such as the sense of responsibility, ability to work and communication skills.
(f) In terms of socio-economic status, high socio-economic status higher than middle and low; middle higher than low.
n. The age tended to be linear, three trends on the four
sub-scales such as on responsibility, work and social, communication skills.
o. The age on awareness and autonomy on the two sub-scales tended to be linear trend, quadratic trend, three times a trend.
p. Adaptive behavior of adults with mentally
retardation 45-year-old when the curve in rapid decline.
Finally, according to the above assumption, eight recommendations were provided for special education educators, labor affairs, social affairs, internal affairs, health care, correctional institutions, and the follow-ups.
Keywords: adaptive behavior, SEM, one-way multivariate analysis of variance, trend analysis
中文摘要 Ⅰ
英文摘要 Ⅴ
目次 Ⅸ
表次 XI
圖次 XVII
附錄次 XXIII
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究問題與研究動機 1
第二節 研究目的 13
第三節 研究問題 14
第四節 名詞釋義 15
第五節 研究限制 17
第二章 文獻探討 19
第一節 智能障礙成人適應行為 19
第二節 成人適應行為能力的內涵及演進 69
第三節 成人適應行為能力的評量工具 104
第四節 智能障礙成人適應行為相關研究 121
第三章 研究設計與實施 133
第一節 研究架構 133
第二節 研究假設 136
第三節 研究對象 140
第四節 研究方法 168
第五節 研究工具 169
第六節 資料處理與分析 197
第七節 研究流程 204
第四章 研究結果與討論 209
第一節 智障成人適應行為模式之驗證 209
第二節 智障成人適應行為分析 281
第三節 智障成人適應行為趨向分析 325
第五章 結論與建議 341
第一節 結論 341
第二節 建議 349
參考文獻 359
一、中文部份 359
二、英文部份 364
附錄 375
表 次
表2-1 Taylor等人(2005)AAMD/AAMR定義適應行為標準比較 31
表2-2 2002年AAMR適應行為假定 35
表2-3 三個適應行為向度與測驗得來的因素的一致性 48
表2-4 適應行為/適應技能領域,跨越三個定義觀點之比較 51
表2-5 VABS-Ⅱ調查(成人版)內容 56
表2-6 45NCBC閱讀水準(2004) 75
表2-7 自我主張類型 92
表2-8 適應行為量表(成人版)之基本資料比較表 107
表2-8 適應行為量表(成人版)之基本資料比較表(續) 108
表2-8 適應行為量表(成人版)之基本資料比較表(續) 109
表2-8 適應行為量表(成人版)之基本資料比較表(續) 110
表2-8 適應行為量表(成人版)之基本資料比較表(續) 111
表2-9 成人適應行為量表之標準化與常模比較表 120
表2-10 2009~2001年智能障礙成人適應行為相關研究比較表 123
表2-10 2009~2001年智能障礙成人適應行為相關研究比較表(續) 124
表2-10 2009~2001年智能障礙成人適應行為相關研究比較表(續) 125
表2-10 2009~2001年智能障礙成人適應行為相關研究比較表(續) 126
表3-1 智能障礙成人預試有效樣本人數 146
表3-2 智能障礙成人正式有效樣本人數暨抽樣單位及人數百分比 148
表3-3 正式樣本智能障礙成人之年齡、性別、障礙等級分配表(N=1194)
149
表3-4 智能障礙成人正式樣本基本資料表(續) 152
表3-4 智能障礙成人正式樣本基本資料表(續) 153
表3-4 智能障礙成人正式樣本基本資料表(續) 154
表3-4 智能障礙成人正式樣本基本資料表(續) 155
表3-4 智能障礙成人正式樣本基本資料表(續) 156
表3-4 智能障礙成人正式樣本基本資料表(續) 157
表3-5 一般成人正式樣本基本資料表 160
表3-5 一般成人正式樣本基本資料表(續) 161
表3-6 台灣地區統計區域 162
表3-7 預試樣本與正式研究樣本實足年齡取樣範圍 167
表3-8 智能障礙成人適應行為量表(成人版)預試題目架構表 172
表3-9 預試樣本智能障礙成人之年齡、性別、障礙等級分配表(N=716)
183
表3-10 本研究預試樣本項目分析判斷指標一覽表 185
表3-11 智能障礙成人適應行為量表預試初階因素相關矩陣(716名智障142題) 195
表3-12 成人適應行為量表預試二階因素結構(716名主成份分析142題斜交轉軸) 195
表3-13 智能障礙成人適應行為量表預試之信度考驗表 195
表3-14 成人適應行為量表21個能力群編題、選題統計 196
表3-15 家庭社經地位換算等級表 203
表4-1 成人適應行為量表之十九個能力群的驗證性因素分析表 235
表4-2 成人適應行為量表之六個分量表的一階驗證性因素分析表 266
表4-3 成人適應行為量表之六個分量表的二階驗證性因素分析表 267
表4-4 智障成人適應行為量表之六個分量表與十九個能力群現況分析
摘要表 282
表4-5 不同性別智能障礙成人對適應行為之平均數與標準差 ..285
表4-6 不同性別智能障礙成人對適應行為之多變量變異數分析摘要表
285
表4-6 不同性別智能障礙成人對適應行為之多變量變異數分析摘要表(續) 285
表4-7 不同年齡智能障礙成人對適應行為之多變量變異數分析摘要表
289
表4-7 不同年齡智能障礙成人對適應行為之多變量變異數分析摘要表
(續) 289
表4-8 不同年齡的智能障礙成人適應行為變異數分析摘要表 290
表4-9 不同障礙等級智能障礙成人對適應行為之多變量變異數分析摘要
表 294
表4-9 不同障礙等級智能障礙成人對適應行為之多變量變異數分析摘要
表(續) 294
表4-10 不同障礙等級的智能障礙成人適應行為變異數分析摘要表 295
表4-11不同教育程度智能障礙成人對適應行為之多變量變異數分析摘要表 300
表4-12 不同教育程度智能障礙成人對適應行為之多變量變異數分析摘要
表(續) 300
表4-13 不同教育程度的智能障礙成人適應行為變異數分析摘要表 301
表4-13 不同工作狀態智能障礙成人對適應行為之多變量變異數分析摘要
表 305
表4-13 不同工作狀態智能障礙成人對適應行為之多變量變異數分析摘要
表(續) 305
表4-14 不同工作狀態的智能障礙成人適應行為變異數分析摘要表 306
表4-15 不同就業情形智能障礙成人對適應行為之多變量變異數分析摘要
表 311
表4-15不同就業情形智能障礙成人對適應行為之多變量變異數分析摘要
表(續) 311
表4-16 不同就業情形的智能障礙成人適應行為變異數分析摘要表 312
表4-17 不同社經地位智能障礙成人對適應行為之多變量變異數分析摘要
表 316
表4-17不同社經地位智能障礙成人對適應行為之多變量變異數分析摘要
表(續) 316
表4-18 不同社經地位的智能障礙成人適應行為變異數分析摘要表 317
表4-19 智障成人七個年齡組樣本在成人適應行為量表得分平均數與標準
差統計表 335
表4-20 智障成人適應行為發展趨向分析摘要表(事後檢定) 336
表4-21 1194名智障成人年齡與六個分量表之適應行為關係趨向比較表
336

圖 次
圖2-1 假設性適應行為因素與變項 39
圖2-2 2002年AAMR適應行為理論模式 41
圖2-3 相互適應理論模式 42
圖2-4 概念的、社交的及實際表現的適應技能 47
圖2-5 生態環境下智能障礙成人日常生活六大技能領域 69
圖3-1 智能障礙成人適應行為研究架構圖 133
圖3-2 適應行為二階理論模式假設圖 135
圖3-3 家庭社經地位區分圖 203
圖4-1 適應行為二階模式假設圖 211
圖4-2 工作責任感原始假設徑路圖 214
圖4-3 工作責任感假設徑路圖修正模式2 214
圖4-4 工作信賴感原始假設徑路圖 214
圖4-5 閱讀原始假設徑路圖 216
圖4-6 閱讀假設徑路圖修正模式2 216
圖4-7 寫作原始假設徑路圖 217
圖4-8 寫作假設徑路圖修正模式2 217
圖4-9 金錢概念原始假設徑路圖 219
圖4-10 金錢概念假設徑路圖修正模式2 219
圖4-11 一般認知原始假設徑路圖 220
圖4-12 一般認知假設徑路圖修正模式2 220
圖4-13 職業技能原始假設徑路圖 222
圖4-14 職業技能假設徑路圖修正模式3 222
圖4-15 職業安全原始假設徑路圖 223
圖4-16 職業安全假設徑路圖修正模式1 223
圖4-17 日常生活的活動原始假設徑路圖 224
圖4-18 日常生活的活動假設徑路圖修正模式2 224
圖4-19 日常生活的工具性活動原始假設徑路圖 225
圖4-20 維護安全環境原始假設徑路圖 226
圖4-21 維護安全環境假設徑路圖修正模式1 226
圖4-22 自我導向原始假設徑路圖 227
圖4-23 自我導向假設徑路圖修正模式3 227
圖4-24 人際關係原始假設徑路圖 228
圖4-25 人際關係假設徑路圖修正模式2 228
圖4-26 自尊原始假設徑路圖 229
圖4-27 聽從管理原始假設徑路圖 230
圖4-28 聽從管理假設徑路圖修正模式2 230
圖4-29 遵守法律原始假設徑路圖 231
圖4-30 遵守法律假設徑路圖修正模式1 231
圖4-31 預防受冤原始假設徑路圖 232
圖4-32 預防受冤假設徑路圖修正模式1 232
圖4-33 接受性語言原始假設徑路圖 233
圖4-34 接受性語言假設徑路圖修正模式3 233
圖4-35 表達性語言原始假設徑路圖 234
圖4-36 表達性語言假設徑路圖修正模式1 234
圖4-37 責任感概念模式圖 237
圖4-38 責任感驗證性因素分析假設模式圖 237
圖4-39 責任感原始假設徑路圖 238
圖4-40 責任感假設徑路圖修正模式3 238
圖4-41 認知能力概念模式圖 240
圖4-42 認知能力驗證性因素分析假設模式圖 240
圖4-43 認知能力原始假設徑路圖 241
圖4-44 認知能力假設徑路圖修正模式3 241
圖4-45 認知能力二階CFA假設模式圖 244
圖4-46 認知能力二階CFA模式圖 244
圖4-47 認知能力二階CFA原始假設徑路圖 245
圖4-48 認知能力二階CFA假設徑路圖修正模式2 245
圖4-49 工作能力概念模式圖 247
圖4-50 工作能力驗證性因素分析假設模式圖 247
圖4-51 工作能力原始假設徑路圖 248
圖4-52 工作能力原始假設徑路圖修正模式1 248
圖4-53 自主能力概念模式圖 250
圖4-54 自主能力驗證性因素分析假設模式圖 250
圖4-55 自主能力原始假設徑路圖 251
圖4-56 自主能力假設徑路圖修正模式3 251
圖4-57 自主能力二階CFA假設模式圖 254
圖4-58 自主能力二階CFA非標準化估計值模式圖 254
圖4-59 自主能力二階CFA原始假設徑路圖 255
圖4-60 自主能力二階CFA假設徑路圖修正模式1 255
圖4-61 社交能力概念模式圖 257
圖4-62 社交能力驗證性因素分析假設模式圖(沒有界定參數標籤名
稱) 257
圖4-63 社交能力原始假設徑路分析圖 258
圖4-64 社交能力二階CFA假設模式圖 260
圖4-65 社交能力二階CFA非標準化估計值模式 260
圖4-66 社交能力二階CFA原始假設徑路圖 261
圖4-67 溝通能力概念模式圖 265
圖4-68 溝通能力驗證性因素分析假設模式圖 265
圖4-69 溝通能力原始假設徑路圖 265
圖4-70 溝通能力假設路徑圖修正模式1 265
圖4-71 適應行為二階CFA假設模式圖 272
圖4-72 適應行為二階CFA非標準化估計值模式圖 272
圖4-73 適應行為二階CFA原始徑路圖 273
圖4-74 適應行為二階CFA假設路徑圖修正模式3 273
圖4-75 一般成人適應行為二階CFA非標準化估計值模式圖 274
圖4-76 一般成人適應行為CFA原始徑路圖 274
圖4-77 七組年齡智障成人責任感趨向圖 337
圖4-78 七組年齡智障成人認知能力趨向圖 337
圖4-79 七組年齡智障成人工作能力趨向圖 338
圖4-80 七組年齡智障成人自主能力趨向圖 338
圖4-81 七組年齡智障成人社交能力趨向圖 339
圖4-82 七組年齡智障成人溝通能力趨向圖 339

附錄次
附錄一 國立彰化師範大學特殊教育學系書函 375
附錄二 國立彰化師範大學特殊教育學系書函 376
附錄三 國立彰化師範大學特殊教育學系書函 377
附錄四 國立彰化師範大學特殊教育學系書函 378
附錄五 國立彰化師範大學特殊教育學系書函 379
附錄六 智能障礙成人預試高職綜合職能科人數一覽表 380
附錄七 智能障礙成人預試啟智(特殊教育)學校人數一覽表
381
附錄八 智能障礙教養機構名單 382
附錄九 智能障礙成人預試教養機構人數一覽表 386
附錄十 中華民國智障者家長協會名單 387
附錄十一 智能障礙成人預試智障者家長協會人數一覽表 389
附錄十二 國立彰化師範大學特殊教育學系書函 390
附錄十三 智能障礙成人預試國民就業單位服務站人數一覽表
392
附錄十四 智能障礙成人高職綜合職能科正式樣本人數一覽表
393
附錄十五 啟智(特殊教育)學校(含啟聰高職部智障學生)正式
樣本人數一覽表 395
附錄十六 教養機構正式樣本人數一覽表 396
附錄十七 智障者家長協會正式樣本人數一覽表 399
附錄十八 國民就業服務站正式樣本人數一覽表 400
附錄十九 成人適應行為量表(一般成人自評表) 401
附錄二十 國立彰化師範大學特殊教育學系書函 409
附錄二十一 國立彰化師範大學特殊教育學系書函 411
附錄二十二 國立彰化師範大學特殊教育學系書函 415
附錄二十三 國立彰化師範大學特殊教育學系書函 416
附錄二十四 適應行為評量題目庫 419
附錄二十五 專家學者名單 469
附錄二十六 成人適應行為量表預試題目 470
附錄二十七 「成人適應行為量表」預試題項來源 487
附錄二十八 成人適應行為量表(預試施測版) 489
附錄二十九 成人適應行為量表評量手冊填答補充說明 497
附錄三十 智能障礙成人預試取樣高職綜合職能科、啟智學校、教養
機構、智障者家長協會單位、就業單位等五項名單 499
附錄三十一 預試樣本716名智障成人在188題得分之平均數與標準差
(觀察值為平均數2) 500
附錄三十二 成人適應行為量表項目分析摘要表(716名智障不分年齡)
502
附錄三十三 智能障礙成人適應行為量表預試初階因素結構(716名智障142題) 511
附錄三十四 智能障礙成人適應行為量表預試之初階因素分析摘要表
515
附錄三十五 「成人適應行為量表」初階因素分析摘要表 518
附錄三十六 成人適應行為量表(正式施測題目152題) 528
附錄三十七 職業對照表 535
附錄三十八 成人適應行為量表(最終確認版) 536
一、中文部份
中華民國智障者家長總會(民96)。全國三十八家長協會通訊錄。推波引水,52。台北:中華民國智障者家長總會會訊。
中華民國智障者家長總會(民97)。中華民國智障者家長總會十七年簡史。97.1.10取自http://www.papmh.org.tw/ugc_AbouyUs2.asp.
內政部(民95)。中華民國94年簡易生命表。載於年刊,19,291。台北:內政部。
內政部(民96a)。身心障礙人數。96.12.15取自http://www.moi.gov.tw/stat
/index.asp.
內政部社會司(民96b)。社會司網頁機構部份,96.2.14取自http://sowf.moi.gov.tw/05/disable/isearch23.asp
內政部統計處(民98)。內政統計通報98年第9週97年底列冊身心障礙者人數統計。98.06.27取自http://www.moi.gov.tw/files/news-file/ week9809.
doc
王文科(民89)。特殊教育的定義、發展與趨勢。載於許天威、徐享良、張勝成主編,新特殊教育通論,初版,1-38。台北:五南圖書出版公司。
王文科(民94)。特殊教育的定義、發展與趨勢。載於許天威、徐享良、張勝成主編,新特殊教育通論,第二版,1-38。台北:五南圖書出版公司。
王文科、王智弘(民96)。教育研究法,第十一版。台北:五南圖書出版公司。
王保進(民91)。視窗版spss與行為科學研究,第二版。台北:心理出版社。
王保進(民93)。多變量分析套裝程式與資料分析,初版。台北:心理出版社。
王保進(民95)。中文視窗版spss與行為科學研究,初版。台北:心理出版社。
何東墀(民75)。我國實施殘障國民之職業輔導應努力的方向。載於國民教育輔導論叢,第四輯,433-445,國立臺灣教育學院輔導學系編輯。台北:教育部國民教育司印行。
何華國(民89)。啟智教育研究,第二版。台北:五南出版公司。
吳明隆(民96)。SPSS操作與應用:問卷統計分析實務。台北:五南出版公司。
吳武典、盧台華、張正芬、邱紹春(民93)。修訂文蘭適應行為量表(VABS)。台北:心理出版社。
林生傳(民78)。教育社會學。高雄:復文圖書出版社印行。
林宏熾(民89)。身心障礙者生活品質。載於許天威、徐享良、張勝成主編新特殊教育通論,初版,487-529。台北:五南圖書出版公司。
林宏熾(民94)。身心障礙者生活品質。載於許天威、徐享良、張勝成主編新特殊教育通論,第二版,501-546。台北:五南圖書出版公司。
林幸台(民96)。身心障礙者生涯輔導與轉銜服務,初版。台北:心理出版社。
林清山(民84)。多變項分析統計法,第五版(六刷)。台北:東華書局。
林惠芬(民89)。智能障礙者之教育。載於許天威、徐享良、張勝成主編,新特殊教育通論,初版,133-158。台北:五南圖書出版公司。
林惠芬(民94)。智能障礙者教育。載於許天威、徐享良、張勝成主編,新特殊教育通論,第二版,137-162。台北:五南圖書出版公司。
林崇德(民87)。發展心理學,初版。台北市:臺灣東華書局。
邱皓政(民91)。量化研究與統計分析:SPSS中文視窗版資料分析範例解析,第二版。台北:五南圖書出版公司。。
邱皓政(民92)。結構方程式模式:LISREL的理論技術與應用,初版。台北:雙葉書廊。
孫一信(民95)。媒體正在複製閱聽大眾對身心障礙者的歧視。推波引水,49,26-30。
徐享良(民73)。適應行為之研究~修訂適應行為量表。國立台灣教育學院輔導研究所碩士論文(未出版)。
徐享良(民75)。修訂適應行為量表使用手冊。彰化,國立台灣教育學院特殊教育系。
徐享良(民87a)。中華適應行為量表之編製。測驗年刊,45(1),139-160。
徐享良(民87b)。殘障者職業評量工具之應用。載於許天威編,身心障礙者職業訓練與就業輔導之理論與實務,再版,308-339,行政院勞工委員會職業訓練局叢書,職業訓練類第五十五輯。台北:行政院勞工委員會職業訓練局編印。
徐享良(民88)。智能障礙者適應行為因素結構之研究。國立彰化師範大學特殊教育系博士論文(未出版)。
徐享良(民89)。適應行為評量。載於王亦榮等著,特殊兒童鑑定與評量,增訂一版,387-423。台北:師大書苑有限公司。
徐享良(民93)。中華適應行為量表。台北:教育部。
徐享良(民95)。修訂中華適應行為量表。台北:教育部。
張一賓(民86)。成年重度極重度智障者適應行為之探討。高雄醫學院行為科學研究所碩士論文(未出版)。
張春興(民81)。現代心理學,初版四刷。台北:臺灣東華書局。
張春興(民89)。張氏心理學辭典,修正版五刷。台北:臺灣東華書局。
張春興(民95)。張氏心理學辭典,重訂一版。台北:臺灣東華書局。
張紹勳(民93)。研究方法,第三版。台中市:滄海書局。
張紹勳、張紹評,林秀娟編著(民89)。SPSS For Windows統計分析:初等統計與高等統計,第四版,上冊。台北:松崗電腦圖書公司。
陸莉、黃玉枝、林秀錦、朱慧娟(民89)。智能障礙學生輔導手冊。教育部特殊教育小組主編,國立台南師範學院印製。台北: 教育部特殊教育工作小組。
教育部(民63)。特殊兒童鑑定及就學輔導準則。
教育部(民76)。特殊教育法施行細則。76.03.25.。教育部台(七六)參字第一二六一九號令。
教育部(民89a)。高級中等學校特殊教育班職業學程課程綱要。台北市:教育部。
教育部(民89b)。特殊教育學校(班)國民教育階段智能障礙類課程學習目標檢核手冊。台北市:教育部。
教育部(民90)。身心障礙十二年安置計畫。台北,教育部。
教育部(民91)。身心障礙及資賦優異學生鑑定標準。91.05.09。教育部台(九一)參字第九一0六三四四四號令訂定發布全文二十條。
教育部(民94)。九十四年度特殊教育統計年報。台北:教育部。
許天威(民87)。推動殘障者職業訓練與就業安置之途徑。載於許天威編,身心障礙者職業訓練與就業輔導之理論與實務,再版,1-31,行政院勞工委員會職業訓練局叢書,職業訓練類第五十五輯。台北:行政院勞工委員會職業訓練局。
許天威(民94)。身心障礙者的轉銜計畫。載於許天威、徐享良、張勝成主編新特殊教育通論,第二版,443-500。台北:五南圖書出版公司。
許天威、徐享良(民74)。十九歲以上中重度智能不足者適應行為之研究。特殊教育研究學刊,3,103-114。
鈕文英(民90)。身心障礙者行為問題處理:正向行為取向。台北:心理出版社。
郭為藩(民91)。特殊兒童心理與教育,增訂四版。台北:文景書局印行。
郭為藩(民92a)。開拓成人教育研究的心理學領域。載於郭為藩編著,成人學習:心理學的探討,162-187。台北,心理出版社。
郭為藩 (民92b)。特殊教育政策的新視野。載於中華民國特殊教育學會九十二年年會暨特教知能研討會手冊,5。高雄:中華民國特殊教育學會。
郭為藩(民96)。特殊兒童心理與教育,增訂五版。台北:文景書局印行。
郭春在(民91)。高職特殊教育班學生家庭環境因素與其適應行為之相關性研究。國立彰化師範大學特殊教育系博士論文(未出版)。
陳麗如(民95)。特殊兒童鑑定與評量,二版。台北:心理出版社。
陳順宇(民89)。多變量分析,二版。台北:華泰書局。
陳順宇(民96)。結構方程模式:Amos操作,初版。台北:心理出版社。
陳榮華(民90)。智能不足研究:理論與應用,初版四刷。台北,師大書苑有限公司。
陳靜江、吳裕益、王敏行、蘇純瑩、吳明宜(民93)。本土化身心障礙者工作樣本之研發(一):智能障礙者職業資料與工作樣本之發展。台北:行政院勞工委員會勞工安全衛生研究所。
黃文宣(民94)。特教教師、就業服務員及僱主對適應行為在智能障礙成人就業重要性的評價。國立高雄師範大學特殊教育學系碩士論文(未出版)。
黃國禎(民94)。國立台中啟聰學校高職畢業生就業滿意度與適應行為之相關研究。發表於教育部九十四年鼓勵中小學教師從事行動研究成果發表會,台北縣:國立三重高中。
萬明美、林茂榮(民92)。身心障礙受刑人在監處遇及適應之研究,計畫編號NSC91-2413-H-018-012-SSS,行政院國家科學委員會專題研究計畫成果報告。彰化:國立彰化師範大學特殊教育學系暨研究所。
葛樹人(民85)。心理測驗學,第三版。台北:桂冠。
鄭雅莉(譯)(民96)。American Association on Mental Retardation著。智能障礙:定義、分類和支持系統。台北市:合記。(原出版年:2002)
盧台華(民81,10月)。智能不足者之適應行為評量研究。國際特殊兒童評量研討會,彰化市。
盧台華(民82)。中華民國台灣智能障礙者適應行為之研究。特殊教育研究學刊,9,107-144。
盧台華、陳心怡(修訂者)(民97)。Patti L. Harrison & Thomas Oakland著。適應行為評量系統第二版(中文版)指導手冊成人版18~84歲。台北市:中國行為科學社。(原出版年:2003)
盧台華、鄭雪珠、史習樂、林燕玲(民92)。社會適應表現檢核表。台北:心理出版社。
盧台華、鄭雪珠、史習樂、林燕玲(民96)。社會適應表現檢核表,修正版。台北:心理出版社。
總統府(民93)。身心障礙者保護法。中華民國九十三年六月二十三日總統令增訂公布第51之1、65之1條文。
總統府(民96)。身心障礙者權益保障法。中華民國九十六年七月十一日華總一義字第○九六○○○八七三三一號令修正全文公布。
蘇純瑩(民93)。智障成人社區自主能力、認知功能與就業表現之研究。國立高雄師範大學特殊教育系博士論文(未出版)。
蘇純瑩、張志仲、施陳美津、吳明宜、陳秋蓉 (民94)。身心障礙者職業輔導評量工具應用推廣~心理測驗與工作媒合。台北:行政院勞工委員會勞工安全衛生研究所。
蘇純瑩、施陳美津、林清良、林月仙、張志仲(民95)。社區自主能力測驗。台北:心理出版社。
衛生署(民88)。身心障礙等級。88.05.12.。衛署醫字第八八o二七五八三號公告修正。台北:行政院衛生署。













二、英文部分
Abbeduto, L., Murphy, M. M., Cawthon, S. W., Richmond, E. K., Weissman, M.D.,
Karadottir, S., & O'Brien, A.(2003). Receptive language skills of adolescents and young adults with Down or Fragile X Syndrome. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 108(3), 149-160.
Adams, G. L. (1999). Comprehensive Test of Adaptive Behavior-Revised. Seattle, WA:
Educational Achievement Systems.
Aman, M. G., Benson, B. A., Farmer, C. A., Hall, K. L., & Malone, K. M.(2007). Project MED: Effects of a Medication EDucation booklet series for individuals with intellectual disabilities. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 45(1), 33-45.
Aman, M. G., & Singh, N. N.(1986). Aberrant Behavior Checklist: Residential/ or Community version. Retrieved July 15,2007,form http://www.slosson.com/onhinecatalogstroe- c51431.html.
American Association on Mental Retardation(AAMR) (1992). Mental retardation: Definition, classification ,and systems of supports(9th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
American Association on Mental Retardation(AAMR)(2002). Mental retardation: Definition, classification, and systems of supports(10th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities(AAIDD)
Retrieved May 4, 2007, From http://aaidd.org/events/pdf/montreal.
American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities(AAIDD).User’s guide: mental retardation : definition, classification, and systems of supports,10th edition: applications for clinicians, educators, disability program managers, and policy marks. Washington, DC: Author.
American Psychiatric Association(2000). Diagnostic and satistical manual of mental disorders(4th ed.,text revision). Washington, DC:Author.
Baroff, G. S.(1974).Mental retardation: Nature, cause, and management. Washington, DC:
Hemisphere Publishing Corporation.
Beail, N. (2003). Utility of the vineland adaptive behavior scales in diagnosis and research with adults who have mental retardation. Mental Retardation, 41(4), 286-289.
Beirne-Smith , M., Ittenbach , R.F.& Patton, J.R.(2002). Mental retardation (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River ,New Jersey: Pearson Education.
Beirne-Smith, M., Patton,J. R., & Kim, S. H. (2006). Mental retardation:An introduction to intellectual disabilities(7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Pearson Hall.
Blacher, J., & Mclntyre, L. L. (2006). Syndrome specificity and behavioural disorders in young adults with intellectual disability:Cultural differences in family impact. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 50(3), 184-198.
Boan, C. H., & Harrison, P. L. (1997). Adaptive behavior assessment and individuals with mental retardation. In R. L.Taylor(Ed.), Assessment of individuals with mental retardation, 33-54 . San Diego: Singular Publishing Group.
Borthwick-Duffy, S. ( 2000) . Adaptive Behavior and Its Measurement: Implications for the Field of Mental Retardation. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 105, 422-424.
Braddock, D. L. (1999). The concept of adaptive behavior. In R. L. Schalock and D. L.Braddock.(Eds.). Adaptive behavior and its measurements: implications for the field of mental retardation, 1-5. Washington, DC: American Association on Mental Retardation.
Brolin, D. E.(1976). Vocational preparation of retarded citizens. Columbus, Ohio : Bell &
Howell.
Bruininks, R. H., Hill, B. K., Weatherman, R. F. & Woodcock, R. W.(2003). Inventory for Client and Agency Planning-Revised. Retrieved July 15,2007, Form http://www.riverpub. com/products/icap/index.html
Bruininks, R. H., Hill, B.K., Weatherman, R., & Woodcock, R.W.(1986). Inventory of client and agency planning. Allen,TX: DLM Teaching Resources.
Bruininks, R. H., Woodcock, R. W., Weatherman, R. F. & Hill, B. K.(1996). Scales of Independent Behavior-Revised(SIB-R). Retrieved July 15,2007, form http://www.river.pub.com/products/sibr/software.html
Bryant, B., Taylor, R., & Rivers, D.(1996). Assessment of Adatptive Areas. Retrieved July 15, 2007, form http://www.proedinc.com/customer/productView.aspx?ID=1048
Bryen, D. N., Carey, A., & Friedman, M.(2007). Cell phone use by adults with intellectual disabilities. Intellectual And Developmental Disabilities, 45(1), 1-9.
Caldwell, J. (2006). Consumer-directed supports: Economic, health, and social outcomes for families. Mental Retardation, 44, 405-417.
Caldwell, J., & Heller, T.(2007). Longitudinal outcomes of a consumer-directed program supporting adults with developmental disabilities and their families. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 45(3), 161-173.
Carey, A. C., Friedman, M.G., & Bryen, D.N. (2005). Use of electronic technologies by people with intellectual disabilities. Mental Retardation, 43(5), 322-333.
Carrier, S. (2007). Understanding social and professional integration as an adjustment process:Contribution to a theory of coadaptation. Intellectual and Development Disabilities, 45(1), 10-22.
Casale-Giannola, D., & Kamens, M. W.(2006). Inclusion at a university:experiences of a young woman with Down Syndrome. Mental Retardation, 44, 344-352.
Chaney, R. H., & Eyman, R. K. (2000). Patterns in mortality over 60 years among persons with mental retardation in a residential facility. Mental Retardation, 38(3), 289-293.
Craig, E. M., & Tasse’,M. J.(1999). Cultual and demographic comparisons of adaptive behavior. In R. L.Schalock(Ed.). Adaptive behavior and its measurement:Implications for the field of mental retardation, 109-140. Washington, DC:American Association on Mental Retardation.
Conroy, J., Spreat, S., Yuskauskas, A., & Elks, M. (2003). The Hissom closure outcomes study:A report on six years of movement to supported living. Mental Retardation, 41(4), 263-275.
Cuskelly ,M.,& Gunn, P.(2003). Sibling relationships of children with Down syndrome: Perspectives of mothers ,fathers ,and siblings. American Journal on Mental Retardation , 108(4), 234-244.
Davies, D. K., Stock, S. E., & Wehmeyer, M. L. (2002). Enhancing independent time-management skills of individuals with mental retardation using a palmtop personal computer. Mental Retardation, 40( 5), 358-365.
de Bildt, A., Sytema S., Kraijer, D., Sparrow, S. S., & Minderaa, R.,(2005). Adaptive functioning and behaviour problems in relation to level of education in children and adolescents with intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 49(9) , 672-681.
Didden, R., Graaff, S.de., Nelemans, M., Vooren, M., & Lancioni, G.(2006). Teaching sigh words to children with moderate to mild mental retardation: Comparison between instructional procedures. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 111(5), 357-365.
Doll, E. A. (1941). The essentials of an inclusive concept of mental deficiency. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 46,214-219.
Doll, E. A. (1953).Measurement of social competence: A manual for the Vineland social maturity scale.Minnesota: American Guidance Service, Inc.
Drew, C. J., & Hardman, M. L.(2004). Mental retardation:A lifespan approach to people with Intellectual disabilities(8th.). New Jersey, Upper Saddle River: Pearson & Merrill Prentice Hall.
Drew, C. J. & Hardman, M. L.(2007). Intellectual disabilities across the lifespan(9 th.). New Jersey, Upper Saddle River: Pearson & Merrill Prentice Hall.
Duvdevany,I., Ben-Zur,H., & Ambar,A.(2002). Self-determination and mental retardation: Is there an association with living arrangement and lifestyle satisfaction?. Mental Retardation, 40(5) ,379-389.
Edgerton, R. B. (1993). The cloak of competence:Revised and Updated. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Eisenman, L. T. (2007). Social networks and careers of young adults with intellectual disabilities. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 45(3), 199-208.
Felce, D., Jones, E., Lowe, K., & Perry, J.(2003). Rational resourcing and productivity:
Relationships among staff input, resident characteristics,and group home quality. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 108,161-172.
Finlay, W. M. L., Antaki, C., & Walton, C.( 2007). On Not Being Noticed: Intellectual Disabilities and the Nonvocal Register. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 45, 227-245.
Fish, T. R., Rabidoux, P., Ober, J., & Graff, V. L. W.(2006). Community literacy and friendship model for people with intellectual disabilities. Mental Retardation, 44(6), 443-446.
Fujiura ,G.T.(1998).Demography of family households. American Journal on Mental Retardation,103(3),225-235.
Foster, R. W.(1974). Camelot Behavior Systems. Retrieved July 15,2007, Form http:// www.unl.edu/buros.
Gelb, S.(2004).”Mental deficients” fighting fascism:The unplanned normalization of World War Ⅱ. In S. Noll. & J. Trent, Mental retardation in American, 308-321. New York:New York University Press.
Gonzalez, M., & Matson, J. L.( 2006). Mania and intellectual disability: The course of manic symptoms in persons with intellectual disability. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 111), 378-383.
Greenspan, S. (1999). A contextualist perspective on adaptive behavior. In R. L. Schalock
(Ed.). Adaptive behavior and its measurement: Implications for the field of mental retardation, 61-80. Washington, DC : American Association on Mental Retardation.
Greenspan, S., & Granfied, J. M.(1992). Reconsidering the construct of mental retardation: Implications of a model of social competence. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 96, 442-453.
Grossman, H. J.(Ed.). (1973). Manual on terminology and classification in mental retardation. Washington, DC:American Association on Mental Deficiency.
Grossman, H. J.(Ed.). (1977). Manual on terminology and classification in mental retardation. Washington, DC:American Association on Mental Deficiency.
Grossman, H. J.(Ed.). (1983). Classification in mental retardation(Rev. ed.). Washington, DC:American Association on Mental Deficiency.
Hallahan, D. P., & Kauffman, J. M.(2005).Exceptional learners: Introduction to special education(10 th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Harcourtassessment.(2007). Adaptive behavior . 2007年6月10日,取自http:// www.harcourtassessment.com/Haiweb/cultures/en-us/harcourt/community/psychology/ results.htm?community=Adaptive behavior.
Hardman, M. L., Drew, C. J., & Egan, M. W. (2005). Human exceptionality : School, community and family.(8th ed.). Boston : Allyn and Bacon.
Harries, J.,Guscia,R., Kirby,N.,Nettelbeck,T.,&Taplin,J.(2005).Support needs and adaptive behaviors.American Journal on Mental Retardation,110(5),393-404.
Harrison, P. L. (1987) . Research with adaptive behavior scales.The Journal of Special Education, 21, 37-68.
Harrison, P. L. (1990). Adaptive behavior, mental retardation,and giftedness. In A. Kaufman(Ed.). Assessing adolescent and adult intelligence,. 533-585. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Harrison, P. L., & Oakland, T. (2000). Adaptive behavior assessment system manual. San Antonio, TX: Harcourt Assessment Company.
Harrison, P. L., & Oakland, T. (2003). Adaptive behavior assessment system manual.(2nd ed.). San Antonio, TX: Harcourt Assessment Company.
Hawkins, B.A., Eklund, S. J., James, D. R., & Foose, A. K.(2003). Adaptive behavior and cognitive function of adults with down syndrome: Modeling change with age. Mental Retatdation, 41(1), 7-28.
Hayes, S. C. (2005). Diagnosing intellectual disability in a forensic sample: Gender and age effects on the relationship between cognitive and adaptive functioning. Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability, 30, 97-103.
Heber, R. (1961a). A manual on terminology and classification in mental retardation.
American Journal of Mental Deficiency, (2ed.ed.). (A Monograph supplement.)
Heber, R. (1961b). Modifications in the manual on terminology and classification and mental retardation. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 65, 490-500.
Heller, T., Miller, A.B., & Hsieh, K. (2002). Eight-year follow-up of the impact of environmental characteristics on well-being of adults with developmental disabilities. Mental Retardation, 40(5), 366-378.
Heller, T., Hsieh, K., & Rimmer, J.H. (2004) .Attitudinal and psychosocial outcomes of a fitness and health education program on adults with Down Syndrome. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 109(2), 175-185.
Kalachnik, J. E., Hanzel, T. E., Sevenich, R., & Harder, S. R. (2002). Benzodiazepine behavioral side effects: Review and implications for individuals with mental retardation. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 107(5), 376-410.
Kamphaus, R. W.(1987). Conceptual and psychometric issues in the assessment of adaptive behavior. Journal of Special Education, 21, 27-35.
Kail,R.V., & Cavanugh,J.C.(2007).Human development:A life-span view.(4th ed.). Belmont, CA : Thomson/Wadsworth.
Kellett, S., Beail, N., & Newman, D. W. (2005). Measuring interpersonal problems in people with mental retardation. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 110(2), 136-144.
Kim, S., Larson, S. A., & Lakin, K. C. (2001). Behavioural outcomes of deinstitutionalisation for people with intellectual disability:A review of US studies conducted between 1980 and 1999. Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability, 26(1),35-50.
Kraemer, B. R., McIntyre, L. L., & Blacher, J. (2003). Quality of life for young adults with mantal retardation during transition. Mental Retardation, 41(4), 250-262.
Kozma, A., Mansell, J., & Beadle-Brown, J.(2009).Outcomes in different residential settings for people with intellectual disability :A systematic review. American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities,114(3),193-222.
Konarski, E. A., Sutton, Jr. K., & Huffman, A. (1997). Personal characteristics associated with episodes of injury in a residential facility. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 102(1),37-44.
Larson , S. A., Hewitt, A. S., & Lakin, K. C. (2004). Multiperspective analysis of workforce challenges and their effects on consumer and family quality of life. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 109(6), 481-500.
Lerman, P., Apgar, D. H., & Jordan, T. (2003). Deinstitutionalization and mortality: Findings of a controlled research design in New Jersey. Mental Retardation, 41(4), 225-236.
Lerman, P., Apgar, D. H., & Jordan, T. (2005). Longitudinal changes in adaptive behaviors of movers and stayers: Findings from a controlled research design. Mental Retardation, 43(1),25-42.
Lichten,W.,& Simon,E.W.(2007).Defining Mental Retardation:A matter of life or death.Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities,45(5),335-346.
Linkenhoker, D. & McCarron, L. (1993). Street Survival Skills Questionnaire. Retrieved July 15, 2007, Form http://www.harcourtassessment.com/HaiWeb/cultures/en-us /productdetail. htm?pid=o15-8736-559
Loeb, P. A. (1996). Independent Living Scales. Retrieved July 15, 2007, form http://www.harcourtassessment.com/HaiWeb/cultures/en-us
Lohiya, Gham-Shyam., Tan-Figueroa, L., Le, H.V., & Rusu,L. (2005). Esophageal obstruction by a lemon that required esophagotomy: Thoughts on prevention. Mental Retardation, 43(5), 317-321.
Luckasson, R. L., Borthwick-Duffy, S., Buntinx, W. H. E., Coulter, D. L., Craig, E. M., Reeve, A., Schalock, R. L., Snell, M. E., Spitalnik, D. M., Spreat, S., & Tasse',M.J.
(2002) . Mental retardation: Definition, classification, and systems of supports(10th ed.).Washington, DC : American Association on Mental Retardation.
Luckasson, R. L., Coulter, D. L., Polloway, E. A., Reiss, S., Schalock, R. L. Snell, M. E., pitalnik, D. M., & Stark, J. A,(1992). Mental retardation:Difinition, classification, and systems of supports.(9th ed.). Washington D.C.:American Association on Mental Retardation.
Luiselli, J. K., Magee, C., Sperry, J. M., & Parker, S.(2005). Descriptive assessment of sleep patterns among community-living adults with mental retardation. Mental Retardation, 43(6), 416-420.
Majerus, S., Linden , M. V. d., Braissand, V., & Eliez, S.(2007). Verbal short-term memory in individuals with chromosome 22q11. 2 deletion: Specific deficit in serial order retention capacities?. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 112, 79-93.
Mansell, J., Elliott, T., Beadle-Brown, J., Ashman,B., & Macdonald, S.(2002).
Engagement in meaningful activity and“active support” of people with intellectual disabilities in residential care. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 23, 342-352.
Matheson, E., & Jahoda, A. (2005). Emotional understanding in aggressive and nonaggressive individuals with mild or moderate mental retardation. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 110(1), 57-67.
Matson, J. L., Mayville, S. B., & Laud, R. B. (2003). A system of assessment for adaptive behavior, social skills, behavioral funcation, medication side-effects, and psychiatric disorders. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 24, 75-81.
Minton , C. A., & Dodder,R. A.(2003). Participation in Religious Services by People With Developmental Disabilities. Mental Retardation, 41( 6), 430-439.
Modell, S. J., & Cropp, D.(2007). Police officers and disability:Perceptions and attitudes. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 45(1),60-63.
Morreau, L. E., & Bruininks, R. H.(1991). Checklist of Adaptive Living Skills. Retrieved July 15, 2007. Form http://www.riverpub.com/products/cals/index.html
Neuman, W. L.(2006). Social research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches, 6th ed. Boston:Allyn and Bacon.
Nihira, K. (1999). Adaptive behavior: A historical overview. In Schalock, R. L., Braddock, D. L . p. cm. Edited: Adaptive behavior and its measurement: Implications for the field of mental retardation, p7-14. Washington, DC: American Association on Mental Retardation.
Nihira, K., Leland, H., & Lambert, N. (1993). AAMR Adaptive Behavior Scale-Residential and Community (2 nd ed.), Examiner’s Manual. Austin , TX: Pro-Ed.
Nihira, K., Foster, R., Shellhaas, M., & Leland, H.(1969). Adaptive Behavior Scale. Wahington, DC: American Association on Mental Deficiency.
Nihira, K., Foster, R., Shellhass, M., & Leland, H.(1974). AAMD Adaptive Behavior Scale, 1974 revision. Washington, DC:American Association on Mental Deficiency.
O’Brien, P., Thesing ,A .,Tuck, B., & Capie,A.(2001).Perceptions of change,advantage
and quality of life for people with intellectual disability who left a long stay institution to live in the community. Jounal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability, 26, 67- 82.
Parish, S. L.(2003a). Federal income payments and mental retardation: The political and economic context. Mental Retardation, 41( 6), 446-459.
Parish, S. L.(2006). Juggling and struggling: A preliminary work-life study of mothers with adolescents who have developmental disabilities. Mental Retardation, 44(6), 393-404.
Parish, S. L., Pomeranz-Essley, A., & Braddock, D.(2003b). Family support in the United States: Financing trends and emerging initiatives. Mental Retardation, 41(3), 174-187.
Parkes, G., & Hall, I. (2006). Gender dysphoria and cross-dressing in people with intellectual disability: A literature review. Mental Retardation, 44(4) , 260-271.
Patton, J . R ., Beirne-Smith , M.,& Payne,J.S.(1990).Mental retardation(3rd ed.). Upper
Saddle River ,New Jersey: Pearson Education.
Peckham ,R. A.(1951). Problems in job adjustment of the mentally retarded. American
Journal of Mental Deficiency, 56, 448-453.
Pledger, C.(2003). Discourse on disability and rehabilitation issues. American Psychologist
,58(4), 279-284. (J672469).
Preey, J., & Felce, D.(2002). Subjective and objective quality of life assessment:Re- sponsiveness, response bias, and resident:Proxy concordance. Mental Retardation, 40(6), 445-456.
Richard, D. F., Williams, W. L., & Follette, W. C.(2002). Two new empirically derived reasons to use the assessment of basic learning abilities. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 107(5), 329-339.
Rimmer, J. H., Heller, T., Wang, E., & Valerio, I.(2004). Improvements in physical fitness in adults with Down Syndrome. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 109(2), 165-174.
Roberts, J. E., Hennon, E. A., Price, J. R., Dear, E., Anderson, K., & Vandergrift, N. A. (2007). Expressive language during conversational speech in boys with Fragile X Syndrome. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 112(1), 1-17.
Rojahn, J., Esbensen, A. J., & Hoch.T.A.(2006). Relationships between facial discrimination and social adjustment in mental retardation. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 111( 5), 366-377.
Saloviita, T., & Sariola, H.(2003). Authorship in facilitated communication: A re-analysis of a case of assumed representative authentic writing. Mental Retardation, 41(5), 374-379.
Salvia, J., Ysseldyke, J. E., & Bolt, S.(2007). Assessment:In special and inclusive education(10th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.
Salvia, J., & Ysseldyde, J. E. (2004). Assessment:In special and inclusive education (9th ed. ). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Saunders, K. J., & DeFulio, A.(2007). Phonological awareness and rapid naming predict word attack and word identification in adults with mild mental retardation. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 112(3), 155-166.
Schalock, R. L.(1992). Capital punishment and the dilemmas faced by law and mental retardation professionals. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 96, 570-572.
Schalock, R. L.(1999). Adaptive behavior and its measurement: Setting the future agenda. In R. L. Schalock(Ed.). Adaptive behavior and its measurement:Implication for the field of mental retardation, 209-222. Washington, DC:American Association on Mental Retardation.
Schalock, R. L.(2004). Adaptive behavior: Its conceptualization and measurement. In Emerson, E., Hatton, C., Thompson, T., & Parmenter, T. R. Edited: The international handbook of applied research in intellectual disabilities, p.369-384. England: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Schalock, R. L.(2006a). AAMR F. Y. I. Talks to Robert L. Schalock, in Interview with veteran teacher, psychologist, and advocate Robert Schalock. AAMR. F. Y. I., 6, 1.
Schalock, R. L., Greenspan, S., Tasse’M. J., & Verdugo, M. A.(2006b). Dialog on the conceptualization and measurement of intellectual disabilities. Retrieved April 25, 2006, http://aamr.org/events/pdf/montreal Program.pdf,Microsofo Internet Explorer .
Scullin, M. H.(2006). Large state-level fluctuations in mental retardation classifications related to introduction of renormened intelligence test. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 111(5), 322-335.
Siebelink, E. M., de Jong, M. D.T., Taal, E., & Roelvink, L.(2006). Sexuality and people with intellectual disabilities: Assessment of knowledge, attitudes, experiences and needs. Mental Retardation, 44, (4), 283-294.
Smith, J. D., & Lazaroff, K.(2006).”Uncle Sam Needs You”or Does He?Intellectual disabilities and lessons from the”Great Wars”. Mental Retardation, 44(6), 433-437.
Smith, P. (2003). Self-determination and independent support brokerage: Creating innovative second-level supports. Mental Retardation, 41(4), 294-298.
Solsson. (2007) . Adaptive behavior. 2007年6月15日,取自http://www.solsson.com.tw/.
Sparrow, S. S., Balla, D. A., & Cicchetti, D. V.(1984). Vineland adaptive behavior scales.
Survery forms manual. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.
Sparrow, S. S., Cicchetti, D. V., & Balla, D. A.(2005) .Vineland adaptive behavior scales(2nd ed.).Survery forms manual: Survey interview form and parent/caregiver rating form.Circle Pines, MN:American Guidance Service.
Spreat, S. (1999). Psychometric standards for adaptive behavior assessment. In R.L
.Schalock(Ed.). Adaptive behavior and its measurement: Implication for the field of mental retardation, 103-117. Washington, DC:American Association on Mental Retardation.
Stancliffe, R. J., & Lakin, K. C.(2006). Longitudinal frequency and stability of family contact in institutional and community living. Mental Retardation, 44(6), 418-429.
Stancliffe, R. J., Hayden, M.F., Larson, S. A., & Lakin, K. C.(2002). Longitudinal study on the adaptive and challenging behaviors of deinstituionalized adults with mental retardation. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 107(4), 302-320.
Stancliffe, R. J., Abery, B. H., Springborg, H., & Elkin, S.(2000). Substitute decision-making and personal control: Implications for self-determination. Mental Retardation, 38(5), 407-421.
Stanish,H.I., & Draheim,C.C.(2005). Walking habits of adults with mental retardation. Mental Retardation,43(6),421-427.
Stowe, M. J., Turnbull III, H. R., & Sublet, C. (2006).The supreme court, “Our Town,” and disability policy: Boardrooms and bedrooms, courtrooms and cloakrooms. Mental Retardation, 44(2), 83-99.
Tate, D. G., & Pledger, C.(2003). An integrative conceptual framework of disability:New directions for research. American Psychologist, 58, 289-295.
Tannila, A., Rantakallio, R., Koiranen, M., von Wendt, L., & Jarvelin, M. R.(2005). How do persons with intellectual disability manage in the open labour markets?A follow-up of the Northern Finland 1966 birth cohort. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 49, 218-227.
Taylor, R. L.(2003). Assessment of exceptional students:Educational and psychological procedures(6th ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Taylor, R. L.(2006). Assessment of exceptional students: Educational and psychological procedures(7th ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Taylor, R. L.(2009). Assessment of exceptional students: Educational and psychological procedures(8th ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Taylor, R. L., Richards, S. B., & Brady, M. P.(2005). Mental retardation: Historical perspectives, current practices, and future dircetions.Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Thompson, J. R., Bryant, B. R., Campbell, E. M., Craig, E. M.(Pat)., Hughes, C. M., Rotholz, D. A., Schalock, R. L., Silverman, W. P., Tasse’,M. J., & Wehmeyer ,M. L.(2004) . Support intensity scale: Users manual. Washington, DC: American Association on Mental Retardation.
Thompson, J. R., McGrew, K. S., & Bruininks, R. H.(1999). Adaptive and maladaptive be-
havior:Fucnctional and structural characteristics. In R. L.Schalock(Ed.). Adaptive
behavior and its measurement: Implications for the field of mental retardation, 15-42.
Washington, DC: American Association on Mental Retardation.
Turnbull, A., Turnbull, R., & Wehmeyer, M. L.(2007). Exceptional lives:Special education in today’s schools.(5 th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Educaion, Inc.
Urv, T. k., Zigman, W. B., & Silverman, W.(2003). Maladaptive behaviors related to adaptive decline in aging adults with mental retardation. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 108(5), 327-339.
Wehmeyer, M. L., & Bolding, N.(1999). Self-determination across living and working environments: A matched-samples study of adults with mental retardation. Mental Retardation, 37(5), 353-363.
Wickham, P.(2001). Idiocy and the law in Colonial New England. Mental Retardation, 39
(2), 104-113.
Widaman, K. F., & McGrew, K. S.(1996). The structure of adaptive behavior. In: J. W. Jacobson & J. A. Mulick, Editors, Manual of diagnosis and professional practice in mental retardation, .97-110. Washington DC : American Psychological Association.
Wilkinson, K.(2007). Effect of “Missing” information on fast mapping by individuals with vocabulary limitations associated with intellectual disability. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 112(1), 40-53.
Yalon-Chamovitz , S., & Greenspan, S.(2005). Ability to identify, explain and solve problems in everyday tasks: Preliminary validation of a direct video measure of practical intelligence. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 26(3), 219-230.
Yamaki, K., & Fujiura, G. T.(2002). Employment and income status of adults with developmental disabilities. Mental Retardation, 40(2) ,132-141.
Young, L., & Ashman, A. F.(2004). Deinstitutionalization for older adults with severe mental retardation:Results from Australia. American Journal on Mental Retardation,109(5), 397-412.
Zigman, W. B., Schupf, N., Urv, T., Zigman, A., & Silverman, W.(2002). Incidence and temporal patterns of adaptive behavior change in adults with mental retardation. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 107(3), 161-174.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top