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研究生:陳俊伊
研究生(外文):Chen, Chun -Yi
論文名稱:不同練習安排對類化動作程式與參數學習的影響
論文名稱(外文):Effects of various practice conditions on generalized motor program and parameter learning
指導教授:陳帝佑陳帝佑引用關係陳重佑陳重佑引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chen, Ti - Yu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立彰化師範大學
系所名稱:運動健康研究所
學門:民生學門
學類:運動休閒及休閒管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:66
中文關鍵詞:類化動作程式動作參數變異練習恆常練習
外文關鍵詞:generalized motor programmovement parametersvariable practiceconstant practice
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本研究的目的在於操弄不同練習安排以檢驗類化動作程式與動作參數學習的影響機制,以及探討先進行恆常練習而後變異練習之程序,對類化動作程式與參數學習的影響。研究以48位大學生為實驗參加者,隨機分派至恆常-恆常組、恆常-變異組、變異-恆常組與變異-變異組等,依獲得期前半(45試作)與後半(45試作)的練習類型(恆常或變異)進行練習。實驗參加者須在相對時宜比率22.2% - 44.4% - 33.3%下,依序按壓由四個鍵組成的菱狀實驗工作,並以BIOPAC MP100系統(1,000Hz)記錄與分析每次試作的三段動作時間,通過相對時宜準確性(AE prop)、相對時宜穩定性(Std)及參數整體表現(E)等變數的計算後,再以4(練習安排)× 6(區間)混合設計二因子變異數分析進行統計考驗,並以Duncan法進行事後比較,顯著水準設為.05。結果顯示,各組在AE prop、Std及E的保留與遷移測驗中均未達到統計顯著水準(ps > .05)。雖然結果無法證實,使學習者先進行恆常練習而後變異練習有益於類化動作程式與參數學習,但就相對時宜穩定性的結果,本研究認為個體在練習的過程中,主要是先傾向於獲得穩定的類化動作程式。
The purpose of this study was to examine the mechanisms of generalized motor program (GMP) and movement parameter learning of motor learning study under the manipulation of various practice conditions, and also to investigate the effect of the schedule of variable practice following constant practice on GMP and movement parameter learning. Forty-eight college students participated in this experiment and were randomly assigned into one of four conditions, constant-constant, constant-variable, variable-constant, and variable-variable, depending on the type of practice (constant or variable) used in the first (45 trials) and second (45 trials) half of acquisition phase. Participants were asked to perform the experimental task of four keys pressing setup in diamond shape under the relative timing ratio of 22.2% - 44.4% - 33.3%. The BIOPAC MP100 system (1,000Hz) was used to record and analyze the movement time of three segments for every trial. Relative timing error (AE prop), stability of relative timing (Std), and parameter errors (E) were calculated and adopted to analyze the statistical differences in 4 (conditions) × 6 (blocks) mixed-design two-way ANOVA and Duncan post-hoc test with an alpha level of .05. On the retention test and transfer test, the results showed that practice conditions of AE prop, Std, and E were no statistically significant (ps > .05). It cannot be proved that learners with variable practice following constant practice could facilitate the GMP and parameter learning, but it seems that the result of relative timing stability can be regarded as that individual is prior to acquire the stability of GMP during practice.
摘要 i
謝誌 iii
目錄 iv
表目錄 vii
圖目錄 ix

第壹章 緒論 1
第一節 問題背景 1
第二節 研究目的 5
第三節 名詞解釋與操作性定義 5
第四節 研究假定與限制 7
第五節 研究的重要性 8

第貳章 理論基礎與文獻探討 9
第一節 動作基模與類化動作程式 9
第二節 類化動作程式與動作參數的發展因素 15
第三節 從認知因素設想練習安排之程序 18
第四節 有別於傳統的練習安排方式 21
第五節 結語 25

第參章 研究方法與步驟 26
第一節 實驗參加者 26
第二節 實驗設計 26
第三節 實驗器材與軟體 28
第四節 實驗流程 30
第五節 資料處理與分析 33

第肆章 結果與討論 34
第一節 相對時宜準確性 34
第二節 相對時宜穩定性 36
第三節 動作參數的整體表現 38
第四節 討論 41

第伍章 結論與建議 48
第一節 結論 48
第二節 建議 49

引用文獻 50

附錄一:實驗參加者需知與同意書 56
附錄二:各組相對時宜準確性統計結果 57
附錄三:各組相對時宜穩定性統計結果 60
附錄四:各組參數整體表現統計結果 63

表目錄
表1:獲得期、保留及遷移測驗的相對時宜準確性平均數與標準差 57
表2:獲得期的相對時宜準確性混合設計二因子變異數分析摘要表 57
表3:獲得期的相對時宜準確性混合設計單純主要效果變異數分析摘要表 58
表4:保留與遷移測驗的相對時宜準確性單因子變異數分析摘要 58
表5:區間3的相對時宜準確性事後比較摘要表 59
表6:獲得期、保留及遷移測驗的相對時宜穩定性平均數與標準差 60
表7:獲得期的相對時宜穩定性混合設計二因子變異數分析摘要表 60
表8:獲得期的相對時宜穩定性混合設計單純主要效果變異數分析摘要表 61
表9:保留與遷移測驗的相對時宜穩定性單因子變異數分析摘要表 61
表10:區間1的相對時宜穩定性事後比較摘要表 62
表11:獲得期、保留及遷移測驗的參數整體表現平均數與標準差 63
表12:獲得期的參數整體表現混合設計二因子變異數分析摘要表 63
表13:獲得期的參數整體表現混合設計單純主要效果變異數分析摘要表 64
表14:保留與遷移測驗的參數整體表現單因子變異數分析摘要 64
表15:區間1的參數整體表現事後比較摘要表 65
表16:區間2的參數整體表現事後比較摘要表 65
表17:區間3的參數整體表現事後比較摘要表 65
表18:區間4的參數整體表現事後比較摘要表 65
表19:區間6的參數整體表現事後比較摘要表 66

圖目錄
圖1:多通道多功能生物訊號處理系統 29
圖2:彈簧按鈕與觸控開關 29
圖3:實驗工作儀器 29
圖4:實驗流程圖 32
圖5:相對時宜準確性誤差之平均數圖 35
圖6:相對時宜穩定性誤差之平均數圖 37
圖7:參數整體表現誤差之平均數圖 40
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