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研究生:黃鈺傑
論文名稱:熱身運動和靜態伸展對於國小學童反應時間和動作時間的影響
論文名稱(外文):The Effects of warm-up and static stretch on reaction time and movement time of the elementary children
指導教授:蔡忠昌蔡忠昌引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立彰化師範大學
系所名稱:運動健康研究所
學門:民生學門
學類:運動休閒及休閒管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:59
中文關鍵詞:熱身伸展反應時間動作時間
外文關鍵詞:warm-upstretchreaction timemovement time
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:6
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  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:155
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
摘要
目的:本研究目的在探討熱身運動和靜態伸展對於國小學童手部反應時間與動作時間和以腿部跳躍動作為主的全反應時間的影響。方法:77位國小學童(平均年齡為11.4 ± 0.5歲。平均身高為145.5 ± 6.6公分。平均體重為39.4 ± 9.2公斤) 經招募志願參與此次研究,受測者隨機分為手部熱身組、手部伸展組、腳部熱身組、腳部伸展組與控制組五組。手部熱身組進行5分鐘原地擺臂運動,腳部熱身組進行5分鐘原地碎步運動,手部伸展組則分別以靜態方式伸展左臂和右臂屈腕肌、伸腕肌和肱三頭肌等三部位肌肉各ㄧ次,腳部伸展組則分別靜態伸展左腿和右腿股四頭肌、腿後肌、腓腸肌和比目魚肌等四部位肌肉各ㄧ次,每個伸展動作持續45秒,伸展動作之間的休息間隔為15秒。控制組不做任何動作直接施測。受測者手部反應時間和動作時間以電腦化系統(Reaction time S1, Vienna Test System, Austria))測量,而全反應時間部份利用全身反應測定器(Whole body reaction measurement, TKK5108, Takei, Japan) 測量受測者在光刺激後盡速作出跳躍動作之間的反應時間。數據以單因子變異數分析(ANOVA) 比較其差異性,顯著水準定在α=.05而事後比較是使用LSD法。結果:控制組的反應時間為308.5±46.2秒,動作時間為148.9±29.3秒;手部熱身組的反應時間為267.4±30.1秒,動作時間為130.6±38.2秒;手部伸展組的反應時間為312.3±41.8秒,動作時間為142.2±42.5秒;控制組的全反應時間為408.7±53.4秒;腳部熱身組的全反應時間為346.2±40.6秒;腳部伸展組的全反應時間為381.4±37.1秒。經統計比較,不論是在反應時間或是全反應時間,熱身組顯著快於控制組和伸展組,伸展組和控制組之間差異則不顯著。三組動作時間沒有顯著差異。結論:熱身運動可以加快國小學童對於光刺激後肌肉的反應時間,推測原因可能是熱身運動增加大腦血流量使得神經傳導速度增加所致。
Abstract
Purpose:The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of warm-up exercise and static stretch of upper extremities and lower extremities on reaction time and movement time of children. Methods: Seventy-seven subjects (age, 11.4 ± 0.5 years; height, 145.5 ± 6.6 cm; weight, 39.4 ± 9.2 kg) were recruited and randomly assigned into five groups(upper extremities warm-up group, lower extremities warm-up group, upper extremities stretch group, lower extremities stretch group, control group). The reaction time was evaluated by a whole body reaction instrument (TKK5108, Takei, Japan)and Vienna Test System(Reaction time S1, Austria). Before the reaction time measurement, the lower extremities warm-up group and upper extremities warm-up group took 5 minutes moderate exercise. The lower extremities stretch group stretched the quadriceps, hamstring and calf of the left and right extremities consequently. The upper extremities stretch group stretched the Flexor carpi, Extensor carpi and Triceps brachii of the left and right extremities consequently. Each stretch was hold 45 seconds and separate with 15 seconds rest. The data were compared with ANOVA and LSD test was used in post hoc analysis. Results: Average reaction time of the control, upper extremities warm-up, and upper extremities stretch groups were 308.5±46.2, 267.4±30.1, and 312.3±41.8 milliseconds, respectively. Average movement time of the control, upper extremities warm-up, and upper extremities stretch groups were 148.9±29.3, 130.6±38.2, and 142.2±42.5 milliseconds, respectively. Average total reaction time of the control, lower extremities warm-up, and lower extremities stretch groups were 408.7±53.4, 346.2±40.6, and 381.4±37.1 milliseconds, respectively. The values of the reaction time and total reaction time of the warm-up and the control group were significantly different.(P <0.05) No difference was found in movement time among groups. Conclusion: 5 minutes warm-up exercise improves the reaction time involving sight perception and muscular response. Increase of cerebral blood flow resulted in faster nerve transduction is assumed to a major factor contributing to the improvement.
目錄 Ⅰ
表目錄 Ⅲ
圖目錄 Ⅳ
第壹章 緒論
第一節 問題背景 1
第二節 研究目的 3
第三節 研究問題與假設 4
第四節 研究限制 4
第五節 名詞解釋 4
第貳章 文獻探討
第一節 反應時間的定義 6
第二節 影響反應時間的因素探討 8
第三節 熱身對於生理和運動表現的影響 9
第四節 伸展對於生理和運動表現的影響 13
第五節 簡單反應時間研究探討 15
第六節 總結 17
第參章 研究方法與步驟
第一節 研究對象 18
第二節 實驗器材 18
第三節 實驗流程 19
第四節 實驗方法 22
第五節 統計分析 27
第肆章 結果
第一節 實驗參與者基本資料 28
第二節 不同準備活動後手部反應時間結果分析 29
第三節 不同準備活動後手部動作時間結果分析 32
第四節 不同準備活動後全反應時間結果分析 34
第伍章 討論 38
第陸章 結論與建議
第一節 結論 45
第二節 建議 46
引用文獻 48


表目錄
表一 近年來熱身活動的相關研究 10
表二 近年來伸展活動的相關研究 13
表三、實驗參與者基本資料之描述統計 28
表四、不同準備活動後手部反應時間之描述性統計摘要表 29
表五、不同準備活動後反應時間之單因子變異數分析摘要表 30
表六、不同準備活動後反應時間之單因子變異數分析事後比較(LSD) 31
表七、不同準備活動後手部動作時間之描述性統計摘要表 33
表八、不同準備活動後手部動作時間之單因子變異數分析摘要表 33
表九、不同準備活動後全反應時間之描述性統計摘要表 35
表十、不同準備活動後全反應時間之單因子變異數分析摘要表 35
表十一、不同準備活動後全反應時間之單因子變異數分析事後比較
(LSD) 36


圖目錄
圖2-1-1:反應時間、動作時間和整體反應時間關係 7
圖2-1-2:反應時間形式探討 8
圖2-3-1:熱身運動對於運動表現影響的流程 11
圖3-2-1:心率表 18
圖3-2-2:手部反應時間測量系統(VIENNA TEST SYSTEM RT─S1)
和17 吋液晶顯示器 18
圖3-2-3:全反應時間測量器(TAKEI) 19
圖3-3-1:實驗流程圖 21
圖3-4-1:屈腕肌(Flexor carpi)伸展動作 23
圖3-4-2:伸腕肌(Extensor carpi)伸展動作 23
圖3-4-3:肱三頭肌(Triceps brachii)伸展動作 24
圖3-4-4:股四頭肌(Quadriceps)伸展動作 24
圖3-4-5:腿後肌(Hamstrings)伸展動作 24
圖3-4-6:腓腸肌(gastrocnemius)伸展動作 24
圖3-4-7:比目魚肌(soleus)伸展動作 24
圖3-4-8:手部反應時間測量系統要求動作 26
圖3-4-9:手部反應時間測量系統完成動作 26
圖3-4-10:全反應時間測量操作 26
圖3-4-11:全反應時間測量結果顯示 26
圖4-2-1:不同準備活動後手部反應時間之描述性統計摘要圖 32
圖4-3-1:不同準備活動後手部動作時間之描述性統計摘要圖 34
圖4-4-1:不同準備活動後全反應時間之描述性統計摘要圖 37
附件一、受試者基本資料表 57
附件二、受試者健康情況調查表 58
附件三、家長同意書 59
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