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研究生:高曉倩
研究生(外文):Hsiao-chien Kao
論文名稱:國小英語老師閱讀及閱讀教學信念研究
論文名稱(外文):A Study on Elementary School English Teachers' Beliefs in Reading and Reading Instruction
指導教授:游毓玲游毓玲引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yu-ling You
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立彰化師範大學
系所名稱:兒童英語研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:97
語文別:英文
論文頁數:182
中文關鍵詞:教師信念閱讀信念閱讀教學信念
外文關鍵詞:teachers’ beliefsbeliefs about readingbeliefs about reading instruction
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本研究探討國小英文教師之閱讀信念與閱讀教學信念,並比較其閱讀信念與閱讀教學信念之間的差異。從1980年代開始,教師信念的研究開始受到重視。研究指出教師在學生的閱讀發展過程中扮演相當重要的角色,因為教師的閱讀信念會影響教師的實際的閱讀教學。因此,本研究藉由探討國小英文教師之閱讀信念與閱讀教學信念,以期對現今國小英語閱讀教學能有更深入的了解。閱讀是語言學習中重要的能力,閱讀可擴充學習者的字彙量的以及增進其他語言能力的培養。根據2006年九年一貫課程綱要,在台灣的國小英語教育中,培養國小學童的英語閱讀能力已被視為英語教學目標之一。因此有其必要針對目前國小英語閱讀教學的實行概況進行了解。由於教師信念影響教師的實際教學,探討國小英語教師對於閱讀與閱讀教學的信念則有其重要性。然而,國內只有少數研究探討國小英語教師的閱讀信念,本研究採用訪談法以期更深入調查國小英語教師之閱讀與閱讀教學信念。受訪對象為八位國小英語教師。
本研究的主要發現如下所述:
一、 在教師的閱讀信念中,研究者辨識出五大構成要點: 閱讀的本質、閱讀在語言學習中扮演的角色、閱讀的構成要素、影響閱讀能力培養的因素和有效的閱讀教學。
二、 在教師的閱讀教學信念中,研究者分析教師對於一個典型閱讀課的描述,辦識出九項典型的閱讀教學活動: 先備知識活動(the activities of activating prior knowledge)、文本呈現活動(the activities of presenting texts)、預測活動(the activities of predicting)、朗讀活動(the activities of oral reading)、單字活動(vocabulary activities)、句型活動(sentence pattern activities)、故事結構活動(the activities of story mapping)、閱讀思考能力活動(the activities of enhancing reading thinking ability) 和閱讀產出活動(reading production activities)。
三、 研究者分析教師閱讀信念與其閱讀教學信念,辨認出四點差異性: (1) 教師認為英語閱讀為獲得知識的過程,但是在考量學生的英語程度下,英語閱讀教學成為英語學習的工具之一;(2)教師認同家長陪伴在學童的英語閱讀能力培養過程中的重要性,但是因為其耗力費時,老師很少要求家長參與英語閱讀活動;(3)教師認為足夠的英語閱讀時數在學童的英語閱讀能力培養過程中扮演很重要的角色,但是因為英語教學時數不足與對於英語閱讀教學目標認知不清而未能提供學童足夠的英語閱讀時數;(4)教師認同充足的英語閱讀素材在學童的英語閱讀能力培養過程中是很重要的要素,但是因為行政單位的漠視或未能善用原有的英語閱讀資源,老師無法提供學童足夠的英語閱讀素材。
以上國小英語教師之閱讀信念與閱讀教學信念的差異性可歸咎於教師在教學上所遇到的困難。本研究提供國小英語閱讀教育更進一步的洞悉以及幫助國小英語教師以及相關行政單位提昇英語閱讀教學的實施。
This study aims to explore elementary school English teachers’ beliefs in regard to reading and their beliefs about reading instruction, and then further to examine the differences between their beliefs about reading and beliefs about reading instruction. Research studies have shown that teachers play a significant role in learners’ reading development because their beliefs about reading influence their instructional practices. Thus, the investigation of elementary school English teachers’ beliefs about reading and beliefs about reading instruction could provide insights and understanding of the current English reading instruction at elementary schools. In Taiwan, according to the Grade 1-9 Curriculum Guidelines revised in 2006, developing students’ English reading proficiency is one of the focuses of the elementary school English education in Taiwan. Thus, it is important to explore the implementation of reading instruction in the EFL classrooms. Few studies have investigated elementary school English teachers’ beliefs in the field of reading. In order to have a better and complete understanding of the implementation of English reading instruction, this current study adopts interview methods to explore the teachers’ beliefs about reading and beliefs about reading instruction.
Participants in this study involved were eight elementary school English teachers. Semi-structured interviews were individually conducted to each participant. In order to understand the teachers’ beliefs about reading instruction, the researcher explored their beliefs about reading instruction by means of their descriptions of a typical reading lesson in their interviews.
The major findings were summarized as followed. First, five main categories were indentified in the teachers’ beliefs about reading: nature of reading, role of reading in language learning, components of reading, influencing factors in reading development, and effective reading instruction. Second, the teachers’ beliefs about a reading lesson were composed of nine major activity-types: the activities of activating prior knowledge, the activities of presenting texts, the activities of predicting, the activities of oral reading, vocabulary activities, sentence pattern activities, the activities of story mapping, the activities of enhancing reading thinking ability, and reading production activities. Third, analyzing the teachers’ beliefs about reading and beliefs about a reading lesson revealed that there were four major discrepancies between the teachers’ beliefs about reading and beliefs about a reading lesson: (a) the teachers were unable to put their belief that reading as a process of gaining knowledge into practice under the consideration of learners’ limited English proficiency and thus English reading functions as a tool of leaning language, (b) the teachers realized the importance of family involvement in children’s reading development but the teachers seldom involved parents in their reading instruction because it took too much time and effort to invite parents to take part in children’s reading activities, (c) the teachers confirmed that sufficient time for reading was crucial to children in learning to read but they rarely provided children with sufficient time for reading due to limited instruction time and unclear understanding of teaching objectives in elementary school English education, and (d) the teachers believed that sufficient reading materials was significant in children’s reading development but children were not provided with sufficient reading materials in reality because the administration units’ laid less emphasis on reading instruction and they did not use reading resources adequately. The differences found in the teachers beliefs about reading and beliefs about a reading lesson could be contributed to the difficulties they faced in the current EFL context in Taiwan. The findings of this study provide further insights into and suggestions for the implement of English reading instruction at elementary schools in Taiwan.
ABSTRACT i
ABSTRACT(CHINESE) iv
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS vi
TABLE OF CONTENT vii
LIST OF TABLES x
LIST OF FIGURES xi
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
Background of the Study 1
Purposes of the Study 7
Research Questions 8
Definition of Terms 9
Significance of the Study 10
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 11
Reading in Language Learning 11
Definition of Reading 12
Models of L1Reading 13
Reading in Second Language 15
Role of Reading in Language Learning 17
Reading Problems for L2 Readers 18
Reading Development 21
Beginning Reading Instruction 27
Whole Language Approach 29
Phonics Approach 30
Skills Approach 33
Balanced Reading Approach 35
Teachers’ Beliefs 37
Definitions of Beliefs 38
Definition of Teachers’ Beliefs 39
The Role of Teachers’ Beliefs in Teaching Process 40
Research studies on Teachers’ Beliefs in the Field of
Reading 44
Summary 48
CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY 49
Participants 49
Instruments 50
Data Collection Procedures 54
Data Analysis 55
The Pilot Study 57
Summary 62
CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS 63
The Teacher Participants’ Beliefs about Reading 63
Nature of Reading 65
Reading as a process of applying background
knowledge 65
Reading as a process of gaining knowledge 66
Reading as a process of gaining enjoyment 67
Role of Reading in Language Learning 68
Providing input of L2 68
Improving language proficiency 69
Enhancing learning interests 70
Components of Reading 71
Letter-sound correspondence 72
Knowledge of sight words 73
Conventions of English 74
Knowledge of vocabulary 75
Knowledge of sentence patterns 76
Reading strategies 77
Comprehension 78
Enjoyment of reading 79
Influencing Factors in Reading Development 80
Family involvement 80
Reading habit 82
Available and appropriate reading materials 83
Learners’ self-confidence 84
Effective Reading Instruction 86
Teachers as a guide 87
Teachers’ enthusiasm about reading 88
Understanding of learners’ needs 89
Sufficient time for reading 91
Teaching equipments 92
Sufficient reading materials 93
Teachers’ relating resources 94
Administrational supports 95
The Teacher Participants’ Beliefs about a Reading
Lesson 99
The Activities of Activating Prior Knowledge 100
The Activities of Presenting Texts 102
The Activities of Predicting 105
The Activities of Oral Reading 108
Vocabulary Activities 110
Sentence Pattern Activities 111
The Activities of Story Mapping 112
The Activities of Enhancing Reading Thinking Ability
114
Reading Production Activities 115
The Differences between the Teacher Participants’
Beliefs about Reading and Beliefs about a Reading
Lesson 122
CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION 126
Summary of the Findings 126
The Teacher Participants’ Beliefs about Reading 127
The Teacher Participants’ Beliefs about a Reading
Lesson 129
Discussions 132
The Reasons Contributing to the Differences between the
Teacher Participants’ Beliefs about Reading and
Beliefs about a Reading Lesson 132
Pedagogical Implications 138
Limitations of the Study 141
Suggestions for Future Studies 142
Conclusions 143
REFERENCES 145
Appendix A Interview Questions for the Current Study (Chinese Version) 159
Appendix B Interview Questions for the Current Study (English version) 160
Appendix C Interview Guide used by the Researcher for the Current Study 161
Appendix E Interview Questions for the Pilot Study (English version) 164
Appendix F Interview Guide used by the Researcher for the Pilot Study 165
Appendix G Sample Transcript 166

LIST OF TABLES
Table 2.1 Differences between L1 and L2 Reading 17
Table 2.2 Young Children’s Reading Development 24
Table 2.3 Stages of Reading Development 26
Table 3.1 Demographic Data of Participants 50
Table 3.2 Classification of the Interview Questions 53
Table 3.3 The Results of the Pilot Study: The Teacher Participants’ Beliefs about Reading 59
Table 3.4 The Result of the Pilot Study: The Teacher Participants’ Beliefs about Reading Instruction 60
Table 4.1. The Teacher Participants’ Beliefs about Reading 64
Table 4.2 Summary of the Teacher Participants’ Beliefs about Reading 98
Table 4.3. The Teacher Participants’ Beliefs about a Reading Lesson 100
Table 4.4 Summary of the Teacher Participants’ Beliefs about a Reading Lesson 119

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 2.1 A model of teachers’ thought and action. 42
Figure 2.2 The ethno-cognitive model of teachers’ decision-making. 43
Figure 4.1 The structure of a reading lesson 121
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