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研究生:白依芳
研究生(外文):I-Fang Pai
論文名稱:國小英語教學語言行為研究:教科書與教師訪談調查
論文名稱(外文):Speech Acts in Elementary School English Instruction: Textbook Analysis and Teacher Perceptions
指導教授:黃玫珍黃玫珍引用關係
指導教授(外文):Mei-chen Huang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立彰化師範大學
系所名稱:兒童英語研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:英文
論文頁數:162
中文關鍵詞:語用學語言行為教科書英語教學語言學習
外文關鍵詞:pragmaticsspeech actstextbooksEnglish teachinglanguage learning
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摘要
語言學習不只包括習得語言的格式與架構,還包括了解如何在不同的場合中適當地使用語言與他人溝通。教導外語學習者語言行為,可增進其適當使用語言的能力,並成功無礙地與外國人溝通(Hymes, 1974; Searle, 1969; Woflson, 1989; Yu, 1999)。教科書在英文學習中扮演重要角色,對主要透過教科書獲得英語語言知識的外語學習者而言尤是如此(Kim & Hall, 2002)。因此,本研究檢視語言行為在國小英語教科書中的呈現;針對七套現行的國小英語課本,檢視讚美/讚美回應與要求/要求回應兩組語言行為。情境知訊及跨文化語用描述也是檢視目標之一,目的是要探討教科書是否提供語用分析來幫助老師及學生對對話內容的了解及語言行為類型的適當運用。此外,研究者也採用半結構式訪談來深入了解國小英文老師對於語言行為在英語教科書的呈現及英語語用教學的看法。
研究結果發現,首先,讚美/讚美回應與要求/要求回應兩組語言行為在國小英語課本中的呈現並不適切。兩組語言行為在教科書中皆未完善且真實地呈現語言的真正使用方式。此外,中英文化間語言行為形式及其功能差異也未有詳盡的解說。而可用來幫助了解不同場合中語言行為隱意的情境知訊,在國小英語教科書中也未見重視。再者,研究發現國小英文老師跨文化語用與語言行為方面的認知明顯不足,這將對學生的英語學習成效有所影響。因此,本研究建議將語言行為適當地整合於國小英語教學中,並建議英語老師在語用知識方面有進一步的習得,至於英語教科書的編者,本研究建議應將語境、跨文化語用及語用分析等訊息提供於國小英語教科書中,以助益國小英語的教導與學習。
ABSTRACT
Language learning involves not only acquiring the linguistic forms and structures but understanding how language is used appropriately in different socio-cultural contexts. It is believed teaching of speech acts can help foreign language learners sharpen their competence in language use and enable them to communicate with native speakers successfully (Hymes, 1974; Searle, 1969; Wolfson, 1989; Yu, 1999). Textbooks play an important role in English learning, particularly for those students who learn English as a Foreign Language (EFL) and receive their language inputs primarily from textbooks (Kim & Hall, 2002). Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the appropriateness of speech act presentation in the elementary English textbooks with respect to English language instruction in Taiwan. Two adjacency pairs of speech acts (compliments/compliment responses and requests/request responses) in seven series of elementary English textbooks were scrutinized to examine if adequate information regarding these two speech act pairs was properly delineated. Contextual information and cross-cultural pragmatic description were also investigated to determine whether teachers and learners were provided with meta-pragmatic information to facilitate their understanding of the dialogues and the proper employment of speech act patterns. In addition, to explore elementary school English teachers’ perceptions toward speech act presentation in textbooks and pragmatics in English teaching, semi-structured interviews were conducted.
The findings show, first, the presentation of compliments, compliment responses, requests and request responses in the elementary school English textbooks did not reflect native speakers’ interaction norms. Speech acts of requests, request responses, compliments and compliment responses in the textbooks were not thorough and inaccurately represented the actual language use. Furthermore, contrastive knowledge of speech act forms and
functions between English and Chinese was found lacking. Contextual information, which is
essential for comprehending uses of speech act patterns in specific situations, was insufficient and overlooked in the textbooks. Moreover, results from teacher surveys revealed that English teachers did not seem to equip with sufficient and adequate knowledge of cross-cultural pragmatics, which may be adverse for language learners. The findings suggest that speech acts be properly integrated into elementary school English instruction, teachers receive further training in pragmatics, and textbook designers incorporate contextual supplements, cross-cultural pragmatic notes and meta-pragmatic information into textbooks to facilitate both English teaching and learning in the elementary school.
TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT ii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v
TABLE OF CONTENTS vi
LIST OF TABLES ix
LIST OF FIGURES xi

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Background and Motivation 1
1.2 Purpose of the Study 3
1.3 Research Questions 4
1.4 Significance of the Study 5
1.5 Definition of Terms 5
1.6 Organization of the Study 8

CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 9
2.1 Cross-cultural Pragmatics in Elementary School English Education 9
2.1.1 Interplay of Pragmatics, Cross-cultural Communication and Communicative Language Teaching 10
2.1.2 Children’s Pragmatic Acquisition and Development 13
2.1.3 Teachers’ Role and Instruction of Cross-cultural Pragmatics 16
2.2 Speech Act Studies on Requests, Request Responses, Compliments, and Compliment Responses 21
2.2.1 Speech Acts and Speech Act Sequences 22
2.2.2 Requests and Request Responses 26
2.2.2.1 Categorization Models of Requests and Request Responses 29
2.2.2.2 Comparison of Requests and Request Responses between Chinese and English 35
2.2.3 Compliments and Compliment Responses 38
2.2.3.1 Categorization Models of Compliments and Compliment Responses 39
2.2.3.2 Comparison of Compliments and Compliment Responses between Chinese and English 42
2.3 The Role of Context in Speech Act Realization 45
2.4 Studies on Speech Act Presentation in English Textbooks 48
2.5 Summary of Chapter Two 52

CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY 54
3.1 Subjects 54
3.2 Materials and Instrument 55
3.3 Data Collection Procedure 57
3.3.1 Textbook Investigation 57
3.3.2 Teacher Interview 58
3.4 Data Analysis 59
3.4.1 Analysis of Elementary English Textbooks 59
3.4.1.1 Procedure of Textbooks Analysis 59
3.4.1.2 Coding Schemes of Compliments, Compliment Responses, Requests, and Request Responses 60
3.4.2 Analysis of Teacher Survey 71
3.4.2.1 Procedure of Interview Data Analysis 72
3.4.2.2 The Interview Coding Scheme 72
3.4.3 Reliability of Data Coding 72
3.5 Summary of Chapter Three 73

CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 74
4.1 Requests and Request Responses 74
4.1.1 Topics of Requests 78
4.1.2 Request Responses 79
4.2 Compliments and Compliment Responses 82
4.2.1 Topics of Compliments 85
4.2.2 Adjectives of Compliments 86
4.3 Contextual Information 88
4.3.1 Contextual Description 88
4.3.1.1 Students’ Textbooks 88
4.3.1.2 Teachers’ Manuals 90
4.3.2 Conversational Settings 92
4.4 Teacheers' Perceptions about Textbooks and Cross-cultural Pragmatics in English Teaching 94
4.4.1 Teacher Awareness of Cross-cultural Pragmatics 94
4.4.2 Teacher Perceptions towards Elementary English Textbooks 98
4.4.3 Teacher Perceptions toward Teachers’ Manuals 100
4.4.4 Teacher Perceptions of Cross-cultural Pragmatics in Language Teaching 103

CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION 108
5.1 Summary of Major Findings 108
5.1.1 Students’ Textbooks 108
5.1.2 Teachers’ Manuals 111
5.1.3 Teacher Surveys 112
5.2 Pedagogical Implications 113
5.3 Limitations of the Study 115
5.4 Suggestions for Future Studies 115

REFERENCES 117
APPENDIXES 135
Appendix A Coverage of Speech Acts in Four Series of Elementary English Textbooks 135
Appendix B Consent Form 136
Appendix C Interview Survey (Chinese Version) 137
Appendix D Interview Survey (English Version) 139
Appendix E Results of Inter-rater Reliability 141
Appendix F Interview Transcription Sample 148


LIST OF TABLES
Table 2.1 The Taxonomy of Speech Acts (Searle, 1976)................... 24
Table 2.2 Request Strategies Based on Levels of Directness (Blum-Kulka, House, and Kasper,1989) ......... 30
Table 2.3 Request Strategies Based on Levels of Directness (Huang, 1996) ........................ 32
Table 2.4 Classification of Refusals (Beebe et. al., 1990)..................................35
Table 2.5 Taxonomy of Compliment Responses (Wang, 1993)................................ 42
Table 2.6 Studies on Evaluation of Textbooks Used For Speech Act Teaching ................ 49
Table 3.1 Background Information about the Teacher Subjects ........................... 54
Table 3.2 Interview Questions for Teacher Survey.............................. 56
Table 3.3 Coding Scheme of Request Strategies ..........................61
Table 3.4 An Outline of Interview Items and Coding Categories........................ 72
Table 4.1 Distribution of Request Forms in Seven Series of Elementary English
Textbooks....................75
Table 4.2 Distribution of Internal Modifiers in the Seven Series of Elementary English
Textbooks.................. 77
Table 4.3 Distribution of External Modifiers in the Seven Series of Elementary English
Textbooks.................. 78
Table 4.4 Topics of Requests Covered in the Seven Series of Textbooks ............................. 79
Table 4.5 Distribution of Request Responses in Seven Series of Textbooks......................... 80
Table 4.6 Refusal Strategies Occurred in Seven Series of Textbooks ........................... 81
Table 4.7 Distribution of Compliments in Seven Series of Textbooks............................ 83
Table 4.8 Distribution of Responses to Compliment in Seven Series of Textbooks.............. 84
Table 4.9 Distribution of Compliment Responses in Seven Series of Textbooks.................. 85
Table 4.10 Distribution of Compliment Topics in Seven Series of Textbooks ................. 86
Table 4.11 Adjectives Used to Fulfill the Function of Compliments ........................ 87
Table 4.12 Contextual Description Provided in Dialogues in Students’ Textbooks.............. 89
Table 4.13 Contextual Description Provided before Dialogue in Teachers’ Manuals........... 91
Table 4.14 Conversation Settings of Requests Occurred in the Seven Series of Textbooks . 92
Table 4.15 Conversation Settings of Compliments Occurred in the Seven Series of
Textbooks................ 93
Table 4.16 Teachers Awareness of Cross-cultural Pragmatics in Terms of Compliments
and Copliment Responses ......... 95
Table 4.17 Teachers Awareness of Cross-cultural Pragmatics in Terms of Requests and
Refusals........... 97
Table 4.18 Teachers’ Perceptions of Cultural Comparison of Language Use covered in the Textbooks ....... 99
Table 4.19 Teachers’ Perceptions of Contextual Description Covered in the Textbooks .... 100
Table 4.20 Teachers’ Perceptions of Contextual Description and Cultural Differences of
Language Use Covered in the Teacher’s Manuals ........................... 101
Table 4.21 Contextual Explanation of Dialogue Covered in Teachers’ Manuals ................ 103
Table 4.22 Teachers’ Perceptions Regarding Equipment with Knowledge on Cultural
Differences of Language use ........ 104
Table 4.23 Teachers’ Perceptions of Incorporating Cultures and Language Use into
English Teaching................ 104
Table 4.24 Contextual Information and Cross-cultural Pragmatics in Language Teaching 105

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 2.1 Brown and Levinson’s Model of FTA..... 31
Figure 3.1 Framework of Textbook Analysis ........ 58
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