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研究生:陳智宏
研究生(外文):Chih-Hung Chen
論文名稱:日月潭水庫外來入侵種暹羅副雙邊魚(Parambassis siamensis)攝食生態學之研究
論文名稱(外文):Feeding Ecology of the Exotic Glass Fish(Parambassis siamensis)in Sun-Moon Lake
指導教授:郭世榮郭世榮引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shih-Rong Kuo
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立嘉義大學
系所名稱:水生生物科學系研究所
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:101
中文關鍵詞:外來種暹羅副雙邊魚攝食習性每日攝食率每日攝食量日月潭
外文關鍵詞:alien speciesParambassis siamensisfeeding habitsdaily food consumption ratedaily food consumptionSun-Moon lake
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俗稱玻璃魚的暹羅雙邊魚(Parambassis siamensis)近幾年對日月潭水庫中的經濟魚種造成相當大的危害,有關其攝食習性及對水域生物所造成的影響,目前尚未了解,必需加以探討,作為未來防治的參考依據。
本研究自2005年6月至2007年5月止,定期至南投縣日月潭水庫以四角網進行暹羅副雙邊魚採集,依季節、性別及體長分析暹羅副雙邊魚攝食習性,共收集718尾,總生物量為2,365.60g。以聚類分析(CLUSTER)、非介量多度空間尺度分析 (MDS)、相似度百分率(SIMPER)及單項相似度分析(one-way ANOSIM)程式分析不同季節、性別及體長等級間其攝食食物種類的變化。結果發現暹羅副雙邊魚在不同季節、性別及體長等級間其攝食食物種類差異不顯著,主要以攝食未知魚苗及搖蚊類為主。而不同地區的暹羅副雙邊魚在攝食食物組成上並沒有差異。推估每日攝食率及攝食量方面,暹羅副雙邊魚每日攝食率在28 ℃時為體重之1%、23 ℃為體重之1.12%及18 ℃為體重之0.54%,顯示在低溫下其攝食率有降低的趨勢,估算其每日攝食量,得知平均體重1 g的暹羅副雙邊魚在28 ℃可以攝食11.51 mg的食物,而在18 ℃則可以攝食5.60 mg食物,大約可以攝食3.73尾魚苗。由於暹羅副雙邊魚對於魚苗有很強的掠食性,因此該族群對於日月潭水庫的生態系統可能會造成很大的危害。
Parambassis siamensis, which is known as glass fish, causes considerable damage to economical species in the Sun-Moon Lake, but its feeding habits and the impact on aquatic organism had not been understood clearly. The doubt as reference for prevention and treatment in the future need to be investigated.
The glass fish in the Sun-Moon lake was sampled monthly by a square-shape fishing net from June 2005 to May 2007. A total of 718 fish and a total weight of 2,365.60 g were collected. Their stomach contents were examined, and then, analyzed with CLUSTER, MDS, the similar percentage (SIMPER) and one-way ANOSIM in PRIMER 6.0, and compared among the seasons, genders, and body sizes. The results showed that the major food items of the glass fish were fish fry and Chironomids. No significant difference was found in food items between the genders, among the seasons, and among the body size classes. Due to no significant difference in components of food items of the glass fish in different areas, the glass fish belongs to opportunist. In daily food consumption rate and food consumption, daily food consumption rate is 1% of body weight at 28 ℃, 1.12% of body weight at 23 ℃, 0.54% of body weight at 18 ℃, the results showed the decreasing of daily food consumption rate was the trend toward the temperature drop. Daily food consumption rate was estimated, it was showed that glass fish which average body weight was 1 g could ingest 11.51 mg food at 28 ℃, then it could also ingest 5.60 mg food approximately 3.73 fry at 18 ℃. Due to their strong piscivorous habit, the exotic glass fish may cause damaging effects on the aquatic ecosystem and native fish populations.
中文摘要 viii
Abstract x
第一章 前 言 1
文獻回顧 4
一、外來種與外來入侵種之定義 4
二、外來入侵魚種對生態的影響 6
三、溫度對魚類攝食率及胃排空率的影響 9
第二章 材料與方法 11
一、暹羅副雙邊魚攝食習性之研究 11
(1)採樣時間與方法 11
(2)標本處理 11
(3)樣本觀察與分類 11
(4)食性分析 12
二、不同區域中暹羅副雙邊魚攝食食物種類之比較 14
三、不同溫度對暹羅副雙邊魚攝食及胃排空率之影響 14
(1)試驗魚種的來源及適應 14
(2)試驗溫度 14
(3)攝食率及胃排空率試驗 14
四、統計分析 16
(1)多變量統計分析 16
(2)單項變異係數分析(ANOVA) 18
第三章 結 果 19
ㄧ、攝食習性之分析 19
(1)標本之收集 19
(2)不同月份、季節、體長及性別之胃內容物的組成之變化 19
(3)不同月份、季節、體長及性別相對食物指數(RI)之變化 21
(4)不同季節及體長等級相對食物指數相似性之比較 22
二、不同區域暹羅副雙邊魚攝食食物種類之比較 23
三、不同溫度對暹羅副雙邊魚攝食率及胃排空率的影響 24
第四章 討 論 26
結論 35
第五章 參考文獻 36
表目錄
表1.日月潭水庫各季節採集暹羅副雙邊魚(Parambassis siamensis)之平均體長、體重及數量之變化。 46
表2.日月潭水庫暹羅副雙邊魚(Parambassis siamensis)胃內容物之月別變化。 47
表3、日月潭水庫暹羅副雙邊魚(Parambassis siamensis)胃內含物種類組成之季節變化。 54
表4、日月潭暹羅副雙邊魚(Parambassis siamensis)不同體長等級胃內含物種類組成之分析結果。 56
表5、日月潭暹羅副雙邊魚(Parambassis siamensis)不同性別胃內含物種類組成之分析結果。 57
表6、暹羅副雙邊魚(Parambassis siamensis)各體長組別間攝食食物之相對食物指數的Pairwise Test R 值。 58
表7. 暹羅副雙邊魚(Parambassis siamensis)各體長組別之間攝食食物種類之相 59
異性。 59
表8、暹羅副雙邊魚(Parambassis siamensis)各季節間攝食食物之相對食物指數的Pairwise Test R 值。 61
表9、暹羅副雙邊魚(Parambassis siamensis)各季節之間攝食食物種類之相異性。 62
表10、蘭潭水庫暹羅副雙邊魚攝食食物組成之分析。 64
表11、不同溫度處理下暹羅副雙邊魚(Parambassis siamensis)攝食率之結果。 65
表12、不同溫度處理下暹羅副雙邊魚(Parambassis siamensis)的胃排空率和起始胃內容物重量。 66
表13、不同溫度處理下暹羅副雙邊魚的每日攝食率。 67
中文摘要 viii
Abstract x
第一章 前 言 1
文獻回顧 4
一、外來種與外來入侵種之定義 4
二、外來入侵魚種對生態的影響 6
三、溫度對魚類攝食率及胃排空率的影響 9
第二章 材料與方法 11
一、暹羅副雙邊魚攝食習性之研究 11
(1)採樣時間與方法 11
(2)標本處理 11
(3)樣本觀察與分類 11
(4)食性分析 12
二、不同區域中暹羅副雙邊魚攝食食物種類之比較 14
三、不同溫度對暹羅副雙邊魚攝食及胃排空率之影響 14
(1)試驗魚種的來源及適應 14
(2)試驗溫度 14
(3)攝食率及胃排空率試驗 14
四、統計分析 16
(1)多變量統計分析 16
(2)單項變異係數分析(ANOVA) 18
第三章 結 果 19
ㄧ、攝食習性之分析 19
(1)標本之收集 19
(2)不同月份、季節、體長及性別之胃內容物的組成之變化 19
(3)不同月份、季節、體長及性別相對食物指數(RI)之變化 21
(4)不同季節及體長等級相對食物指數相似性之比較 22
二、不同區域暹羅副雙邊魚攝食食物種類之比較 23
三、不同溫度對暹羅副雙邊魚攝食率及胃排空率的影響 24
第四章 討 論 26
結論 35
第五章 參考文獻 36
表目錄
表1.日月潭水庫各季節採集暹羅副雙邊魚(Parambassis siamensis)之平均體長、體重及數量之變化。 46
表2.日月潭水庫暹羅副雙邊魚(Parambassis siamensis)胃內容物之月別變化。 47
表3、日月潭水庫暹羅副雙邊魚(Parambassis siamensis)胃內含物種類組成之季節變化。 54
表4、日月潭暹羅副雙邊魚(Parambassis siamensis)不同體長等級胃內含物種類組成之分析結果。 56
表5、日月潭暹羅副雙邊魚(Parambassis siamensis)不同性別胃內含物種類組成之分析結果。 57
表6、暹羅副雙邊魚(Parambassis siamensis)各體長組別間攝食食物之相對食物指數的Pairwise Test R 值。 58
表7. 暹羅副雙邊魚(Parambassis siamensis)各體長組別之間攝食食物種類之相 59
異性。 59
表8、暹羅副雙邊魚(Parambassis siamensis)各季節間攝食食物之相對食物指數的Pairwise Test R 值。 61
表9、暹羅副雙邊魚(Parambassis siamensis)各季節之間攝食食物種類之相異性。 62
表10、蘭潭水庫暹羅副雙邊魚攝食食物組成之分析。 64
表11、不同溫度處理下暹羅副雙邊魚(Parambassis siamensis)攝食率之結果。 65
表12、不同溫度處理下暹羅副雙邊魚(Parambassis siamensis)的胃排空率和起始胃內容物重量。 66
表13、不同溫度處理下暹羅副雙邊魚的每日攝食率。 67
圖目錄
圖1、日月潭暹羅副雙邊魚(Paramassis siamensis) 採樣地點(●)。 68
圖2、日月潭暹羅副雙邊魚(Parambassis siamensis)收集之漁法。 69
圖3、暹羅副雙邊魚(Parambassis siamensis)標本照。 70
圖5、日月潭水庫各季節採樣雌雄空胃率之變化。 71
圖6、日月潭暹羅副雙邊魚攝食食物種類出現頻率百分率之月別變化。 72
圖7、暹羅副雙邊魚(Parambassis siamensis)胃內含物之食物種類。 73
圖8、日月潭暹羅副雙邊魚攝食食物種類出現頻率百分率之季節變化。 74
圖9、日月潭暹羅副雙邊魚攝食食物種類平均豐度百分比之體長等級別變化。 75
圖10、日月潭暹羅副雙邊魚不同性別攝食食物種類平均豐度百分比之別變化。 76
圖11、暹羅副雙邊魚(Parambassis siamensis)攝食食物種類相對食物指數(RI)之月別變化。 77
圖12、日月潭暹羅副雙邊魚攝食食物種類相對食物指數(RI)之季節變化。 78
圖13、日月潭暹羅副雙邊魚攝食食物種類相對食物指數(RI)之體長等級別變化。 79
圖14、日月潭暹羅副雙邊魚對食物的相對指數(RI)之雌雄差異。 80
圖15、暹羅副雙邊魚的食物相對重要指數的體長間之相似度樹狀圖。 81
圖16、日月潭暹羅副雙邊魚(Parambassis siamensis)的食物相對重要指數(RI) 82
圖17、暹羅副雙邊魚(Parambassis siamensis)在不同季節攝食食物種類之相對重要指數(RI)相似度樹狀圖。 83
圖18、日月潭暹羅副雙邊魚(Parambassis siamensis)在不同季節之食物相對 84
圖19、不同地區之暹羅副雙邊魚攝食食物的相對指數(RI)之差異。 84
圖20、暹羅副雙邊魚(Parambassis siamensis)胃排空率和水溫的相關性。 84
附件
附表一、期刊接受函 84
附圖1. 暹羅副雙邊魚分類地位圖。 84
附圖2. 採樣期間日月潭水庫水溫之變化。 84
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