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研究生:陳詩婷
研究生(外文):Shih-Ting Chen
論文名稱:以課程為基礎的讀者劇場運用在國小五年級英語課堂的行動研究
論文名稱(外文):Action Research on Curriculum-based Readers Theater
指導教授:張淑儀張淑儀引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shu-I Chang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立嘉義大學
系所名稱:外國語言學系研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:語言學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
中文關鍵詞:讀者劇場課程英語教學
外文關鍵詞:CBRTCurriculum-based Readers TheaterEFL
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以課程為基礎的讀者劇場運用在國小五年級英語課堂的行動研究
摘要

讀者劇場在台灣的英語教室行之有年,而且被證實是有效且有意義的協助學生學習。以課程為基礎的讀者劇場,是讀者劇場的一種,它更接近學生學習的課程,因此能夠用來輔助學生對於教科書的學習。目前,在台灣,以課程為基礎的讀者劇場很少被運用,而且目前沒有相關研究讓學生自己參與劇本的編寫。所以,本研究,將探討如何把以課程為基礎的讀者劇場帶入EFL的英語教室裡,學生如何運用合作的方式編寫劇本,學生在口語方面的進步以及學生對於此活動的反應。

本研究從2009年8月到2009年1月,以每週二節,為期十六周,三個循環的方式實施。研究對象為12個南台灣的國小學生,研究者除了教導此班級之外,也著手此活動的進行。質性研究為此研究之主要研究方法,資料的分析包括觀察錄影紀錄,研究教學者日誌,問卷,以及訪談。經所蒐集的資料分析,本研究呈現以課程為基礎的讀者劇場教學設計實施過程,學生如何合作編寫劇本,讀者劇場對於國小英語學童口語表達之影響,以及國小學生對於讀者劇場活動融入英語課之反應。

本研究之主要發現摘述如下:
一、相對於活動初期,部份學生不積極融入而過度依賴其他同學以及爭吵不斷,直到最後體驗讀者劇場所帶來的樂趣,學生逐漸對此教學方式產生興趣,並且積極努力的協助整組的運作,樂在其中。
二、透過整組編寫劇本的方式,學生們最後學會了集思廣益寫出完整的劇本,並且從活動過程中複習到學過的單字也學到了新的單字。
三、透過讀者劇場的活動,學生獲得更多上台開口說英語的機會,逐漸瞭解說英文時應根據內容而加入適當的聲調,並進而改善其英語口語表達能力。
四、學生對於本活動的反應,從剛開始的些微排斥,到後期的融入各項小組的活動,學生體認到合作的要性,並能體會與同儕一起合作學習的樂趣,進而在開口說英語的動機與自信心方面都明顯的改善。

希望透過本研究之發現及結論能夠鼓勵更多國小老師將以課程為基礎的讀者劇場活動,帶入英語教室,讓更多學生體驗讀者劇場所帶來的樂趣。
Action Research on Curriculum-based Readers Theater
in the Fifth-grade EFL Classroom
ABSTRACT
Readers Theater (RT) has been adopted by quite some EFL teachers in Taiwan and has been proved a rather effective instructional activity to assist students’ English learning. Curriculum-based Readers Theater (CBRT) is a variation of RT with scripts more closely related to existing curriculum and hence may be able to help students more with what they have learned in textbooks. Currently, very few studies have been found to adopt CBRT in Taiwan. No studies have been found to engage students in composing their own scripts for RT performance. Therefore, I carried out a study to investigate how CBRT could be designed and incorporated in an EFL class, how students could work cooperatively to create scripts, how students improved in oral interpretation as well as how they reacted to CBRT.
This study started in August 2008 and ended in January 2009. The participants were 12 fifth graders in a regular class of an elementary school located in southern Taiwan. I was the teacher researcher responsible for teaching this class and carrying out the study. Data were collected through multiple sources, including video recordings, teacher’s journal, questionnaires, interviews, and written documents. Reported in this paper include the design and implementation of Curriculum-based Readers Theater activities; the difficulties encountered during the process; how problems were solved; how the students composed their script cooperatively; the students’ progress on their English oral interpretation, and the students’ responses to the CBRT activities.
It was found that CBRT could be incorporated in the regular English curriculum though at the beginning the free-rider effects were serious and the students did not grasp the tips to work cooperatively, hence confrontation occurred easily. Second, the students eventually learned to draw on collective wisdom and absorb all useful ideas so as to develop their scripts, review the old words and try to use the new vocabularies. Third, since the students had more opportunities to practice reading English they gradually improved their English oral interpretation skills. Finally, in the perspective of the students’ reactions, they gained more confidence and motivation through the experience of preparing and performing RT on the stage. Most of the students claimed that they were fond of the task and considered it beneficial to their learning. The above findings indicated that CBRT might be promising to motivate students for oral reading and engage them in English learning. The findings of this study may, hopefully, encourage more elementary English teachers to design and incorporate CBRT in the formal English class.
Table of Contents
Acknowledgement ii
English Abstract iv
Chinese Abstract v

Chapter One Introduction
Background 1
Motivation 4
Purpose and Research Questions of the Study 8
Definition of Terms 8

Chapter Two Literature Review
Readers Theater 10
The Development and Definition of Readers Theater 10
Procedure of Readers Theater 14
Preparation of Readers Theater Scripts 17
Script Selection 17
Cooperative Learning 22
Cooperative Writing 23
Oral Interpretation 24
Readers Theater in EFL Classroom in Taiwan 26

Chapter Three Methodology
The Setting 31
Participants 33
Students 33
Teacher Researcher 37
Teaching Materials 38
Research Design 39
The Procedure of Action Research 40
Teaching Procedure 44
Teaching Lessons in the Textbook 44
Introduction to the Readers Theater 45
Working Collaboratively 46
Warm-up Activity 47
Writing Scripts in Groups 48
Rehearsing for RT Performance 48
Readers Theater Performance 49
Discussion 49
Data Collection and Data Analysis 50

Chapter Four Findings
Designing and Implementing CBRT 58
The First Cycle 58
Warm-up Practice before the First Readers Theater 63
Preparing for the Performance 65
Performance 66
The Second Cycle 67
The Third Cycle 71
Difficulties and Solutions 72
Grouping 72
Classroom Management 76
Free-Rider Effects 79
Collaborative Writing on Scripts 83
Generating the Ideas 85
Composing the Contents 88
Peer Editing 94
Improvement in Oral Interpretation 97
Verbal Interpretation 98
Non-Verbal Interpretation 103
The Students’ Reflection towards Readers Theater 109
Script Writing Aspect 110
Oral interpretation Aspects 112
Cooperation Aspect 114
Total Reflections toward the CBRT 117

Chapter Five Conclusions
Incorporating CBRT in the classroom 122
Writing Collaboratively 123
English Speaking and Oral Interpretation 125
Students’ reflections toward CBRT 126
Suggestion for Future Research 128
Afterwords 129

References
English Reference 131
Chinese Reference 140

Appendices
Appendix A Questionnaire of Students’ Learning Background 141
Appendix B Small-Group Observation Sheet 143
Appendix C Rules in CBRT 145
Appendix D Script for CBRT Performance I 147
Appendix E Peer-Evaluation Sheet for CBRT 149
Appendix F Questionnaire of Students’ Personal Reflection 151
Appendix G Open-ended Questionnaires 157
Appendix H Script for CBRT Performance II 161
Appendix I Script for CBRT Performance III 162
Appendix J An Example of Students’ Script 163
Appendix K An Example of Teacher’s Evaluation 165
Appendix L Students’ Reflection 166

Lists of Figures
Figure 2.1 Procedure of Readers Theater 14
Figure 2.2 Writing a script 19
Figure 3.1 The layout of the Classroom 33
Figure 3.2 The process of Action Research 44

Lists of Tables
Table 2.1 Summary of the Studies 32
Table 3.1 Introduction of Students 34
Table 3.2 Timetable of CBRT with New Wow English Book V 40
Table 3.3 The Research Process of the Action Research 44
Table 3.4 Research Questions, Data Sources 56
Table 4.1 Students’ Reflection toward Script Writing 110
Table 4.2 Students’ Reflection toward Oral Interpretation 113
Table 4.3 Students’ Reflection toward Cooperation in CBRT 117
Table 4.4 Students’ Reflections toward CBRT 120
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