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研究生:朱家瑩
研究生(外文):Joleen Chia-Ying Chu
論文名稱:言談主題的延續與心智理論的發展
論文名稱(外文):Topic maintenance and the development of theory of mind
指導教授:郭怡君郭怡君引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jenny Yi-Chun Kuo
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立嘉義大學
系所名稱:外國語言學系研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:語言學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:英文
中文關鍵詞:心智理論言談主題的延續
外文關鍵詞:theory of mindtopic maintenance
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語言發展與認知發展之間的關係,最早是由Piaget (1926)所提出。而近年來,心智理論的發展與語言之間的關係受到很大的關注。但此議題的研究多半侷限於心智理論與句法發展或語意發展間的關連,只有少數的研究是針對言談發展來做探討,在言談主題的延續上,更是幾乎沒有人研究。因此本研究的主要探討的就是在於言談主題的延續與心智理論的發展之間的影響關係。本研究的假設是心智理論的發展有助於言談主題的延續。本研究的研究對象為八個,兩歲、三歲、四歲和五歲以漢語為母語的兒童。首先,兒童與其父母或研究者間的自然對話會先在玩遊戲的情境下進行一個小時的錄音。接著,分別施予三個心智理論的測驗,包含物品變換位置、變換液體內容以及找尋糖果。在語料的分析方面,兒童的話語會被分為是否有延續言談主題,而延續言談主題又細分為兩個方法,一為無增加新訊息,另一為有增加新訊息。研究結果發現隨年齡增長,兒童在接續言談主題的頻率上並無增減,但接續的方法則有顯著改變。較大的兒童在延續言談主題時,較會增加新訊息,年紀較小的兒童則較不會加上新訊息。在心智理論的發展上,本研究發現兒童的心智理論測驗結果亦沒有隨著年齡而有所改變。在言談主題的延續與心智理論的發展間的關係上,兩者間並無相關,但心智理論與在延續言談主題上是否有增加新訊息則有中度相關。心智理論與無增加新訊息的延續言談主題是負相關,與有增加訊息的延續言談主題則是正相關。簡單回歸的結果則指出心智理論較可以預測利用增加新訊息來延續言談主題的發展。根據研究結果,研究者提出心智理論有助於利用增加新訊息來延續言談主題的發展。
The relationship between language development and cognitive development was raised by Piaget (1926). Recently, there has been growing interest in theory of mind development. However, studies have emphasized on the relationship between theory of mind and syntax or semantics development. Only few studies focused on discourse development and none of them is on topic maintenance. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the relationship between the development of topic maintenance and theory of mind. The hypothesis is that theory of mind is prerequisite for the development of topic maintenance. Eight Mandarin-speaking children aged two, three, four, and five years old were measured on both topic maintenance and theory of mind developments. First, their spontaneous conversation with their parents under playing setting was recorded for one hour. Then, they were asked to complete three false belief tasks, which were unseen-object-location-change story, unseen-liquid-change story, and candy hiding game. The recordings were transcribed and the utterances were categorized into topic maintenance or not. The results of the present study showed that the frequency of topic maintenance does not increase with growing age while the subcategories of topic maintenance did have significant changes. Children used collaboration to maintain topics less often while they used incorporation more often as age increased. In addition to topic maintenance, theory of mind development did not differ across age groups. Theory of mind did not correlate with topic maintenance while theory of mind moderately and negatively correlated with topic collaboration and moderately and positively correlated with topic incorporation. The results of simple regression further showed that theory of mind can predict topic incorporation. As a result, theory of mind may be prerequisite of the development of topic incorporation.
Table of Content ii
List of Tables iv
Acknowledgements v
English Abstract vi
Chinese Abstract vii
Chapter 1. Introduction 1
Chapter 2. Literature Review 6
2.1. Topic Management 6
2.2. Theory of Mind Development 8
2.2.1. Children’s Theory of Mind Development and Language Influences 9
2.2.2. Theory of Mind and Syntactic Development 10
2.2.3. Theory of Mind and Semantic Development 14
2.2.4. Theory of Mind and Discourse Development 16
Chapter 3. Methodology 21
3.1. Pilot Studies 21
3.2. Participants 23
3.3. Data Collection Procedures 24
3.3.1. Spontaneous Speech 24
3.3.2. Theory of Mind Tasks 25
3.4. Data Analysis 30
Chapter 4. Results and Discussion 36
4.1. Topic Maintenance Development 36
4.2. The Development of Theory of Mind 49
4.2.1. Unseen-Object-Location-Change Story 49
4.2.2. Unseen-Liquid-Change Story 50
4.2.3. Candy Hiding Game 52
4.2.4. Summary of Results on Theory of Mind Tasks 53
4.3. The Relationship between Topic Maintenance and Theory of Mind development 57
4.4. Summary 66
Chapter 5. Conclusion 67
5.1. Summary of the Major Findings 67
5.2. Limitations and Implications 68
References 70
Appendix 1-- Unseen-object-location-change story 73
Appendix 2 -- Unseen-liquid-change story 77
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