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研究生:王駿惟
研究生(外文):Jun-Wei Wang
論文名稱:罐頭殺菌條件對紅麴薏仁機能性成分之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effect of canning sterilization on the functional properties of monascal adlay
指導教授:翁義銘翁義銘引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yih-Ming Weng
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立嘉義大學
系所名稱:食品科學系研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
中文關鍵詞:紅麴薏仁γ-胺基丁酸殺菌值
外文關鍵詞:γ-Aminobutyric acidMonascal adlayLethality
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中文摘要

紅麴應用於飲食及醫療已有千年以上的歷史,目前紅麴之醫療保健功效非常受到歐美學界之重視,台灣也有獲得健康食品認證之產品上市,由於紅麴發酵產品具有多項有益人體之機能性成分,包括清除自由基、降低膽固醇合成、降血壓、抗疲勞、抗阿茲海默症與預防骨質疏鬆等機能特性。故本研究探討紅麴薏仁結合五穀雜糧罐頭後之機能性成分與加工殺菌值之研究。紅麴薏仁是將Monascus purpureus Went (BCRC 31615) 接種於已煮熟之脫殼薏仁而製成之產品,實驗並探討莫那可林 (Monacolin K)、γ-胺基丁酸 (GABA)、紅麴毒素 (Citrinin) 之含量與耐熱性。罐頭殺菌值試驗則以 Bacillus stearothermophilus (BCRC 12017) 之孢子,經由熱死滅時間 (Thermal death time) 試驗計算出 D value、F value 與 Z value,並同時探討後續之保溫試驗與貯藏試驗。實驗結果顯示,脫殼薏仁接種 M. purpureus 後並不會產生 Citrinin 與 Monacolin K,其冷凍乾燥後可測得 GABA 之濃度約為3.3±0.8mg/g。接種B. stearothermophilus 之孢子測定之殺菌值,於 121℃ 下之 D value、F value 與 Z value 分別為 7.8min、35.5min 與 4.31℉。紅麴薏仁養生粥於 121℃ 下四倍 D 值 (約30min) 之殺菌處理後,分別通過 37℃ 及 55℃ 之保溫試驗與一般常溫下之貯藏試驗,殺菌過後 GABA 亦不會因此而遭受破壞,於常溫下貯存三個月後,GABA 亦能呈現穩定狀態。綜合以上
結果得知,接種 M. purpureus 於脫殼薏仁上並不會有生成Citrinin
之疑慮,且經過121℃、30min之殺菌處理後並不會破壞GABA。

關鍵詞:紅麴薏仁、γ-胺基丁酸、殺菌值
Abstract

Monascus purpureus has already been applied in Chinese diet and therapeutic purpose for thousands of years. M. purpureus also draws significant attention in Europe and America as functional ingredients in the field of healthy foods and medical treatment. The reported functional properties of M. purpureus fermented products include scavenging free radical, lowering synthesis of cholesterol, reducing blood pressure, anti-fatigue, anti-Alzheimer's disease, and preventing osteoporosis. This research investigated the influence of canning conditions on the stability of active ingredients (Monacolin K, GABA and Citrinin) in fermented monascal adlay. Monascal adlay was prepared by inoculating M. purpureus Went (BCRC 31615) in cooked polished adlay. The lethality Bacillus stearothermophilus (BCRC 12017) spores in canned grains was studied and D value, F value, and Z value were calculated. The qualities of canned grain stored at elevated temperature (37 and 55℃) for 10 days and at room temperature up to 3 months were determined. The results showed that Citrinin and Monacolin K were not detected in polished adlay inoculated M. purpureus and the level of GABA was 3.3±0.8mg/g (in freeze dried sample). The D value, F value, Z value of B. stearothermophilus spores in canned grains sterilized at 121℃ were 7.8min, 35.5min, and 4.31℉, respectively. The heat treatment of fourfold of D value (about 30min) at 121℃ did not degrade GABA in grain porridge can. Furthermore, the level of GABA did not decrease after the cans were stored at elevated temperature for 10 days and at room
temperature for 3 months.
Keywords: Monascal adlay, γ-Aminobutyric acid, Lethality
目錄

目錄.............................................................................................................I
表目錄......................................................................................................VI
圖目錄.....................................................................................................VII中文摘要.................................................................................................IIiIX
ABSTRACT...............................................................................................X
壹、前言.....................................................................................................1
貳、文獻整理.............................................................................................2
2.1 紅麴與其機能性成分........................................................................2
2.1.1 紅麴菌與紅麴米....................................................................2
2.1.2 紅麴米的製作流程................................................................3
2.1.3 紅麴菌代謝產物之分類........................................................3
2.1.4 紅麴色素與其耐熱性........................................................4
2.1.5 γ-胺基丁酸 (GABA) 與其耐熱性....................................7
2.1.6 莫那可林 (Monacolin K) 與其耐熱性.............................9
2.1.7 紅麴毒素 (Citrinin) 與其耐熱性.......................................11
2.2 機能性五穀雜糧與增稠劑………...................................................12
2.2.1 薏仁 (Adlay)、糙薏仁 (Dehulled adlay) ............................12
2.2.2 糙米 (Brown rice) ...........................................................12
2.2.3 蕎麥 (Buckwheat) ...........................................................13
2.2.4 燕麥 (Oats) .........................................................................14
2.2.5 黑糯米 (Black rice) ........................................................14
2.2.6 雪蓮子 (Chickpea) .........................................................15
2.2.7 紅豆 (Adzuki bean) .....................................................15
2.2.8 花生 (Peanut) ...............................................................16
2.2.9 花豆 (Common bean) .......................................................16
2.2.10 芡實 (Gordon euryale seed) ...............................................17
2.2.11 龍眼 (Longan) ................................................................17
2.2.12 三仙膠 (Xanthan gum) ....................................................18
2.3 罐頭製造……….............................................................................20
2.3.1 金屬罐的製作.................................................................20
2.3.2 罐頭食品之製作技術.....................................................20
2.3.3 罐頭食品殺菌條件之計算..............................................21
2.3.4 嗜熱脂肪芽孢桿菌於罐頭殺菌上之應用...................23
参、材料與方法.................................................................................24
實驗架構.............................................................................................24
3.1 實驗儀器設備與藥品.................................................................25
3.1.1 化學試藥.........................................................................25
3.1.2 實驗儀器.........................................................................25
3.1.3 實驗菌株.........................................................................27
3.1.4 培養基.............................................................................27
3.1.5 紅麴薏仁養生粥之原料.................................................27
3.2 實驗方法.....................................................................................28
3.2.1 Monascus purpureus Went (BCRC 31615) 之培養.......28
3.2.2 紅麴薏仁之製備..................................................................28
3.2.3 紅麴薏仁養生粥製作..........................................................29
3.2.4 紅麴薏仁養生粥之配方......................................................30
3.2.5 一般組成份測定.............................................................. 30
(1) 水分含量測定............................................................ 30
(2) 灰分含量測定.............................................................31
(3) 粗脂肪含量測定..........................................................31
(4) 粗蛋白質含量之測定..................................................31
(5) 粗纖維含量測定..........................................................32
(6) 無氮萃取物之測定.....................................................32
3.2.6 官能品評.............................................................................33
3.2.7 γ-胺基丁酸 (GABA) 之分析............................................33
3.2.8 莫那可林 (Monacolin K) 之分析...................................34
3.2.9 紅麴毒素 (Citrinin) 之分析...............................................34
3.2.10 Bacillus stearothermophilus (BCRC 12017) 菌株活化....34
3.2.11 B. stearothermophilus (BCRC 12017) 孢子之製備..........35
3.2.12 孢子染色與鏡檢..................................................................35
3.2.13 孢子之計數方法..................................................................36
3.2.14 孢子懸浮液與孢子糖膠懸浮液之製造............................36
3.2.15 TDT試驗...........................................................................37
3.2.16 接種罐試驗........................................................................37
3.2.17 罐頭塗漆刮傷測定..............................................................37
3.2.18 罐內壁檢查..........................................................................38
3.2.19 保溫試驗..............................................................................38
3.2.20 貯藏試驗..............................................................................38
3.2.21 固形物與液汁量之測定......................................................38
3.2.22 pH值之測定.......................................................................39
3.2.23 糖度 (°Brix) 之測定...........................................................39
3.2.24 真空度之測定......................................................................39
3.2.25 殺菌值之計算與殺菌曲線之繪製......................................39
3.2.26 統計分析..............................................................................39
肆、結果與討論....................................................................................40
4.1 紅麴培養與相關機能性成分檢測..................................................40
4.1.1 紅麴薏仁製作.................................................................40
4.1.2 γ-胺基丁酸 (GABA) 之之定量.....................................40
4.1.3 莫那可林 (Monacolin K) 之定量........................................42
4.1.4 紅麴毒素 (Citrinin) 之定量...............................................42
4.2 紅麴薏仁養生粥之產品特色...........................................................43
4.3 紅麴薏仁養生粥之殺菌值探討.......................................................44
伍、 結論................................................................................................77
陸、 參考文獻........................................................................................78
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