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研究生:劉姿妤
研究生(外文):Zih-Yu Liou
論文名稱:光度及肥料對蝴蝶蘭成株生長及貯運後開花品質之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effects of light intensity and fertilizer concentration on growth of 10.5 ㎝ pot plant and flowering performance of post-shipment in Phalaenopsis
指導教授:沈再木沈再木引用關係徐善德徐善德引用關係
指導教授(外文):Tsai-Mu ShenShan-Te Hsu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立嘉義大學
系所名稱:園藝學系研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:園藝學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:108
中文關鍵詞:蝴蝶蘭光度肥料貯運開花品質
外文關鍵詞:phalaenopsislight intensityfertilizershipmentflowering performance
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本研究旨在探討貯運前光強度和水養分栽培對成苗生育影響及貯運後光強度和溫度管理對開花品質之影響。植物材料選定大型白花Phal. Sogo Yukidian ‘V3’、大型紅花Dtps. Sinica Sunday ‘KHM75’、中型黃花Phal. I-Hsin Sunflower ‘KHM95#1’和小型紅花Dtps. Rong Guan Mary ‘X’mas Red’等四種代表性蝴蝶蘭商業品種。以兩個光強度(高光乃以溫室自動化內外遮陰設定,將10-12點間之光強度大體控制於25,000-30,000 lux,低光則為高光設定條件再加30%的固定式遮陰網)和兩種肥料濃度(高肥為peters 20N-20P2O5-20K2O 0.8 g L-1 ,低肥為peters 20N-20P2O5-20K2O 0.4 g L-1)的組合,參試貯運前光強度和水養分栽培對成苗生育之影響。前述不同栽培管理之植株於模擬和無模擬貯運後,以兩個光強度(高光乃以溫室自動化內外遮陰設定,將10-12點間之光強度大體控制於15,000-20,000 lux,低光則為高光設定條件再加30%的固定式遮陰網) 和兩種溫度(日/夜溫25/20℃及19/19℃) 的組合,參試貯運後光強度和溫度管理對開花品質之影響。
貯運前光強度和水養分栽培管理對成苗生育影響之試驗結果顯示,四品種若以高肥處理皆可得較大葉幅、葉片數、地上部乾、鮮重、葉面積;Phal. Sogo Yukidian ‘V3’、Dtps. Sinica Sunday ‘KHM75’和Dtps. Rong Guan Mary ‘X’mas Red’三品種若以低光高肥處理可得較高SPAD值及葉綠素含量;四品種若以高光低肥處理皆可得較大地下部乾、鮮重。
模擬貯運後,Phal. Sogo Yukidian ‘V3’、 Dtps. Sinica Sunday ‘KHM75’其罹病率皆在10%以上,Phal. I-Hsin Sunflower ‘KHM95#1’低光高肥者也有同樣情形,而Dtps. Rong Guan Mary ‘X’mas Red’為較耐貯運之品種。
  經貯運後光強度和溫度對蝴蝶蘭植株開花品質之影響方面,Phal. Sogo Yukidian ‘V3’以25/20℃高光處理,有較長花梗長度、較多的花朵數和分枝數;Dtps. Sinica Sunday ‘KHM75’ 以25/20℃高光處理,有較大的花朵數和花朵橫徑;Phal. I-Hsin Sunflower ‘KHM95#1’ 以25/20℃處理,有較大的花梗長和花朵橫徑,以高光處理有較大的花梗數及花朵數;Dtps. Rong Guan Mary ‘X’mas Red’以25/20℃高光處理有較大的花梗長、花梗粗細、分枝數及花朵數。而光強度和溫度對無貯運之蝴蝶蘭植株開花品質之影響方面,Phal. Sogo Yukidian ‘V3’以25/20℃處理,有較長花梗長度、較多的花朵數和分枝數;Dtps. Sinica Sunday ‘KHM75’於催花期之光強度和溫度處理對其開花品質無顯著影響,而以營養時期的處理對其開花品質影響較大;Phal. I-Hsin Sunflower ‘KHM95#1’ 以19/19℃處理有較大的花梗長及花朵數;Dtps. Rong Guan Mary ‘X’mas Red’ 以19/19℃處理有較多的花梗數及花朵數。
綜合以上結論,對有長期貯運需求之栽培模式建議,
Phal. Sogo Yukidian ‘V3’於營養生長期建議宜採高肥處理,而於催花時期採以25/20℃組合高光之處理;Dtps. Rong Guan Mary ‘X’mas Red’ 於營養生長期建議宜採高光處理,而於催花時期採以25/20℃組合高光之處理;Dtps. Sinica Sunday ‘KHM75’ 和Phal. I-Hsin Sunflower ‘KHM95#1’而言,則建議於營養生長期採以高光低肥處理,催花時期採以25/20℃組合高光之處理。
This study aims to explore effect of light intensity and fertilizer concentration on the growth of Phalaenopsis before simulate dark shipping, and effect of light intensity and temperature on flower quality after simulate dark shipping. Plant material selected 4 commercial cultivars, Phal. Sogo Yukidian ‘V3’(large white flower), Dtps. Sinica Sunday ‘KHM75’(large red flower), Phal. I-Hsin Sunflower ‘KHM95#1’(medium yellow flower) and Dtps. Rong Guan Mary ‘X’mas Red’ (small red flower).The test before simulate dark shipping used 2 light intensity (high light intensity is automatically set about 25,000-30,000 lux during 10:00-12:00 in greenhouse, and low light intensity is adapted with additional fixed 30% shade net.) and 2 fertilizer concentration (high fertilizer concentration is peters 20N-20P2O5-20K2O 0.8 g L-1 ,and low fertilizer concentration is peters 20N-20P2O5-20K2O 0.4 g L-1) to investigate the growth of Phalaenopsis. The plantlets after different cultivation and management treated by simulate dark shipping or not. And then, the test used 2 light intensity (high light intensity is automatically set about 15,000-20,000 lux during 10:00-12:00 in greenhouse, and low light intensity is adapted with additional fixed 30% shade net.) and 2 temperature (day/night 25/20℃ and 19/19℃) to investigate flower quality of Phalaenopsis.
The effects of light intensity and fertilizer concentration on the growth of Phalaenopsis before simulate dark shipping shows high fertilizer concentration had higher leaf span, leaf number, shoot fresh/dry weight, and leaf area on 4 cultivars. And low light intensity combine with high fertilizer concentration had higher SPAD value on Phal. Sogo Yukidian ‘V3’, Dtps. Sinica Sunday ‘KHM75’, and Dtps. Rong Guan Mary ‘X’mas Red’. And hight light intensity combine with low fertilizer concentration had higher root fresh/dry weight on 4 cultivars.
After simulate dark shipping, disease incidence could reach 10% on Phal. Sogo Yukidian ‘V3’, Dtps. Sinica Sunday ‘KHM75’, and same situation on Phal. I-Hsin Sunflower ‘KHM95#1’ which treated with low light intensity combined with high fertilizer concentration treatment. Dtps. Rong Guan Mary ‘X’mas Red’ was more suitable for simulate dark shipping than other varieties.
The effects of light intensity and temperature on flower quality of Phalaenopsis after simulate dark shipping shows 25/20℃ and high light intensity treatments had longer stalk length and more flowers and branches on Phal. Sogo Yukidian ‘V3’. 25/20℃ and high light intensity treatments had more flowers and larger floret size on Dtps. Sinica Sunday ‘KHM75’. 25/20℃ treatments had longer stalk length and larger floret size, and high light intensity treatments had longer stalk length and more flowers on Phal. I-Hsin Sunflower ‘KHM95#1’. 25/20℃ and high light intensity treatments had longer stalk length, more stalk thickness, flowers and branches. The effects of light intensity and temperature on flower quality of Phalaenopsis without simulate dark shipping shows 25/20℃ treatments had longer stalk length, and more flowers and branches on Phal. Sogo Yukidian ‘V3’. Light intensity and temperature were no significant difference for flower quality in forcing stage, but flower quality had affected in vegetative growth stage on Dtps. Sinica Sunday ‘KHM75’. 19/19℃ treatments had longer stalk length and more flowers on Phal. I-Hsin Sunflower ‘KHM95#1’. 19/19℃ treatments had more flower-stalk and flowers on Dtps. Rong Guan Mary ‘X’mas Red’.
General conclusions, for prolonged storage and transportation purpose.We suggest cultivating Phal. Sogo Yukidian ‘V3’ with high fertilizer concentration treatment on vegetative growth period and 25/20℃ combined with high light intensity treatments on forcing stage, and cultivating Dtps. Rong Guan Mary ‘X’mas Red’ with high light intensity treatment on vegetative growth period and 25/20℃ combined with high light intensity treatments on forcing stage, and cultivating Dtps. Sinica Sunday ‘KHM75’ and Phal. I-Hsin Sunflower ‘KHM95#1’ with high light intensity combine with low fertilizer concentration on vegetative growth period and 25/20℃ combined with high light intensity treatments on forcing stage.
壹、前言(Introduction) 1
貳、前人研究(Literature Review) 3
一、台灣蝴蝶蘭產業近況 3
二、肥料與光強度對蝴蝶蘭營養生長之影響 4
(一)肥料對蝴蝶蘭營養生長之影響 4
(二)光強度對蝴蝶蘭營養生長之影響 8
三、貯運逆境對蝴蝶蘭植株品質之影響 9
(一)溫度對蝴蝶蘭貯運後品質之影響 10
(二)黑暗對蝴蝶蘭貯運後品質之影響 10
(三)失水對蝴蝶蘭貯運後品質之影響 11
四、溫度與光度對蝴蝶蘭生殖生長之影響 12
(一)溫度對蝴蝶蘭生殖生長之影響 12
(二)光度對蝴蝶蘭生殖生長之影響 13
參、材料與方法(Materials and Methods) 16
一、植物材料 16
二、試驗場所 16
三、試驗方法 17
(一)成苗貯運前光強度和水養分栽培管理對成苗生育之影響 17
(二)模擬貯運後對植株品質之影響 18
(三)光強度和溫度管理對蝴蝶蘭開花品質之影響 18
三、測量項目與方法 19
(一)蝴蝶蘭成苗貯運前的植株營養生長量調查 19
(二)模擬貯運後植株品質調查 21
(三) 模擬貯運後光強度和溫度管理制度之開花品質調查 21
四、數據分析 22
肆、結果(Results) 23
一、成苗貯運前光強度和水養分栽培管理對蝴蝶蘭成苗生育之影響 23
(一)不同光強度及肥料濃度對蝴蝶蘭植株生長之影響 23
二、模擬貯運四週後對植株品質之影響 28
三、光強度和溫度管理對蝴蝶蘭開花品質之影響 29
(一)光強度和溫度管理對模擬貯運後之蝴蝶蘭開花品質之影響 29
(二)光強度和溫度管理對未經模擬貯運之蝴蝶蘭開花品質之影響 31
伍、討論(Discussion) 70
一、成苗貯運前光強度和水養分栽培管理對蝴蝶蘭成苗生育之影響 70
二、模擬貯運後對植株品質之影響 73
三、光強度和溫度管理對蝴蝶蘭開花品質之影響 75
陸、參考文獻(References) 78
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