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研究生:鄧凱云
研究生(外文):Teng, Kai-Yun
論文名稱:貨櫃單位運輸成本下之三階供應鏈配送問題
論文名稱(外文):A three-echelon supply chain distribution system with full container load cost structure
指導教授:游鵬勝游鵬勝引用關係
指導教授(外文):You, Peng-Sheng
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立嘉義大學
系所名稱:運輸與物流工程研究所
學門:運輸服務學門
學類:運輸管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:101
中文關鍵詞:三階供應鏈配送管道混合整數規劃
外文關鍵詞:Three-echelon Supply ChainMulti-Shipping ChannelsMixed Integer
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摘要
近年來由於全球化競爭的激烈,企業面臨極大的挑戰,如何做好供應鏈管理使其能即時滿足顧客需求並且將成本降低是許多企業急於達到的目標。供應鏈管理是著重在整合企業間的合作以達到提升整體競爭力,在供應鏈管理的執行中,工廠間物料與產品配送的連結扮演一個很重要的腳色。因此,在近幾年配送網路的設計方式越來越受到重視。
本研究處理一個多期、多產品與多運輸管道的三階供應鏈系統問題。此供應鏈系統包含多個供應商、多個批發商與多個零售商。在這個問題裡,供應商可以經由供應商-零售商與供應商-批發商-零售商此兩個管道,來滿足零售商的需求,其中供應商-零售商管道是指供應商直接將產品運送給零售商,供應商-批發商-零售商管道則是指供應商將產品經由批發商再運送至零售商以滿足需求。在過去文獻中大部分的運輸成本皆是假設產品是依運送數量計價,然而諸多實務現象顯示,產品的運輸成本亦可能依運送所須之車次或貨櫃數計價。本論文之目的為在運輸成本以車次或貨櫃數計價下,於配送管道與計畫期間內決定配送數量達到總運輸成本極小化。本研究將此供應鏈配送問題建構為一個混合整數規劃模型(mixed integer programming model;MIP),經由數值例測試透過商業套裝軟體LINGO10.0驗證模型之可行性。此外,本論文針對各參數之變化對決策品質之影響,運用統計軟體SPSS進行敏感度分析。
Abstract
One of the approaches for enhancing a business’ success among its competition is by satisfying its customers’ demands. Coordination across business units in a same company and different organizations has been used to achieve this goal. Supply-chain management focuses on how to integrate a series of organizations to achieve cooperation and improve the competitive capabilities of the whole chain. As for supply chain management, the distribution structure associated with a supply chain’s facilities and the flow of materials and goods among the supply chain system plays an important role in the supply chain’s performance. Thus, finding a way to design distribution networks has been catching plenty of attention over the years.
This paper deals with a three-echelon supply chain system with multi-period, multi-product and multi-shipping channels. The supply chain system is composed of multi-suppliers, multi-wholesalers and multi-retailers. In this system, the suppliers can satisfy retailers’ demands through the supplier-retailer channels or through the supplier-wholesaler-retailer channels. With the supplier-retailer channels, the suppliers directly ship products to retailers. With the supplier-wholesaler-retailer channels, the retailers’ demands are satisfied by wholesalers whose products are shipped from the suppliers. Most of the previous researches assume that the transportation cost is counted on the basis of per-unit transport charge. However, many practices also show that transportation cost may be counted on the basis of per-truck or per container charge. Under the per-truck transportation cost basis, this paper aims to minimize total shipping costs over a finite time planning period by determining the amount of each product, which should be shipped between two locations in each period of time. A constrained mixed integer programming model was formulated to develop the related decisions. Several examples are used to illustrate the insight into the problem. In addition, sensitivity analysis was also conducted to illustrate the impact of variation within the parameters on the computational results.
目 錄
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究背景與動機 1
1.2 研究目的與範圍 2
1.3 研究方法 3
1.4 研究步驟與架構 3
第二章 文獻回顧 6
2.1 多階供應鏈-單期 相關文獻 6
2.2 多階供應鏈-多期 相關文獻 11
第三章 問題描述與模式構建 16
3.1問題描述及基本假設 16
3.2模式構建 17
第四章 數值例測試 24
4.1 數值例設計 24
4.2 數值例測試結果 31
第五章 敏感度分析 41
5.1 PEARSON相關係數與顯著水準分析之介紹 41
5.2 參數對目標值之敏感度分析 43
5.3參數對決策變數之敏感度分析 46
5.4參數變動與目標值之變動百分比關係 54
5.5參數變動與決策變數之變動百分比關係 70
5.5.1參數 與決策變數之變動百分比關係 71
5.5.2參數 與決策變數之變動百分比關係 74
5.5.3參數 與決策變數之變動百分比關係 77
5.5.4參數 與決策變數之變動百分比關係 79
5.5.5參數 與決策變數之變動百分比關係 81
第六章 結論與建議 87
6.1 結論 87
6.2 建議 88
參考文獻 89

圖目錄
圖1.1研究架構圖 5
圖3.1三階供應鏈配送圖 17
圖5.1 對目標值之變動百分比關係圖 56
圖5.2 對目標值之變動百分比關係圖 58
圖5.3 對目標值之變動百分比關係圖 60
圖5.4 對目標值之變動百分比關係圖 62
圖5.5 對目標值之變動百分比關係圖 64
圖5.6 對目標值之變動百分比關係圖 66
圖5.7 對目標值之變動百分比關係圖 68
圖5.8 對目標值之變動百分比關係圖 70
圖5.9 與決策變數 之變動百分比關係圖 73
圖5.10 與決策變數 之變動百分比關係圖 73
圖5.11 與決策變數 之變動百分比關係圖 76
圖5.12 與決策變數 之變動百分比關係圖 76
圖5.13 與決策變數 之變動百分比關係圖 79
圖5.14 與決策變數 之變動百分比關係圖 81
圖5.15 與決策變數 之變動百分比關係圖 83
圖5.16 與決策變數 之變動百分比關係圖 83
圖5.17 與決策變數 之變動百分比關係圖 86
圖5.18 與決策變數 之變動百分比關係圖 86

表目錄
表4.1 參數資料設定 25
表4.2隨機產生參數 之數據 26
表4.3隨機產生參數 之數據 26
表4.4隨機產生參數 之數據 27
表4.5隨機產生參數 之數據 27
表4.6隨機產生參數 之數據 28
表4.7隨機產生參數 之數據 28
表4.8隨機產生參數 之數據 29
表4.9隨機產生參數 之數據 29
表4.10隨機產生參數 之數據 29
表4.11隨機產生參數 之數據 29
表4.12隨機產生參數 之數據 30
表4.13隨機產生參數 之數據 30
表4.14隨機產生參數 之數據 30
表4.15隨機產生參數 之數據 30
表4.16隨機產生參數 之數據 30
表4.17隨機產生參數 之數據 30
表4.18 、 、 測試結果 32
表4.19 、 、 測試結果 33
表4.20 、 、 測試結果 34
表4.21 、 、 測試結果 36
表4.22 、 、 測試結果 37
表4.23 決策變數 之數據 38
表4.24 決策變數 之數據 38
表4.25 決策變數 之數據 39
表4.26 決策變數 之數據 39
表4.27 決策變數 之數據 39
表4.29 決策變數 之數據 40
表4.30 決策變數 之數據 40
表5.1 相關係數之大小與意義 42
表5.2 參數對目標值之相關係數與顯著水準 45
表5.3 參數對決策變數 之相關係數與顯著水準 47
表5.4 參數對決策變數 之相關係數與顯著水準 49
表5.5 參數對決策變數 之相關係數與顯著水準 51
表5.6 參數對決策變數 之相關係數與顯著水準 53
表5.7 對目標值之變動百分比關係表 55
表5.8 對目標值之變動百分比關係表 57
表5.9 對目標值之變動百分比關係表 59
表5.10 對目標值之變動百分比關係表 61
表5.11 對目標值之變動百分比關係表 63
表5.12 對目標值之變動百分比關係表 65
表5.13 對目標值之變動百分比關係表 67
表5.14 對目標值之變動百分比關係表 69
表5.15 與決策變數 、 之變動百分比關係表 72
表5.16 與決策變數 、 之變動百分比關係表 75
表5.17 與決策變數 之變動百分比關係表 78
表5.18 與決策變數 之變動百分比關係表 80
表5.19 與決策變數 、 之變動百分比關係表 82
表5.20 與決策變數 、 之變動百分比關係表 85
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