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研究生:王珮芩
研究生(外文):Wang, Pei-Cin
論文名稱:三階供應鏈設施設計與產品配送策略問題
論文名稱(外文):Design and distribution strategies for a three-echelon supply chain system
指導教授:游鵬勝游鵬勝引用關係
指導教授(外文):You, Peng-Sheng
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立嘉義大學
系所名稱:運輸與物流工程研究所
學門:運輸服務學門
學類:運輸管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:58
中文關鍵詞:三階供應鏈設施規劃產品配送階梯成本函數整數線性規劃
外文關鍵詞:Three-echelon Supply ChainFacility layoutDistributionStep cost functionLinear Integer Programming
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為回應經濟與政治快速變化的環境,許多企業開始在全球各地進行佈局的策略,形成全球供應鏈的狀況。全球供應鏈之特徵為各工廠、配銷中心及顧客皆位於不同之國家、不同商業條件之地區,例如:稅率及匯率的不同。為了使全球供應鏈管理獲得更好的績效,企業面臨了廠址的選擇、產品生產組合、配銷中心供應下游之決策、存貨水準及服務水準的訂定等等問題。透過這些問題的決定,企業選擇對盈餘更有利、成本較低或能給予顧客較好服務之地點進行生產。
本研究探討一個三階供應鏈網路最適設計問題。本研究之供應鏈網路包含多產品、多個固定位置的生產工廠、多個固定位置的顧客區及多個候選配銷中心。每一產品除自我生產外,亦可委外生產。作業成本包含生產成本、物料處理成本、運輸成本及稅務成本。本研究擬透過各工廠的物料採購及生產計劃、配銷中心的設置數量與地點、工廠及配銷中心間之運送量、配銷中心及顧客區間之運送量等決策,達到總成本最小化之目標。過去這方面相關文獻皆假設運輸成本為運送數量之線性函數。然而,此假設忽略運輸成本亦可能依貨櫃單位數計價之狀況。因此,本研究為依貨櫃單位數計價的供應鏈網路問題。本研究擬透過各工廠的產品組合、生產量、產能利用率與運送量等決策,達到每年總成本最小化之目標。本研究將此問題建構為一個整數線性規劃模型。最後,本研究以統計數量方法進行敏感性分析,探討各參數之變化對決策品質之影響。
In order to respond to rapid economic and political changes, many enterprises have engaged actively in developing global production and a supply network whose members include a set of existing or potential manufacturing facilities, warehouses, distribution centers, customers, and so forth. One of the characteristics of the global supply chain is that their members can be located in different areas or in countries with different business conditions such as tax rates and currencies. This may lead these to the enterprises achieving some performance in profitability, cost reduction or customer service. However, in order to take the advantage of a global supply network, enterprises must face problems such as which plants to operate, what product mix is to be used per plant, which distribution centre supplies which customer, what inventory levels are necessary to maintain service levels, and which suppliers are to be used.
This paper deals with the optimal design and operation for a three-echelon supply chain system with multiple products, manufacturing sites at fixed locations, distribution centers and customer zones at fixed locations. A product can be produced at its manufacturers or obtained through subcontracting. Operational costs include those associated with production, material handling, transportation and duties. Most of the previous works assume that transportation costs are linear functions of the units of products between source stages and destination stages. However, since this assumption may ignore a situation in which transportation costs are counted by the number of cartons or by trucks loaded. In this paper, we assume that transportation costs are calculated based on the number of trucks loaded. The decisions to be determined include the product portfolio per production plant, production amounts, utilization level, and shipping flow. The purpose of this is to minimize the total annual cost of the network, taking into account both infrastructure and operating costs. The mathematical model established in this research is a constrained linear integer programming problem. Several examples are used to illustrate the insight into the problem. In addition, a sensitivity analysis was also conducted to illustrate the impact of variation within the parameters on the computational results.
目錄
摘要 I
ABSTRACT II
致謝 IV
目錄 V
圖目錄 VII
表目錄 VIII
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究背景與動機 1
1.2研究目的 2
1.3研究方法 3
1.4 研究步驟與架構 3
第二章 文獻回顧 6
2.1供應鏈管理相關文獻 6
2.2設施設計與產品配送問題相關文獻 8
2.3全球供應鏈網路設計問題相關文獻 13
第三章 問題描述與模式構建 16
3.1問題描述 16
3.2模式構建 18
第四章 數值例分析 26
4.1數值例設計 26
4.1.1 數值例資料 27
4.1.2 電腦環境設定 29
4.2 統計分析 29
4.3 敏感度分析 32
4.3.1 顧客需求與目標值之敏感度分析 32
4.3.2 工廠單位時間生產量與目標值之敏感度分析 34
4.3.3 產品成本與目標值之敏感度分析 36
4.3.4 固定營運成本 41
4.3.5 單位貨櫃運輸成本 44
第五章 結論與建議 48
5.1結論 48
5.2建議 49
參考文獻 50
附錄一 基本參數集合 53

圖目錄
圖1-1 研究架構圖 5
圖3-1供應鏈網路架構圖 17

表目錄
表4-1 各項參數設定範圍 27
表4-2 相關係數大小之意義 30
表4-3 與目標值具顯著相關之參數 31
表4-4 與目標值不具顯著相關之參數 31
表4-5 需求量 ( ) 與目標值之敏感度分析表 33
表4-6工廠單位時間生產量 ( ) 敏感度分析表 35
表4-7 產品於配銷中心之單位處理成本 ( ) 敏感度分析表 37
表4-8工廠單位生產成本 ( ) 敏感度分析表 38
表4-9從外部購買產品之單位成本 ( ) 敏感度分析表 39
表4-10產品成本之敏感度分析比較表 40
表4-11工廠每年固定營運成本 ( ) 敏感度分析表 41
表4-12 配銷中心每年固定營運成本 ( ) 敏感度分析表 43
表4-13 固定營運成本之敏感度分析比較表 44
表4-14 產品由工廠運送至配銷中心之貨櫃運輸成本 ( ) 敏感度分析表 45
表4-15 產品由配銷中心運送至顧客之貨櫃運輸成本 ( ) 敏感度分析表 46
表4-16單位貨櫃運輸成本之敏感度分析比較表 47
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